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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 300, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have considered aircraft noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in analyses of the health effects of aircraft noise, especially in relation to medication use. This study aims to investigate the moderating and mediating role of these two factors in the relationship between aircraft noise levels and medication use among 5860 residents of ten European airports included in the HYENA and DEBATS studies. METHODS: Information on aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity, medication use, and demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors was collected during a face-to-face interview at home. Medication was coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. Outdoor aircraft noise exposure was estimated by linking the participant's home address to noise contours using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) methods. Logistic regressions with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used. In addition, Baron and Kenny's recommendations were followed to investigate the moderating and mediating effects of aircraft noise annoyance and noise sensitivity. RESULTS: A significant association was found between aircraft noise levels at night and antihypertensive medication only in the UK (OR = 1.43, 95%CI 1.19-1.73 for a 10 dB(A)-increase in Lnight). No association was found with other medications. Aircraft noise annoyance was significantly associated with the use of antihypertensive medication (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.14-1.56), anxiolytics (OR = 1.48, 95%CI 1.08-2.05), hypnotics and sedatives (OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.07-2.39), and antasthmatics (OR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.07-1.96), with no difference between countries. Noise sensitivity was significantly associated with almost all medications, with the exception of the use of antasthmatics, showing an increase in ORs with the level of noise sensitivity, with differences in ORs among countries only for the use of antihypertensive medication. The results also suggested a mediating role of aircraft noise annoyance and a modifying role of both aircraft noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the association between aircraft noise levels and medication use. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is consistent with the results of the small number of studies available to date suggesting that both aircraft noise annoyance and noise sensitivity should be taken into account in analyses of the health effects of exposure to aircraft noise.

2.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 4, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) is associated with reduced birth weight, but information is limited on the sources of PM10 and exposure misclassification from assigning exposures to place of residence at birth. METHODS: Trimester and source-specific PM10 exposures (PM10 from road source, local non-road source, and total source) in pregnancy were estimated using dispersion models and a full maternal residential history for 12,020 births from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (ALSPAC) cohort in 1990-1992 in the Bristol area. Information on birth outcomes were obtained from birth records. Maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from questionnaires. We used linear regression models for continuous outcomes (birth weight, head circumference (HC), and birth length (BL) and logistic regression models for binary outcomes (preterm birth (PTB), term low birth weight (TLBW) and small for gestational age (SGA)). Sensitivity analysis was performed using multiple imputation for missing covariate data. RESULTS: After adjustment, interquartile range increases in source specific PM10 from traffic were associated with 17 to 18% increased odds of TLBW in all pregnancy periods. We also found odds of TLBW increased by 40% (OR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.12, 1.75) and odds of SGA increased by 18% (OR: 1.18, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.32) per IQR (6.54 µg/m3) increase of total PM10 exposure in the third trimester. CONCLUSION: This study adds to evidence that maternal PM10 exposures affect birth weight, with particular concern in relation to exposures to PM10 from road transport sources; results for total PM10 suggest greatest effect in the third trimester. Effect size estimates relate to exposures in the 1990s and are higher than those for recent studies - this may relate to reduced exposure misclassification through use of full residential history information, changes in air pollution toxicity over time and/or residual confounding.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 272: 116011, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386205

RESUMO

The UK implemented a lockdown in Spring (2020) to curtail the person-to-person transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Measures restricted movements to one outing per day for exercise and shopping, otherwise most people were restricted to their dwelling except for key workers (e.g. medical, supermarkets, and transport). In this study, we quantified changes to air quality across the United Kingdom from 30/03/2020 to 03/05/2020 (weeks 14-18), the period of most stringent travel restrictions. Daily pollutant measurements of NO2, O3 and PM2.5 from the national network of monitoring sites during this period were compared with measurements over the same period during 2017-19. Comparisons were also made with predicted concentrations for the 2020 period from business-as-usual (BAU) modelling, where the contributions of normal anthropogenic activities were estimated under the observed meteorological conditions. During the lockdown study period there was a 69% reduction in traffic overall (74% reduction in light and 35% in heavy vehicles). Measurements from 129 monitoring stations, identified mean reductions in NO2 of 38.3% (-8.8 µg/m3) and PM2.5 of 16.5% (-2.2 µg/m3). Improvements in NO2 and PM2.5 were largest at urban traffic sites and more modest at background locations where a large proportion of the population live. In contrast, O3 concentrations on average increased by 7.6% (+4.8 µg/m3) with the largest increases at roadside sites due to reductions in local emissions of NO. A lack of VOC monitoring limited our capacity to interpret changes in O3 at urban background locations. BAU models predicted comparable NO2 reductions and O3 gains, although PM2.5 episodes would have been more prominent without lockdown. Results demonstrate the relatively modest contribution of traffic to air quality, suggesting that sustained improvements in air quality require actions across various sectors, including working with international and European initiatives on long-range transport air pollutants, especially PM2.5 and O3.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Reino Unido
4.
Thorax ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few large studies have assessed the relationship of long-term ambient air pollution exposure with the prevalence and incidence of symptoms of chronic bronchitis and cough. METHODS: We leveraged Lifelines cohort data on 132 595 (baseline) and 65 009 (second assessment) participants linked to ambient air pollution estimates. Logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, educational attainment, body mass index, smoking status, pack-years smoking and environmental tobacco smoke at home were used to assess associations of air pollution with prevalence and incidence of chronic bronchitis (winter cough and sputum almost daily for ≥3 months/year), chronic cough (winter cough almost daily for ≥3 months/year) and prevalence of cough and sputum symptoms, irrespective of duration. RESULTS: Associations were seen for all pollutants for prevalent cough or sputum symptoms. However, for prevalent and incident chronic bronchitis, statistically significant associations were seen for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) but not for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). For prevalent chronic bronchitis, associations with NO2 showed OR: 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.08) and with BC OR: 1.06 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.09) expressed per IQR; corresponding results for incident chronic bronchitis were NO2 OR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.13) and BC OR: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.13). In subgroup analyses, slightly stronger associations were observed among women, never smokers and younger individuals. CONCLUSION: This is the largest analysis to date to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ambient air pollution and chronic bronchitis. NO2 and BC air pollution was associated with increased odds of prevalent and incident chronic bronchitis.

5.
Environ Epidemiol ; 4(4): e098, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832837

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated associations between metal components of particulate matter on mortality due to well-known issues of multicollinearity. Here, we analyze these exposures jointly to evaluate their associations with mortality on small area data. We fit a Bayesian profile regression (BPR) to account for the multicollinearity in the elemental components (iron, copper, and zinc) of PM10 and PM2.5. The models are developed in relation to mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory disease and lung cancer incidence in 2008-2011 at a small area level, for a population of 13.6 million in the London-Oxford area of England. From the BPR, we identified higher risks in the PM10 fraction cluster likely to represent the study area, excluding London, for cardiovascular mortality relative risk (RR) 1.07 (95% credible interval [CI] 1.02, 1.12) and for respiratory mortality RR 1.06 (95%CI 0.99, 1.31), compared with the study mean. For PM2.5 fraction, higher risks were seen for cardiovascular mortality RR 1.55 (CI 95% 1.38, 1.71) and respiratory mortality RR 1.51 (CI 95% 1.33, 1.72), likely to represent the "highways" cluster. We did not find relevant associations for lung cancer incidence. Our analysis showed small but not fully consistent adverse associations between health outcomes and particulate metal exposures. The BPR approach identified subpopulations with unique exposure profiles and provided information about the geographical location of these to help interpret findings.

6.
Environ Res ; 191: 110013, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental stressors such as transport noise may contribute to development of obesity through increased levels of stress hormones, sleep deprivation and endocrine disruption. Epidemiological evidence supporting an association of road traffic noise with obesity markers is still relatively scant and confined to certain geographical regions. We aimed to examine the cross-sectional associations between road traffic noise and obesity markers in three large European cohorts involving nearly 500,000 individuals. METHODS: Three population-based cohorts (UK Biobank, Lifelines, HUNT3) were established between 2006 and 2013 in the UK, the Netherlands and Norway respectively. For all three cohorts, residential 24-h road traffic noise (Lden) for 2009 was modelled from a standardised European noise assessment framework. Residential exposures to NO2 for 2007 and PM2.5 for 2010 were estimated from Europe-wide land use regression models. Obesity markers including body mass index and waist circumference were measured at recruitment. Obesity and central obesity status were subsequently derived. Regression models were fitted in each cohort, adjusting for a harmonised set of demographic and lifestyle covariates, with further adjustments for air pollution in the main model. RESULTS: The main analyses included 412,934 participants of UK Biobank, 61,032 of Lifelines and 30,305 of HUNT3, with a mean age of 43-56 years and Lden ranging 42-89 dB(A) across cohorts. In UK Biobank, per 10 dB(A) higher of Lden: BMI was higher by 0.14kg/m2 (95%CI: 0.11-0.18), waist circumference higher by 0.27 cm (95%CI: 0.19-0.35), odds of obesity was 1.06 (95%CI: 1.04-1.08) and of central obesity was 1.05 (95%CI: 1.04-1.07). These associations were robust to most other sensitivity analyses but attenuated by further adjustment of PM2.5 or area-level socioeconomic status. Associations were more pronounced among women, those with low physical activity, higher household income or hearing impairment. In HUNT3, associations were observed for obesity or central obesity status among those exposed to Lden greater than 55 dB(A). In contrast, no or negative associations were observed in the Lifelines cohort. CONCLUSIONS: This largest study to date providing mixed findings on impacts of long-term exposure to road traffic noise on obesity, which necessitates future analyses using longitudinal data to further investigate this potentially important epidemiological link.

7.
Biom J ; 62(7): 1650-1669, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567714

RESUMO

Study designs where data have been aggregated by geographical areas are popular in environmental epidemiology. These studies are commonly based on administrative databases and, providing a complete spatial coverage, are particularly appealing to make inference on the entire population. However, the resulting estimates are often biased and difficult to interpret due to unmeasured confounders, which typically are not available from routinely collected data. We propose a framework to improve inference drawn from such studies exploiting information derived from individual-level survey data. The latter are summarized in an area-level scalar score by mimicking at ecological level the well-known propensity score methodology. The literature on propensity score for confounding adjustment is mainly based on individual-level studies and assumes a binary exposure variable. Here, we generalize its use to cope with area-referenced studies characterized by a continuous exposure. Our approach is based upon Bayesian hierarchical structures specified into a two-stage design: (i) geolocated individual-level data from survey samples are up-scaled at ecological level, then the latter are used to estimate a generalized ecological propensity score (EPS) in the in-sample areas; (ii) the generalized EPS is imputed in the out-of-sample areas under different assumptions about the missingness mechanisms, then it is included into the ecological regression, linking the exposure of interest to the health outcome. This delivers area-level risk estimates, which allow a fuller adjustment for confounding than traditional areal studies. The methodology is illustrated by using simulations and a case study investigating the risk of lung cancer mortality associated with nitrogen dioxide in England (UK).

8.
Prev Med ; 136: 106104, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353574

RESUMO

Unintentional non-fire related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological data on UNFR CO poisoning can help monitor changes in the magnitude of this burden, particularly through comparisons of multiple countries, and to identify vulnerable sub-groups of the population which may be more at risk. Here, we collected data on age- and sex- specific number of hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of UNFR CO poisoning in England (2002-2016), aggregated to small areas, alongside area-level characteristics (i.e. deprivation, rurality and ethnicity). We analysed temporal trends using piecewise log-linear models and compared them to analogous data obtained for Canada, France, Spain and the US. We estimated age-standardized rates per 100,000 inhabitants by area-level characteristics using the WHO standard population (2000-2025). We then fitted the Besag York Mollie (BYM) model, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial model, to assess the independent effect of each area-level characteristic on the standardized risk of hospitalization. Temporal trends showed significant decreases after 2010. Decreasing trends were also observed across all countries studied, yet France had a 5-fold higher risk. Based on 3399 UNFR CO poisoning hospitalizations, we found an increased risk in areas classified as rural (0.69, 95% CrI: 0.67; 0.80), highly deprived (1.77, 95% CrI: 1.66; 2.10) or with the largest proportion of Asian (1.15, 95% CrI: 1.03; 1.49) or Black population (1.35, 95% CrI: 1.20; 1.80). Our multivariate approach provides strong evidence for the identification of vulnerable populations which can inform prevention policies and targeted interventions.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(Supplement_1): i49-i56, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have developed an open-source ALgorithm for Generating Address Exposures (ALGAE) that cleans residential address records to construct address histories and assign spatially-determined exposures to cohort participants. The first application of this algorithm was to construct prenatal and early life air pollution exposure for individuals of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the South West of England, using previously estimated particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10) concentrations. METHODS: ALSPAC recruited 14 541 pregnant women between 1991 and 1992. We assigned trimester-specific estimated PM10 exposures for 12 752 pregnancies, and first year of life exposures for 12 525 births, based on maternal residence and residential mobility. RESULTS: Average PM10 exposure was 32.6 µg/m3 [standard deviation (S.D.) 3.0 µg/m3] during pregnancy and 31.4 µg/m3 (S.D. 2.6 µg/m3) during the first year of life; 6.7% of women changed address during pregnancy, and 18.0% moved during first year of life of their infant. Exposure differences ranged from -5.3 µg/m3 to 12.4 µg/m3 (up to 26% difference) during pregnancy and -7.22 µg/m3 to 7.64 µg/m3 (up to 27% difference) in the first year of life, when comparing estimated exposure using the address at birth and that assessed using the complete cleaned address history. For the majority of individuals exposure changed by <5%, but some relatively large changes were seen both in pregnancy and in infancy. CONCLUSIONS: ALGAE provides a generic and adaptable, open-source solution to clean addresses stored in a cohort contact database and assign life stage-specific exposure estimates with the potential to reduce exposure misclassification.

10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(Supplement_1): i38-i48, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293011

RESUMO

The Rapid Inquiry Facility 4.0 (RIF) is a new user-friendly and open-access tool, developed by the UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit (SAHSU), to facilitate environment public health tracking (EPHT) or surveillance (EPHS). The RIF is designed to help public health professionals and academics to rapidly perform exploratory investigations of health and environmental data at the small-area level (e.g. postcode or detailed census areas) in order to identify unusual signals, such as disease clusters and potential environmental hazards, whether localized (e.g. industrial site) or widespread (e.g. air and noise pollution). The RIF allows the use of advanced disease mapping methods, including Bayesian small-area smoothing and complex risk analysis functionalities, while accounting for confounders. The RIF could be particularly useful to monitor spatio-temporal trends in mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and chronic lung diseases, or to conduct local or national studies on air pollution, flooding, low-magnetic fields or nuclear power plants.

11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(1): 112-123, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142356

RESUMO

Rationale: Exposure to air pollution during intrauterine development and through childhood may have lasting effects on respiratory health.Objectives: To investigate lung function at ages 8 and 15 years in relation to air pollution exposures during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood in a UK population-based birth cohort.Methods: Individual exposures to source-specific particulate matter ≤10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) during each trimester, 0-6 months, 7-12 months (1990-1993), and up to age 15 years (1991-2008) were examined in relation to FEV1% predicted and FVC% predicted at ages 8 (n = 5,276) and 15 (n = 3,446) years using linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A profile regression model was used to identify sensitive time periods.Measurements and Main Results: We did not find clear evidence of a sensitive exposure period for PM10 from road traffic. At age 8 years, 1 µg/m3 higher exposure during the first trimester was associated with lower FEV1% predicted (-0.826; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.357 to -0.296) and FVC% predicted (-0.817; 95% CI, -1.357 to -0.276), but similar associations were seen for exposures for other trimesters, 0-6 months, 7-12 months, and 0-7 years. Associations were stronger among boys, as well as children whose mother had a lower education level or smoked during pregnancy. For PM10 from all sources, the third trimester was associated with lower FVC% predicted (-1.312; 95% CI, -2.100 to -0.525). At age 15 years, no adverse associations with lung function were seen.Conclusions: Exposure to road-traffic PM10 during pregnancy may result in small but significant reductions in lung function at age 8 years.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Capacidade Vital
12.
Environ Res ; 183: 108949, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902481

RESUMO

Bioaerosols have been associated with adverse respiratory-related health effects and are emitted in elevated concentrations from composting facilities. We used modelled Aspergillus fumigatus concentrations, a good indicator for bioaerosol emissions, to assess associations with respiratory-related hospital admissions. Mean daily Aspergillus fumigatus concentrations were estimated for each composting site for first full year of permit issue from 2005 onwards to 2014 for Census Output Areas (COAs) within 4 km of 76 composting facilities in England, as previously described (Williams et al., 2019). We fitted a hierarchical generalized mixed model to examine the risk of hospital admission with a primary diagnosis of (i) any respiratory condition, (ii) respiratory infections, (iii) asthma, (iv) COPD, (v) diseases due to organic dust, and (vi) Cystic Fibrosis, in relation to quartiles of Aspergillus fumigatus concentrations. Models included a random intercept for each COA to account for over-dispersion, nested within composting facility, on which a random intercept was fitted to account for clustering of the data, with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, tobacco sales (smoking proxy) and traffic load (as a proxy for traffic-related air pollution). We included 249,748 respiratory-related and 3163 Cystic Fibrosis hospital admissions in 9606 COAs with a population-weighted centroid within 4 km of the 76 included composting facilities. After adjustment for confounders, no statistically significant effect was observed for any respiratory-related (Relative Risk (RR) = 0.99; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.96-1.01) or for Cystic Fibrosis (RR = 1.01; 95% CI 0.56-1.83) hospital admissions for COAs in the highest quartile of exposure. Similar results were observed across all respiratory disease sub-groups. This study does not provide evidence for increased risks of respiratory-related hospitalisations for those living near composting facilities. However, given the limitations in the dispersion modelling, risks cannot be completely ruled out. Hospital admissions represent severe respiratory episodes, so further study would be needed to investigate whether bioaerosols emitted from composting facilities have impacts on less severe episodes or respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus , Compostagem , Hospitalização , Aerossóis , Aspergillus fumigatus/patogenicidade , Inglaterra , Exposição Ambiental , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
13.
Environ Int ; 134: 104845, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated congenital anomalies in relation to municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) and results are inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a national investigation into the risk of congenital anomalies in babies born to mothers living within 10 km of an MWI associated with: i) modelled concentrations of PM10 as a proxy for MWI emissions more generally and; ii) proximity of residential postcode to nearest MWI, in areas in England and Scotland that are covered by a congenital anomaly register. METHODS: Retrospective population-based cohort study within 10 km of 10 MWIs in England and Scotland operating between 2003 and 2010. Exposure was proximity to MWI and log of daily mean modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 µm diameter (PM10) concentrations. RESULTS: Analysis included 219,486 births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly of which 5154 were cases of congenital anomalies. Fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) per doubling in PM10 was: 1·00 (95% CI 0·98-1·02) for all congenital anomalies; 0·99 (0·97-1·01) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies. For every 1 km closer to an MWI adjusted OR was: 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies combined; 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies; and, for specific anomaly groups, 1·04 (1·01-1·08) for congenital heart defect sand 1·07 (1·02-1·12) for genital anomalies. DISCUSSION: We found no increased risk of congenital anomalies in relation to modelled PM10 emissions, but there were small excess risks associated with congenital heart defects and genital anomalies in proximity to MWIs. These latter findings may well reflect incomplete control for confounding, but a possible causal effect cannot be excluded.


Assuntos
Incineração , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia
14.
Environ Int ; 134: 105290, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for associations between ambient air pollution and preterm birth and stillbirth is inconsistent. Road traffic produces both air pollutants and noise, but few studies have examined these co-exposures together and none to date with all-cause or cause-specific stillbirths. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship between long-term exposure to air pollution and noise at address level during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth and stillbirth. METHODS: The study population comprised 581,774 live and still births in the Greater London area, 2006-2010. Outcomes were preterm birth (<37 completed weeks gestation), all-cause stillbirth and cause-specific stillbirth. Exposures during pregnancy to particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and <10 µm (PM10), ozone (O3), primary traffic air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, PM2.5 from traffic exhaust and traffic non-exhaust), and road traffic noise were estimated based on maternal address at birth. RESULTS: An interquartile range increase in O3 exposure was associated with elevated risk of preterm birth (OR 1.15 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18, for both Trimester 1 and 2), all-cause stillbirth (Trimester 1 OR 1.17 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27; Trimester 2 OR 1.20 95% CI: 1.09, 1.32) and asphyxia-related stillbirth (Trimester 1 OR 1.22 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49). Odds ratios with the other air pollutant exposures examined were null or <1, except for primary traffic non-exhaust related PM2.5, which was associated with 3% increased odds of preterm birth (Trimester 1) and 7% increased odds stillbirth (Trimester 1 and 2) when adjusted for O3. Elevated risk of preterm birth was associated with increasing road traffic noise, but only after adjustment for certain air pollutant exposures. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that exposure to higher levels of O3 and primary traffic non-exhaust related PM2.5 during pregnancy may increase risk of preterm birth and stillbirth; and a possible relationship between long-term traffic-related noise and risk of preterm birth. These findings extend and strengthen the evidence base for important public health impacts of ambient ozone, particulate matter and noise in early life.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Nascimento Prematuro , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Londres , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Material Particulado , Gravidez , Natimorto
15.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285306

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution increases the risk of respiratory mortality, but evidence for impacts on lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is less well established. The aim was to evaluate whether ambient air pollution is associated with lung function and COPD, and explore potential vulnerability factors.We used UK Biobank data on 303 887 individuals aged 40-69 years, with complete covariate data and valid lung function measures. Cross-sectional analyses examined associations of land use regression-based estimates of particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 and 10 µm: PM2.5 and PM10, respectively; and coarse particles with diameter between 2.5 µm and 10 µm: PMcoarse) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the FEV1/FVC ratio and COPD (FEV1/FVC

Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Lancet Planet Health ; 3(6): e270-e279, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution in Beijing has been improving through implementation of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (2013-17), but its implications for respiratory morbidity have not been directly investigated. We aimed to assess the potential effects of air-quality improvements on respiratory health by investigating the number of cases of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) advanced by air pollution each year. METHODS: Daily city-wide concentrations of PM10, PM2·5, PMcoarse (particulate matter >2·5-10 µm diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) in 2013-17 were averaged from 35 monitoring stations across Beijing. A generalised additive Poisson time-series model was applied to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs for hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD associated with pollutant concentrations. FINDINGS: From Jan 18, 2013, to Dec 31, 2017, 161 613 hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of COPD were recorded. Mean ambient concentrations of SO2 decreased by 68% and PM2·5 decreased by 33% over this 5-year period. For each IQR increase in pollutant concentration, RRs for same-day hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD were 1·029 (95% CI 1·023-1·035) for PM10, 1·028 (1·021-1·034) for PM2·5, 1·018 (1·013-1·022) for PMcoarse, 1·036 (1·028-1·044) for NO2, 1·019 (1·013-1·024) for SO2, 1·024 (1·018-1·029) for CO, and 1·027 (1·010-1·044) for O3 in the warm season (May to October). Women and patients aged 65 years or older were more susceptible to the effects of these pollutants on hospitalisation risk than were men and patients younger than 65 years. In 2013, there were 12 679 acute exacerbations of COPD cases that were advanced by PM2·5 pollution above the expected number of cases if daily PM2·5 concentrations had not exceeded the WHO target (25 µg/m3), whereas the respective figure in 2017 was 7377 cases. INTERPRETATION: Despite improvement in overall air quality, increased acute air pollution episodes were significantly associated with increased hospitalisations for acute exacerbations of COPD in Beijing. Stringent air pollution control policies are important and effective for reducing COPD morbidity, and long-term multidimensional policies to safeguard public health are indicated. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
20.
Environ Int ; 122: 151-158, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have reported associations between municipal waste incinerator (MWI) exposures and adverse birth outcomes but there are few studies of modern MWIs operating to current European Union (EU) Industrial Emissions Directive standards. METHODS: Associations between modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 µm in diameter (PM10) from MWI emissions (as a proxy for MWI emissions) within 10 km of each MWI, and selected birth and infant mortality outcomes were examined for all 22 MWIs operating in Great Britain 2003-10. We also investigated associations with proximity of residence to a MWI. Outcomes used were term birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) at term, stillbirth, neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality, multiple births, sex ratio and preterm delivery sourced from national registration data from the Office for National Statistics. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders including year of birth, sex, season of birth, maternal age, deprivation, ethnicity and area characteristics and random effect terms were included in the models to allow for differences in baseline rates between areas and in incinerator feedstock. RESULTS: Analyses included 1,025,064 births and 18,694 infant deaths. There was no excess risk in relation to any of the outcomes investigated during pregnancy or early life of either mean modelled MWI PM10 or proximity to an MWI. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that exposure to PM10 from, or living near to, an MWI operating to current EU standards was associated with harm for any of the outcomes investigated. Results should be generalisable to other MWIs operating to similar standards.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Mortalidade Infantil , Gravidez/estatística & dados numéricos , Resíduos Sólidos , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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