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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Nat Genet ; 51(8): 1207-1214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308545

RESUMO

Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness1, affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men2-4, with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%5. Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders6, and outcomes are unacceptably poor7. Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)8,9 and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Relatives of individuals with Crohn's disease (CD) carry CD-associated genetic variants and are often exposed to environmental factors that increase their risk for this disease. We aimed to estimate the utility of genotype, smoking status, family history, and other biomarkers can be used to calculate risk in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients with CD. METHODS: We recruited 480 healthy first-degree relatives (full siblings, offspring or parents) of patients with CD through the Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and from members of Crohn's and Colitis, United Kingdom. DNA samples were genotyped using the Immunochip. We calculated a risk score for 454 participants, based on 72 genetic variants associated with CD, family history, and smoking history. Participants were assigned to highest and lowest risk score quartiles. We assessed pre-symptomatic inflammation by capsule endoscopy and measured 22 markers of inflammation in stool and serum samples (reference standard). Two machine-learning classifiers (elastic net and random forest) were used to assess the ability of the risk factors and biomarkers to identify participants with small intestinal inflammation in the same dataset. RESULTS: The machine-learning classifiers identified participants with pre-symptomatic intestinal inflammation: elastic net (area under the curve, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.62-0.98) and random forest (area under the curve, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-1.00). The elastic net method identified 3 variables that can be used to calculate odds for intestinal inflammation: combined family history of CD (odds ratio, 1.31), genetic risk score (odds ratio, 1.14), and fecal level of calprotectin (odds ratio, 1.04). These same 3 variables were among the 5 factors associated with intestinal inflammation in the random forest model. CONCLUSION: Using machine learning classifiers, we found that genetic variants associated with CD, family history, and fecal level of calprotectin together identify individuals with pre-symptomatic intestinal inflammation who are therefore at risk for CD. A tool for detecting people at risk for CD before they develop symptoms would help identify the individuals most likely to benefit from early intervention.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0214311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The UK Biobank (UKB) is a resource that includes detailed health-related data on about 500,000 individuals and is available to the research community. However, several obstacles limit immediate analysis of the data: data files vary in format, may be very large, and have numerical codes for column names. RESULTS: ukbtools removes all the upfront data wrangling required to get a single dataset for statistical analysis. All associated data files are merged into a single dataset with descriptive column names. The package also provides tools to assist in quality control by exploring the primary demographics of subsets of participants; query of disease diagnoses for one or more individuals, and estimating disease frequency relative to a reference variable; and to retrieve genetic metadata. CONCLUSION: Having a dataset with meaningful variable names, a set of UKB-specific exploratory data analysis tools, disease query functions, and a set of helper functions to explore and write genetic metadata to file, will rapidly enable UKB users to undertake their research.

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(3): 227-238, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare genetic variants cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, but the contribution of common genetic variation to disease risk and natural history is poorly characterised. We tested for genome-wide association for pulmonary arterial hypertension in large international cohorts and assessed the contribution of associated regions to outcomes. METHODS: We did two separate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a meta-analysis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These GWAS used data from four international case-control studies across 11 744 individuals with European ancestry (including 2085 patients). One GWAS used genotypes from 5895 whole-genome sequences and the other GWAS used genotyping array data from an additional 5849 individuals. Cross-validation of loci reaching genome-wide significance was sought by meta-analysis. Conditional analysis corrected for the most significant variants at each locus was used to resolve signals for multiple associations. We functionally annotated associated variants and tested associations with duration of survival. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint in survival analyses. FINDINGS: A locus near SOX17 (rs10103692, odds ratio 1·80 [95% CI 1·55-2·08], p=5·13 × 10-15) and a second locus in HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 (collectively referred to as HLA-DPA1/DPB1 here; rs2856830, 1·56 [1·42-1·71], p=7·65 × 10-20) within the class II MHC region were associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. The SOX17 locus had two independent signals associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (rs13266183, 1·36 [1·25-1·48], p=1·69 × 10-12; and rs10103692). Functional and epigenomic data indicate that the risk variants near SOX17 alter gene regulation via an enhancer active in endothelial cells. Pulmonary arterial hypertension risk variants determined haplotype-specific enhancer activity, and CRISPR-mediated inhibition of the enhancer reduced SOX17 expression. The HLA-DPA1/DPB1 rs2856830 genotype was strongly associated with survival. Median survival from diagnosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension with the C/C homozygous genotype was double (13·50 years [95% CI 12·07 to >13·50]) that of those with the T/T genotype (6·97 years [6·02-8·05]), despite similar baseline disease severity. INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to report that common genetic variation at loci in an enhancer near SOX17 and in HLA-DPA1/DPB1 is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Impairment of SOX17 function might be more common in pulmonary arterial hypertension than suggested by rare mutations in SOX17. Further studies are needed to confirm the association between HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping and survival, and to determine whether HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping improves risk stratification in clinical practice or trials. FUNDING: UK NIHR, BHF, UK MRC, Dinosaur Trust, NIH/NHLBI, ERS, EMBO, Wellcome Trust, EU, AHA, ACClinPharm, Netherlands CVRI, Dutch Heart Foundation, Dutch Federation of UMC, Netherlands OHRD and RNAS, German DFG, German BMBF, APH Paris, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, and French ANR.

6.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(6): 428-438, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593698

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) occurs nine times more often in females than in males. Although environmental factors likely play a role, the reasons for this imbalanced sex ratio remain unresolved. AN displays high genetic correlations with anthropometric and metabolic traits. Given sex differences in body composition, we investigated the possible metabolic underpinnings of female propensity for AN. We conducted sex-specific GWAS in a healthy and medication-free subsample of the UK Biobank (n = 155,961), identifying 77 genome-wide significant loci associated with body fat percentage (BF%) and 174 with fat-free mass (FFM). Partitioned heritability analysis showed an enrichment for central nervous tissue-associated genes for BF%, which was more prominent in females than males. Genetic correlations of BF% and FFM with the largest GWAS of AN by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were estimated to explore shared genomics. The genetic correlations of BF%male and BF%female with AN differed significantly from each other (p < .0001, δ = -0.17), suggesting that the female preponderance in AN may, in part, be explained by sex-specific anthropometric and metabolic genetic factors increasing liability to AN.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(21): 3813-3824, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085094

RESUMO

Genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contributes substantial risk for systemic lupus erythematosus, but high gene density, extreme polymorphism and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) have made fine mapping challenging. To address the problem, we compared two association techniques in two ancestrally diverse populations, African Americans (AAs) and Europeans (EURs). We observed a greater number of Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles in AA consistent with the elevated level of recombination in this population. In EUR we observed 50 different A-C-B-DRB1-DQA-DQB multilocus haplotype sequences per hundred individuals; in the AA sample, these multilocus haplotypes were twice as common compared to Europeans. We also observed a strong narrow class II signal in AA as opposed to the long-range LD observed in EUR that includes class I alleles. We performed a Bayesian model choice of the classical HLA alleles and a frequentist analysis that combined both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and classical HLA alleles. Both analyses converged on a similar subset of risk HLA alleles: in EUR HLA- B*08:01 + B*18:01 + (DRB1*15:01 frequentist only) + DQA*01:02 + DQB*02:01 + DRB3*02 and in AA HLA-C*17:01 + B*08:01 + DRB1*15:03 + (DQA*01:02 frequentist only) + DQA*02:01 + DQA*05:01+ DQA*05:05 + DQB*03:19 + DQB*02:02. We observed two additional independent SNP associations in both populations: EUR rs146903072 and rs501480; AA rs389883 and rs114118665. The DR2 serotype was best explained by DRB1*15:03 + DQA*01:02 in AA and by DRB1*15:01 + DQA*01:02 in EUR. The DR3 serotype was best explained by DQA*05:01 in AA and by DQB*02:01 in EUR. Despite some differences in underlying HLA allele risk models in EUR and AA, SNP signals across the extended MHC showed remarkable similarity and significant concordance in direction of effect for risk-associated variants.

8.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 47(3): 458-466, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26890671

RESUMO

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of empathy and guilt) differentiate a group of children at particularly high risk for engaging in aggressive behavior, notably bullying. However, little is known about whether youths with CU traits are at risk for being victimized by their peers. We examined the associations between trajectories of CU traits in childhood (between 7 and 12 years old) and peer victimization in adolescence (14 years old). The participants were drawn from the Twins Early Development Study, a longitudinal population-based study of twins born in England and in Wales. The trajectories of CU traits (i.e., stable high, increasing, decreasing and stable low) were identified through general growth mixture modeling. Four forms of peer victimization were considered: physical victimization, verbal victimization, social manipulation, and attacks on property. We found that youths with stable high levels, increasing levels, and decreasing levels of CU traits in childhood had higher levels of physical victimization in adolescence, not explained by other predictors at age 7 (e.g., conduct problems). Youths with increasing levels of CU traits, compared with the ones with stable low levels, also had higher levels of verbal victimization, social manipulation, and attacks on property. Our findings highlight the importance of distinct trajectories of CU traits in accounting for the experience of different forms of peer victimization. Youths with CU traits may benefit from bullying prevention programs, as they are likely to be the targets of peer victimization.

9.
Ann Neurol ; 81(3): 383-394, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27997041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful at identifying associations with stroke and stroke subtypes, but have not yet identified any associations solely with small vessel stroke (SVS). SVS comprises one quarter of all ischemic stroke and is a major manifestation of cerebral small vessel disease, the primary cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Studies across neurological traits have shown that younger-onset cases have an increased genetic burden. We leveraged this increased genetic burden by performing an age-at-onset informed GWAS meta-analysis, including a large younger-onset SVS population, to identify novel associations with stroke. METHODS: We used a three-stage age-at-onset informed GWAS to identify novel genetic variants associated with stroke. On identifying a novel locus associated with SVS, we assessed its influence on other small vessel disease phenotypes, as well as on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of nearby genes, and on DNA methylation of nearby CpG sites in whole blood and in the fetal brain. RESULTS: We identified an association with SVS in 4,203 cases and 50,728 controls on chromosome 16q24.2 (odds ratio [OR; 95% confidence interval {CI}] = 1.16 [1.10-1.22]; p = 3.2 × 10-9 ). The lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs12445022) was also associated with cerebral white matter hyperintensities (OR [95% CI] = 1.10 [1.05-1.16]; p = 5.3 × 10-5 ; N = 3,670), but not intracerebral hemorrhage (OR [95% CI] = 0.97 [0.84-1.12]; p = 0.71; 1,545 cases, 1,481 controls). rs12445022 is associated with mRNA expression of ZCCHC14 in arterial tissues (p = 9.4 × 10-7 ) and DNA methylation at probe cg16596957 in whole blood (p = 5.3 × 10-6 ). INTERPRETATION: 16q24.2 is associated with SVS. Associations of the locus with expression of ZCCHC14 and DNA methylation suggest the locus acts through changes to regulatory elements. Ann Neurol 2017;81:383-394.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/genética
10.
Stroke ; 46(8): 2069-74, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26159793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abnormal coagulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, but how this association is mediated and whether it differs between ischemic stroke subtypes is unknown. We determined the shared genetic risk between 14 coagulation factors and ischemic stroke and its subtypes. METHODS: Using genome-wide association study results for 14 coagulation factors from the population-based TwinsUK sample (N≈2000 for each factor), meta-analysis results from the METASTROKE consortium ischemic stroke genome-wide association study (12 389 cases, 62 004 controls), and genotype data for 9520 individuals from the WTCCC2 ischemic stroke study (3548 cases, 5972 controls-the largest METASTROKE subsample), we explored shared genetic risk for coagulation and stroke. We performed three analyses: (1) a test for excess concordance (or discordance) in single nucleotide polymorphism effect direction across coagulation and stroke, (2) an estimation of the joint effect of multiple coagulation-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms in stroke, and (3) an evaluation of common genetic risk between coagulation and stroke. RESULTS: One coagulation factor, factor XIII subunit B (FXIIIB), showed consistent effects in the concordance analysis, the estimation of polygenic risk, and the validation with genotype data, with associations specific to the cardioembolic stroke subtype. Effect directions for FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly discordant with cardioembolic disease (smallest P=5.7×10(-04)); the joint effect of FXIIIB-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms was significantly predictive of ischemic stroke (smallest P=1.8×10(-04)) and the cardioembolic subtype (smallest P=1.7×10(-04)). We found substantial negative genetic covariation between FXIIIB and ischemic stroke (rG=-0.71, P=0.01) and the cardioembolic subtype (rG=-0.80, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic markers associated with low FXIIIB levels increase risk of ischemic stroke cardioembolic subtype.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Fator XIII/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças em Gêmeos/diagnóstico , Doenças em Gêmeos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
11.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4204, 2014 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25003214

RESUMO

Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.


Assuntos
Dislexia/genética , Genética Populacional , Matemática , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Leitura , Gêmeos/genética , Criança , Dislexia/psicologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gêmeos/psicologia , Reino Unido
12.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 57(1): 96-105, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24687471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a genome-wide association approach. METHOD: The authors administered 4 Internet-based measures of receptive language (vocabulary, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics) to a sample of 2,329 twelve-year-olds for whom DNA and genome-wide genotyping were available. Nearly 700,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1 million imputed SNPs were included in a genome-wide association analysis of receptive language composite scores. RESULTS: No SNP associations met the demanding criterion of genome-wide significance that corrects for multiple testing across the genome ( p < 5 × 10 -8). The strongest SNP association did not replicate in an additional sample of 2,639 twelve-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that individual differences in receptive language ability in the general population do not reflect common genetic variants that account for more than 3% of the phenotypic variance. The search for genetic variants associated with language skill will require larger samples and additional methods to identify and functionally characterize the full spectrum of risk variants.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Semântica , Vocabulário
13.
Dev Sci ; 17(3): 462-70, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24410830

RESUMO

Spatial ability predicts performance in mathematics and eventual expertise in science, technology and engineering. Spatial skills have also been shown to rely on neuronal networks partially shared with mathematics. Understanding the nature of this association can inform educational practices and intervention for mathematical underperformance. Using data on two aspects of spatial ability and three domains of mathematical ability from 4174 pairs of 12-year-old twins, we examined the relative genetic and environmental contributions to variation in spatial ability and to its relationship with different aspects of mathematics. Environmental effects explained most of the variation in spatial ability (~70%) and in mathematical ability (~60%) at this age, and the effects were the same for boys and girls. Genetic factors explained about 60% of the observed relationship between spatial ability and mathematics, with a substantial portion of the relationship explained by common environmental influences (26% and 14% by shared and non-shared environments respectively). These findings call for further research aimed at identifying specific environmental mediators of the spatial-mathematics relationship.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Matemática , Meio Social , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Testes de Aptidão , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , País de Gales
14.
Learn Individ Differ ; 23(100): 145-150, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23565044

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that environmental influences on school science performance increase in importance from primary to secondary school. Here we assess for the first time the relationship between the science-learning environment and science performance using a genetically sensitive approach to investigate the aetiology of this link. 3000 pairs of 14-year-old twins from the UK Twins Early Development Study reported on their experiences of the science-learning environment and were assessed for their performance in science using a web-based test of scientific enquiry. Multivariate twin analyses were used to investigate the genetic and environmental links between environment and outcome. The most surprising result was that the science-learning environment was almost as heritable (43%) as performance on the science test (50%), and showed negligible shared environmental influence (3%). Genetic links explained most (56%) of the association between learning environment and science outcome, indicating gene-environment correlation.

15.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e58676, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23565138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twin studies have shown that anxiety in a general population sample of children involves both domain-general and trait-specific genetic effects. For this reason, in an attempt to identify genes responsible for these effects, we investigated domain-general and trait-specific genetic associations in the first genome-wide association (GWA) study on anxiety-related behaviours (ARBs) in childhood. METHODS: The sample included 2810 7-year-olds drawn from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) with data available for parent-rated anxiety and genome-wide DNA markers. The measure was the Anxiety-Related Behaviours Questionnaire (ARBQ), which assesses four anxiety traits and also yields a general anxiety composite. Affymetrix GeneChip 6.0 DNA arrays were used to genotype nearly 700,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and IMPUTE v2 was used to impute more than 1 million SNPs. Several GWA associations from this discovery sample were followed up in another TEDS sample of 4804 children. In addition, Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) was used on the discovery sample, to estimate the total amount of variance in ARBs that can be accounted for by SNPs on the array. RESULTS: No SNP associations met the demanding criterion of genome-wide significance that corrects for multiple testing across the genome (p<5×10(-8)). Attempts to replicate the top associations did not yield significant results. In contrast to the substantial twin study estimates of heritability which ranged from 0.50 (0.03) to 0.61 (0.01), the GCTA estimates of phenotypic variance accounted for by the SNPs were much lower 0.01 (0.11) to 0.19 (0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these GWAS and GCTA results suggest that anxiety--similar to height, weight and intelligence--is affected by many genetic variants of small effect, but unlike these other prototypical polygenic traits, genetic influence on anxiety is not well tagged by common SNPs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Pais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Psychol Sci ; 23(6): 643-50, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22547656

RESUMO

Chaotic home lives are correlated with behavior problems in children. In the study reported here, we tested whether there was a cross-lagged relation between children's experience of chaos and their disruptive behaviors (conduct problems and hyperactivity-inattention). Using genetically informative models, we then tested for the first time whether the influence of household chaos on disruptive behavior was environmentally mediated and whether genetic influences on children's disruptive behaviors accounted for the heritability of household chaos. We measured children's perceptions of household chaos and parents' ratings of children's disruptive behavior at ages 9 and 12 in a sample of 6,286 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). There was a phenotypic cross-lagged relation between children's experiences of household chaos and their disruptive behavior. In genetically informative models, we found that the effect of household chaos on subsequent disruptive behavior was environmentally mediated. However, genetic influences on disruptive behavior did not explain why household chaos was heritable.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Características da Família , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/genética , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Criança , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Meio Social , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia
17.
PLoS One ; 7(2): e30320, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22312423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The environment can moderate the effect of genes - a phenomenon called gene-environment (GxE) interaction. Several studies have found that socioeconomic status (SES) modifies the heritability of children's intelligence. Among low-SES families, genetic factors have been reported to explain less of the variance in intelligence; the reverse is found for high-SES families. The evidence however is inconsistent. Other studies have reported an effect in the opposite direction (higher heritability in lower SES), or no moderation of the genetic effect on intelligence. METHODS: Using 8716 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), we attempted to replicate the reported moderating effect of SES on children's intelligence at ages 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 14: i.e., lower heritability in lower-SES families. We used a twin model that allowed for a main effect of SES on intelligence, as well as a moderating effect of SES on the genetic and environmental components of intelligence. RESULTS: We found greater variance in intelligence in low-SES families, but minimal evidence of GxE interaction across the eight ages. A power calculation indicated that a sample size of about 5000 twin pairs is required to detect moderation of the genetic component of intelligence as small as 0.25, with about 80% power - a difference of 11% to 53% in heritability, in low- (-2 standard deviations, SD) and high-SES (+2 SD) families. With samples at each age of about this size, the present study found no moderation of the genetic effect on intelligence. However, we found the greater variance in low-SES families is due to moderation of the environmental effect - an environment-environment interaction. CONCLUSIONS: In a UK-representative sample, the genetic effect on intelligence is similar in low- and high-SES families. Children's shared experiences appear to explain the greater variation in intelligence in lower SES.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Inteligência , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise de Variância , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Humanos , Lactente , Inteligência/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 52(11): 1212-20, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21675992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chaotic homes predict poor school performance. Given that it is known that genes affect both children's experience of household chaos and their school achievement, to what extent is the relationship between high levels of noise and environmental confusion in the home, and children's school performance, mediated by heritable child effects? This is the first study to explore the genetic and environmental pathways between household chaos and academic performance. METHOD: Children's perceptions of family chaos at ages 9 and 12 and their school performance at age 12 were assessed in more than 2,300 twin pairs. The use of child-specific measures in a multivariate genetic analysis made it possible to investigate the genetic and environmental origins of the covariation between children's experience of chaos in the home and their school achievement. RESULTS: Children's experience of family chaos and their school achievement were significantly correlated in the expected negative direction (r = -.26). As expected, shared environmental factors explained a large proportion (63%) of the association. However, genetic factors accounted for a significant proportion (37%) of the association between children's experience of household chaos and their school performance. CONCLUSIONS: The association between chaotic homes and poor performance in school, previously assumed to be entirely environmental in origin, is in fact partly genetic. How children's home environment affects their academic achievement is not simply in the direction environment → child → outcome. Instead, genetic factors that influence children's experience of the disordered home environment also affect how well they do at school. The relationship between the child, their environment and their performance at school is complex: both genetic and environmental factors play a role.


Assuntos
Logro , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Meio Social , Análise de Variância , Criança , Escolaridade , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Percepção Social
19.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 51(7): 780-8, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20345837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative genetic data from our group indicates that antisocial behaviour (AB) is strongly heritable when coupled with psychopathic, callous-unemotional (CU) personality traits. We have also demonstrated that the genetic influences for AB and CU overlap considerably. We conducted a genome-wide association scan that capitalises on these findings in an attempt to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that may increase risk for psychopathic tendencies (AB+/CU+). METHODS: Teacher ratings at age 7 were used to screen 8374 twins with available DNA samples for individuals that were high vs. low on both AB and CU. In Stage 1, we screened for allele frequency differences in 642,432 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the Affymetrix 6.0 GeneChip with pooled DNA for high-scoring (AB+/CU+) versus low-scoring children (N = approximately 300/group). In Stage 2, we tested the 3000 most strongly associated SNPs from Stage 1 for association in the same direction in a second sample of high- versus low-scoring children from the same twin study (18% co-twins). RESULTS: Using allele frequencies estimated from pooled DNA, we found suggestive evidence for enrichment of association in the second stage of our two-stage genome-wide association design and focus on reporting the 30 top-ranking SNPs nominally associated with psychopathic tendencies. These SNPs include neurodevelopmental genes such as ROBO2. CONCLUSIONS: Although none of the SNPs reached genome-wide statistical significance we have generated a list of SNPs that are potentially associated with psychopathic tendencies, which we believe warrant verification and replication in large independent and clinical samples.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Meio Social , Alelos , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Doenças em Gêmeos/psicologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Psicometria , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , País de Gales
20.
Learn Individ Differ ; 20(5): 549-553, 2010 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21572559

RESUMO

Chaos in the home is a key environment in cognitive and behavioral development. However, we show that children's experience of home chaos is partly genetically mediated. We assessed children's perceptions of household chaos at ages 9 and 12 in 2337 pairs of twins. Using child-specific reports allowed us to use structural equation modeling to explore the genetic and environmental etiology of children's perceptions of chaos. We found that these perceptions are significantly heritable (22%), with the remainder explained by environmental influences. Finding that genes influence children's experience of chaotic environments has far-reaching implications for how we conceptualize the family home and its impact on cognitive and behavioral development.

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