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1.
Clin Respir J ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077238

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a fungal disease with high mortality and morbidity. Guidelines suggest treatment with azoles as first-line therapy. However, patients often develop treatment intolerance or increasingly azole resistance. OBJECTIVES: This retrospective review assesses outcomes in azole resistant or intolerant patients with CPA treated with cyclical echinocandin therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively examined records of 25 patients with CPA treated with cyclical caspofungin, 6 of whom were either azole-resistant or azole intolerant. Baseline characteristics, high-resolution computed tomography severity scores, forced expiratory volume after 1 minute (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), body mass index and serology (Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgG, Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgE, total IgE and CRP) were assessed before and after caspofungin. RESULTS: Of the six patients, four (66%) started caspofungin due to intolerance and two (33%) due to pan-azole resistance. On treatment, there was stability in FEV1 with an overall mortality of 33% during the follow-up period with a median survival of 875.5 days (IQR 529-1024). No significant change in serology (A. fumigatus-specific IgG and CRP was seen. CONCLUSIONS: With pulsed echinocandin therapy, azole-intolerant or pan-resistant CPA patients have similar mortality rates to azole-naïve CPA patients. Pulsed echinocandin therapy may present a strategy to stabilize CPA in patients with pan resistance or intolerance to, azole therapy.

3.
Respirology ; 23(7): 687-694, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a major adverse prognostic determinant. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the most widely used tool when screening for PH, although discordance between TTE and right heart catheter (RHC) measured pulmonary haemodynamics is increasingly recognized. We evaluated the predictive utility of the updated European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society (ESC/ERS) TTE screening recommendations against RHC testing in a large, well-characterized ILD cohort. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-five consecutive patients with ILD and suspected PH underwent comprehensive assessment, including RHC, between 2006 and 2012. ESC/ERS recommended tricuspid regurgitation (TR) velocity thresholds for assigning high (>3.4 m/s), intermediate (2.9-3.4 m/s) and low (<2.8 m/s) probabilities of PH were evaluated against RHC testing. RESULTS: RHC testing confirmed PH in 86% of subjects with a peak TR velocity >3.4 m/s, and excluded PH in 60% of ILD subjects with a TR velocity <2.8 m/s. Thus, the ESC/ERS guidelines misclassified 40% of subjects as 'low probability' of PH, when PH was confirmed on subsequent RHC. Evaluating alternative TR velocity thresholds for assigning a low probability of PH did not significantly improve the ability of TR velocity to exclude a diagnosis of PH. CONCLUSION: In patients with ILD and suspected PH, currently recommended ESC/ERS TR velocity screening thresholds were associated with a high positive predictive value (86%) for confirming PH, but were of limited value in excluding PH, with 40% of patients misclassified as low probability when PH was confirmed at subsequent RHC.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/complicações
4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(2): 138-153, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29154106

RESUMO

This Review provides an updated approach to the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), based on a systematic search of the medical literature and the expert opinion of members of the Fleischner Society. A checklist is provided for the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The role of CT is expanded to permit diagnosis of IPF without surgical lung biopsy in select cases when CT shows a probable UIP pattern. Additional investigations, including surgical lung biopsy, should be considered in patients with either clinical or CT findings that are indeterminate for IPF. A multidisciplinary approach is particularly important when deciding to perform additional diagnostic assessments, integrating biopsy results with clinical and CT features, and establishing a working diagnosis of IPF if lung tissue is not available. A working diagnosis of IPF should be reviewed at regular intervals since the diagnosis might change. Criteria are presented to establish confident and working diagnoses of IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades
5.
Eur Radiol ; 28(1): 226-234, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare radiologists' performance reading CTs independently with their performance using radiographers as concurrent readers in lung cancer screening. METHODS: 369 consecutive baseline CTs performed for the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) trial were double-read by radiologists reading either independently or concurrently with a radiographer. In concurrent reading, the radiologist reviewed radiographer-identified nodules and then detected any additional nodules. Radiologists recorded their independent and concurrent reading times. For each radiologist, sensitivity, average false-positive detections (FPs) per case and mean reading times for each method were calculated. RESULTS: 694 nodules in 246/369 (66.7%) studies comprised the reference standard. Radiologists' mean sensitivity and average FPs per case both increased with concurrent reading compared to independent reading (90.8 ± 5.6% vs. 77.5 ± 11.2%, and 0.60 ± 0.53 vs. 0.33 ± 0.20, respectively; p < 0.05 for 3/4 and 2/4 radiologists, respectively). The mean reading times per case decreased from 9.1 ± 2.3 min with independent reading to 7.2 ± 1.0 min with concurrent reading, decreasing significantly for 3/4 radiologists (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of radiologists demonstrated improved sensitivity, a small increase in FP detections and a statistically significantly reduced reading time using radiographers as concurrent readers. KEY POINTS: • Radiographers as concurrent readers could improve radiologists' sensitivity in lung nodule detection. • An increase in false-positive detections with radiographer-assisted concurrent reading occurred. • The false-positive detection rate was still lower than reported for computer-aided detection. • Concurrent reading with radiographers was also faster than single reading. • The time saved per case using concurrently reading radiographers was relatively modest.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tempo , Reino Unido
6.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 58(4): 510-518, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206475

RESUMO

The factors predisposing toward the development of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (pNTM) disease and influencing disease progression remain unclear. Impaired immune responses have been reported in individuals with pNTM disease, but data are limited and inconsistent. In this study, we sought to use gene expression profiling to examine the host response to pNTM disease. Microarray analysis of whole-blood gene expression was performed on 25 subjects with pNTM disease and 27 uninfected control subjects with respiratory disease. Gene expression results were compared with phenotypic variables and survival data. Compared with uninfected control subjects, pNTM disease was associated with downregulation of 213 transcripts enriched for terms related to T cell signaling, including IFNG. Reduced IFNG expression was associated with more severe computed tomography changes and impaired lung function. Mortality was associated with the expression of transcripts related to the innate immune response and inflammation, whereas transcripts related to T and B cell function were associated with improved survival. These findings suggest that pNTM disease is associated with an aberrant immune response, which may reflect an underlying propensity to infection or result from NTM infection itself. There were important differences in the immune response associated with survival and mortality in pNTM disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/patogenicidade , Infecções Respiratórias/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/sangue , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/imunologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/sangue , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
7.
Respir Med ; 130: 43-51, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29206632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unclassifiable-interstitial lung disease (uILD) represents a heterogeneous collection of pathologies encompassing those fibrosing lung diseases which do not fulfill current diagnostic criteria. We evaluated baseline and longitudinal functional and CT (visual and quantitative computer [CALIPER] analysis) variables to identify outcome predictors in uILD. METHODS: Consecutive patients with uILD on multidisciplinary review (n = 95) had baseline functional (FVC, DLco, CPI [composite physiologic index]) and CT features (visual evaluation: CT pattern, fibrosis extent, honeycombing presence, traction bronchiectasis severity, pulmonary artery (PA) diameter; CALIPER evaluation: fibrosis extent, pulmonary vessel volume (PVV)) examined in univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. Change in functional and CT variables were examined in a patient subset (n = 37), to identify indicators of outcome. RESULTS: On univariate analysis, CPI was the most powerful functional predictor of mortality (p < 0.0001). Visual traction bronchiectasis (p < 0.0001), PA diameter (p < 0.0001) and honeycombing presence (p = 0.0001) and CALIPER PVV (p = 0.0003) were the strongest CT outcome predictors. On multivariate analysis of baseline indices, traction bronchiectasis (p = 0.003), PA diameter (p = 0.003) and CPI (p = 0.0001) independently predicted mortality. Colinearity with functional indices precluded the evaluation of CALIPER PVV in multivariate models. On evaluation of longitudinal variables, increasing CALIPER fibrosis extent was the strongest outcome predictor, and remained so following adjustment for baseline disease severity, and when FVC declines were marginal. CONCLUSIONS: In uILD patients, CPI, traction bronchiectasis severity and PA diameter independently predicted outcome at baseline. Increasing fibrosis extent measured by CALIPER was the most powerful index of outcome regardless of baseline disease severity and strongly predicted outcome in patients with marginal FVC declines.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/mortalidade , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Artéria Pulmonar/anatomia & histologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
8.
Respirology ; 22(8): 1585-1591, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28699237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine whether computer-based quantification (CALIPER software) is superior to visual computed tomography (CT) scoring in the identification of CT patterns indicative of restrictive and obstructive functional indices in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). METHODS: A total of 135 consecutive HP patients had CT parenchymal patterns evaluated quantitatively by both visual scoring and CALIPER. Results were evaluated against: forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and a composite physiological index (CPI) to identify which CT scoring method better correlated with functional indices. RESULTS: CALIPER-derived scores of total interstitial lung disease extent correlated more strongly than visual scores: FVC (CALIPER R = 0.73, visual R = 0.51); DLCO (CALIPER R = 0.61, visual R = 0.48); and CPI (CALIPER R = 0·70, visual R = 0·55). The CT variable that correlated most strongly with restrictive functional indices was CALIPER pulmonary vessel volume (PVV): FVC R = 0.75, DLCO R = 0.68 and CPI R = 0.76. Ground-glass opacity quantified by CALIPER alone demonstrated strong associations with restrictive functional indices: CALIPER FVC R = 0.65; DLCO R = 0.59; CPI R = 0.64; and visual = not significant. Decreased attenuation lung quantified by CALIPER was a better morphological measure of obstructive lung disease than equivalent visual scores as judged by relationships with TLC (CALIPER R = 0.63 and visual R = 0.12). All results were maintained on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: CALIPER improved on visual scoring in HP as judged by restrictive and obstructive functional correlations. Decreased attenuation regions of the lung quantified by CALIPER demonstrated better linkages to obstructive lung physiology than visually quantified CT scores. A novel CALIPER variable, the PVV, demonstrated the strongest linkages with restrictive functional indices and could represent a new automated index of disease severity in HP.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca , Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/fisiologia , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/fisiopatologia , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
9.
Eur Respir J ; 50(1)2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679612

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate whether the combination of fibrosis and emphysema has a greater effect than the sum of its parts on functional indices and outcome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), using visual and computer-based (CALIPER) computed tomography (CT) analysis.Consecutive patients (n=272) with a multidisciplinary IPF diagnosis had the extent of interstitial lung disease (ILD) scored visually and by CALIPER. Visually scored emphysema was subcategorised as isolated or mixed with fibrotic lung. The CT scores were evaluated against functional indices forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide (KCO), composite physiologic index (CPI)) and mortality.The presence and extent of emphysema had no impact on survival. Results were maintained following correction for age, gender, smoking status and baseline severity using DLCO, and combined visual emphysema and ILD extent. Visual emphysema quantitation indicated that relative preservation of lung volumes (FVC) resulted from tractionally dilated airways within fibrotic lung, ventilating areas of admixed emphysema (p<0.0001), with no independent effect on FVC from isolated emphysema. Conversely, only isolated emphysema (p<0.0001) reduced gas transfer (DLCO).There is no prognostic impact of emphysema in IPF, beyond that explained by the additive extents of both fibrosis and emphysema. With respect to the location of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema distribution determines the functional effects of emphysema.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/complicações , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/sangue , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Reino Unido , Capacidade Vital
10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 196(9): 1162-1171, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28657784

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema may have artificially preserved lung volumes. OBJECTIVES: In this post hoc analysis, we investigated the relationship between baseline emphysema and fibrosis extents, as well as pulmonary function changes, over 48 weeks. METHODS: Data were pooled from two phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of IFN-γ-1b in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (GIPF-001 [NCT00047645] and GIPF-007 [NCT00075998]). Patients with Week 48 data, baseline high-resolution computed tomographic images, and FEV1/FVC ratios less than 0.8 or greater than 0.9 (<0.7 or >0.9 in GIPF-007), as well as randomly selected patients with ratios of 0.8-0.9 and 0.7-0.8, were included. Changes from baseline in pulmonary function at Week 48 were analyzed by emphysema extent. The relationship between emphysema and fibrosis extents and change in pulmonary function was assessed using multivariate linear regression. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Emphysema was identified in 38% of patients. A negative correlation was observed between fibrosis and emphysema extents (r = -0.232; P < 0.001). In quartile analysis, patients with the greatest emphysema extent (28 to 65%) showed the smallest FVC decline, with a difference of 3.32% at Week 48 versus patients with no emphysema (P = 0.047). In multivariate analyses, emphysema extent greater than or equal to 15% was associated with significantly reduced FVC decline over 48 weeks versus no emphysema or emphysema less than 15%. No such association was observed for diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide or composite physiologic index. CONCLUSIONS: FVC measurements may not be appropriate for monitoring disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema extent greater than or equal to 15%.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/complicações , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 17(1): 81, 2017 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28472939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) has a variable disease course. Computer analysis of CT features was used to identify a subset of CHP patients with an outcome similar to patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: Consecutive patients with a multi-disciplinary team diagnosis of CHP (n = 116) had pulmonary function tests (FEV1, FVC, DLco, Kco, and a composite physiologic index [CPI]) and CT variables predictive of mortality evaluated by analysing visual and computer-based (CALIPER) parenchymal features: total interstitial lung disease (ILD) extent, honeycombing, reticular pattern, ground glass opacities, pulmonary vessel volume (PVV), emphysema, and traction bronchiectasis. Mean survival was compared between both CHP and IPF patients (n = 185). RESULTS: In CHP, visual/CALIPER measures of reticular pattern, honeycombing, visual traction bronchiectasis, and CALIPER ILD extent were predictive of mortality (p < 0 · 05) on univariate analysis. PVV was strongly predictive of mortality on univariate (p < 0 · 0001) and multivariate analysis independent of age, gender and disease severity (represented by the CPI [p < 0 · 01]). CHP patients with a PVV threshold >6 · 5% of the lung had a mean survival (35 · 3 ± 6 · 1 months; n = 20/116 [17%]) and rate of disease progression that closely matched IPF patients (38 · 4 ± 2 · 2 months; n = 185). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary vessel volume can identify CHP patients at risk of aggressive disease and a poor IPF-like prognosis.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico por imagem , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/mortalidade , Volume Sanguíneo , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Alvéolos Pulmonares/irrigação sanguínea , Alvéolos Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Pulmonar , Testes de Função Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(8): 1670-1678, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic value of pulmonary function test (PFT) trends at 1 and 2 years in interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: The prognostic significance of PFT trends at 1 year (n = 162) and 2 years (n = 140) was examined against 15-year survival in patients with SSc-associated ILD. PFT trends, expressed as continuous change and as categorical change in separate analyses, were examined against mortality in univariate and multivariate models. SSc-associated ILD was defined at presentation as either limited lung fibrosis or extensive lung fibrosis, using the United Kingdom Raynaud's and Scleroderma Association severity staging system. RESULTS: One-year PFT trends were predictive of mortality only in patients with extensive lung fibrosis: categorical change in the forced vital capacity (FVC), alone or in combination with categorical change in the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), had greater prognostic significance than continuous change in the FVC or trends in other PFT variables. Taking into account both prognostic value and sensitivity to change, the optimal definition of progression for trial purposes was an FVC and DLco composite end point, consisting of either an FVC decline from baseline of ≥10% or an FVC decline of 5-9% in association with a DLco decline of ≥15%. At 2 years, gas transfer trends had the greatest prognostic significance, in the whole cohort and in those with limited lung fibrosis. However, in patients with extensive lung fibrosis, the above-defined FVC and DLco composite end point was the strongest prognostic determinant. Larger changes in the FVC:DLco ratio than in the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient were required to achieve prognostic significance. CONCLUSION: Based on linkages to long-term outcomes, these findings provide support for use of routine spirometry and gas transfer monitoring in patients with SSc-associated ILD, with further evaluation of a composite FVC and DLco end point warranted for trial purposes.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/mortalidade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reino Unido , Capacidade Vital
15.
Radiology ; 284(1): 255-263, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28182861

RESUMO

Purpose To investigate the prevalence of diffuse pulmonary ossification (DPO) in patients with fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD) and determine whether there are differences among the types of ILDs. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was given and patient consent was not required for this study. The study population comprised 892 consecutive patients with fibrosing ILD, including 456 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (men, 366; women, 90; median age, 72 years [range, 38-93 years]), 244 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (men, 79; women, 165; median age, 60.5 years [range, 23-86 years]), and 192 with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (men, 76; women, 116; median age, 66 years [range, 35-88 years]). Pulmonary ossifications were recorded when nodules (<4 mm diameter) were identified on bone window images (width, 2500 HU; level, 500 HU). DPO was defined as 10 or more bilateral nodular ossifications (definition 1) or as one or more lobes with five or more bilateral nodular ossifications (definition 2). Relationships among pulmonary ossification and parenchymal patterns, clinical parameters, and multidisciplinary team diagnoses were examined. The prevalence of DPO was compared with the χ2 statistic or Fisher exact test, and multivariate analysis was performed with logistic regression. Results In the whole population, the prevalence of DPO was 166 (18.6%) and 106 (11.9%) of 892 patients according to definitions 1 and 2, respectively. The prevalence of DPO (definition 1) was significantly higher in patients with IPF (28.5%) than in those without IPF (8.3%, P < .001). Nine of 192 (4.7%) had chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (P < .001), and 27 of 244 (11.1%) had nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (P < .001). At multivariate analysis, DPO according to definition 1 was an independent predictor of IPF diagnosis (P < .001) and male sex (P = .003). Coarseness of fibrosing ILD (P = .011) and IPF diagnosis (P = .016) were independently associated with pulmonary ossification profusion. Conclusion DPO is common in patients with fibrosing ILD and is significantly more prevalent in patients with IPF than in those with other fibrosing ILDs, and thus, computed tomographic signs of DPO may be helpful for diagnosis of IPF. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossificação Heterotópica/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/epidemiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ossificação Heterotópica/epidemiologia , Prevalência
16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 195(1): 78-85, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27331880

RESUMO

RATIONALE: In the absence of a surgical lung biopsy, patients diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in clinical practice could participate in the INPULSIS trials of nintedanib if they had honeycombing and/or traction bronchiectasis plus reticulation, without atypical features of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Thus, the patients in these trials represented patients with definite UIP and a large subgroup of patients with possible UIP. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the potential impact of diagnostic subgroups on the progression of IPF and the effect of nintedanib. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of patients with honeycombing on HRCT and/or confirmation of UIP by biopsy versus patients without either, using pooled data from the INPULSIS trials. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Seven hundred twenty-three (68.1%) patients had honeycombing and/or biopsy, and 338 (31.9%) patients had no honeycombing or biopsy. In these subgroups, respectively, the adjusted annual rate of decline in FVC in patients treated with placebo was -225.7 and -221.0 ml/yr, and the nintedanib versus placebo difference in the adjusted annual rate of decline in FVC was 117.0 ml/yr (95% confidence interval, 76.3-157.8) and 98.9 ml/yr (95% confidence interval, 36.4-161.5). There was no significant treatment-by-subgroup interaction (P = 0.8139). Adverse events were similar between the subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IPF diagnosed in clinical practice who had possible UIP with traction bronchiectasis on HRCT and had not undergone surgical lung biopsy had disease that progressed in a similar way, and responded similarly to nintedanib, to that of patients with honeycombing on HRCT and/or confirmation of UIP by biopsy.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Biópsia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur Respir J ; 49(1)2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27811068

RESUMO

Computer-based computed tomography (CT) analysis can provide objective quantitation of disease in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). A computer algorithm, CALIPER, was compared with conventional CT and pulmonary function measures of disease severity for mortality prediction.CT and pulmonary function variables (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, forced vital capacity, diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide and composite physiologic index (CPI)) of 283 consecutive patients with a multidisciplinary diagnosis of IPF were evaluated against mortality. Visual and CALIPER CT features included total extent of interstitial lung disease, honeycombing, reticular pattern, ground glass opacities and emphysema. In addition, CALIPER scored pulmonary vessel volume (PVV) while traction bronchiectasis and consolidation were only scored visually. A combination of mortality predictors was compared with the Gender, Age, Physiology model.On univariate analyses, all visual and CALIPER-derived interstitial features and functional indices were predictive of mortality to a 0.01 level of significance. On multivariate analysis, visual CT parameters were discarded. Independent predictors of mortality were CPI (hazard ratio (95% CI) 1.05 (1.02-1.07), p<0.001) and two CALIPER parameters: PVV (1.23 (1.08-1.40), p=0.001) and honeycombing (1.18 (1.06-1.32), p=0.002). A three-group staging system derived from this model was powerfully predictive of mortality (2.23 (1.85-2.69), p<0.0001).CALIPER-derived parameters, in particular PVV, are more accurate prognostically than traditional visual CT scores. Quantitative tools such as CALIPER have the potential to improve staging systems in IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/mortalidade , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Reino Unido , Capacidade Vital
18.
Respirology ; 22(1): 101-107, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a rare and poorly described disease process. In this case-control study, clinical features and findings on HRCT were compared with idiopathic bronchiectasis (IBx). METHODS: A review of all patients attending an adult bronchiectasis clinic between 2007 and 2013 identified 25 YNS patients. IBx patients were matched in a 2:1 ratio for age, duration of symptoms and gender. RESULTS: Median age of onset was 53 years. There were 12 male and 23 Caucasian YNS patients. Respiratory manifestations included chronic productive cough (100%), chronic rhinosinusitis (88%), pleural effusions (20%) and lymphoedema (12%). Chest symptoms preceded yellow nails in the majority (68%). Abnormal nails persisted at follow-up in 23 of 25 patients but improved in 14. In both disorders, there was symmetrical, predominantly lower lobe bronchiectasis on HRCT. Extent (P = 0.04), severity (P = 0.03) and bronchial wall thickness (P = 0.05) scores were lower in YNS, with less upper and middle lobe disease. Multivariate analysis showed an independent association with increased mucus plugging in YNS. There was a similar prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and mild lung function abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Bronchiectasis in YNS is less severe than IBx but is associated with increased mucus plugging, onset is in middle age and there is no female predominance. Treatment targeted at improved secretion clearance may improve both chest and nail symptoms, with consideration of long-term macrolide antibiotics.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome das Unhas Amareladas , Idade de Início , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bronquiectasia/complicações , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/tratamento farmacológico , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Depuração Mucociliar/fisiologia , Muco/metabolismo , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Síndrome das Unhas Amareladas/complicações , Síndrome das Unhas Amareladas/diagnóstico , Síndrome das Unhas Amareladas/epidemiologia , Síndrome das Unhas Amareladas/terapia
19.
BMC Med ; 14(1): 190, 2016 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate computer-based computer tomography (CT) analysis (CALIPER) against visual CT scoring and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) when predicting mortality in patients with connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). To identify outcome differences between distinct CTD-ILD groups derived following automated stratification of CALIPER variables. METHODS: A total of 203 consecutive patients with assorted CTD-ILDs had CT parenchymal patterns evaluated by CALIPER and visual CT scoring: honeycombing, reticular pattern, ground glass opacities, pulmonary vessel volume, emphysema, and traction bronchiectasis. CT scores were evaluated against pulmonary function tests: forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide transfer coefficient, and composite physiologic index for mortality analysis. Automated stratification of CALIPER-CT variables was evaluated in place of and alongside forced vital capacity and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide in the ILD gender, age physiology (ILD-GAP) model using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: Cox regression analyses identified four independent predictors of mortality: patient age (P < 0.0001), smoking history (P = 0.0003), carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (P = 0.003), and pulmonary vessel volume (P < 0.0001). Automated stratification of CALIPER variables identified three morphologically distinct groups which were stronger predictors of mortality than all CT and functional indices. The Stratified-CT model substituted automated stratified groups for functional indices in the ILD-GAP model and maintained model strength (area under curve (AUC) = 0.74, P < 0.0001), ILD-GAP (AUC = 0.72, P < 0.0001). Combining automated stratified groups with the ILD-GAP model (stratified CT-GAP model) strengthened predictions of 1- and 2-year mortality: ILD-GAP (AUC = 0.87 and 0.86, respectively); stratified CT-GAP (AUC = 0.89 and 0.88, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: CALIPER-derived pulmonary vessel volume is an independent predictor of mortality across all CTD-ILD patients. Furthermore, automated stratification of CALIPER CT variables represents a novel method of prognostication at least as robust as PFTs in CTD-ILD patients.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória/mortalidade , Testes de Função Respiratória/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/mortalidade , Percepção Visual
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