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1.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 59, 2020 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triploid organisms have three sets of chromosomes. In Atlantic salmon, hydrostatic pressure treatment of newly fertilized eggs has been extensively used to produce triploids which are functionally sterile due to their unpaired chromosomes. These fish often perform poorly on commercial farms, sometimes without explanation. Inheritance patterns in individuals subjected to pressure treatment have not been investigated in Atlantic salmon thus far. However, work on other species suggests that this treatment can result in aberrant inheritance. We therefore studied this in Atlantic salmon by genotyping 16 polymorphic microsatellites in eyed eggs and juveniles which had been subjected to pressure-induction of triploidy. Communally reared juveniles including fish subjected to pressure-induction of triploidy and their diploid siblings were included as a control. RESULTS: No diploid offspring were detected in any of the eggs or juveniles which were subjected to hydrostatic pressure; therefore, the induction of triploidy was highly successful. Aberrant inheritance was nevertheless observed in 0.9% of the eggs and 0.9% of the juveniles that had been subjected to pressure treatment. In the communally reared fish, 0.3% of the fish subjected to pressure treatment displayed aberrant inheritance, while their diploid controls displayed 0% aberrant inheritance. Inheritance errors included two eyed eggs lacking maternal DNA across all microsatellites, and, examples in both eggs and juveniles of either the maternal or paternal allele lacking in one of the microsatellites. All individuals displaying chromosome aberrations were otherwise triploid. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to document aberrant inheritance in Atlantic salmon that have been subjected to pressure-induction of triploidy. Our experiments unequivocally demonstrate that even when induction of triploidy is highly successful, this treatment can cause chromosome aberrations in this species. Based upon our novel data, and earlier studies in other organisms, we hypothesize that in batches of Atlantic salmon where low to modest triploid induction rates have been reported, aberrant inheritance is likely to be higher than the rates observed here. Therefore, we tentatively suggest that this could contribute to the unexplained poor performance of triploid salmon that is occasionally reported in commercial aquaculture. These hypotheses require further investigation.

2.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(4S): S40, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32465629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Subjective evaluation of medical care and treatment from the patient's perspective is increasingly important. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are "any report of the patient's health condition that comes directly from the patient, without interpretation of the patient's response by a clinician or anyone else" and can comprise information about symptoms, functional status, and quality of life. PROMs have the ability to engage patients meaningfully, give them a voice in their healthcare, and capture their experiences and attitudes. This study explores the perspectives of pediatric solid organ transplant patients, caregivers and healthcare providers on implementing PROMs into clinical practice. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted at five Canadian pediatric transplant centres. Maximum variation sampling was used to provide concurring and confirming data, and ensure saturation. An iterative coding process was applied with constant comparative data analysis to identify themes. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients, 22 caregivers and 20 healthcare providers participated. Nearly all participants (n = 59, 95%) were supportive of implementing PROMs with the primary goals to 1) enhance patient-provider communication - "Opens conversations"; "[Patients] state what they're feeling", and 2) increase patient engagement - "Like you're part of the team". Participants discussed the potential impact of PROMs as the provision of preventative - "You'll be proactive", and holistic care - "You cannot separate medical from other aspects. [Patients] are struggling from a mental health perspective". Participants identified selected PROMs, the PedsQLTM Generic Core Scales - "Covers aspects I wouldn't usually include in my assessment" and the PedsQLTM Transplant Module - "More related to transplant patients". Recommendations included 1) PROM data collection for patients eight years of age and older, 2) remote administration and completion of electronic PROMs, prior to clinical appointments, and 3) visual data representation. CONCLUSION: Findings highlight support for the implementation of PROMs into pediatric solid organ transplantation. Future research is needed to develop implementation strategies to effectively integrate PROMs into clinical workflow and assess the impact on patient health outcomes.

3.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(4S): S460-S461, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32465805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pediatric heart transplant (PHTx) patients require life-long medication and follow up. Adolescents are a vulnerable population with multifactorial reasons for non-adherence to their medical needs. Adherence may depend on the cognitive skills required to plan and to self-regulate, referred to as executive function (EF). Deficits in EF are associated with medication non-adherence. Facilitating consistent communication between adolescents and their health care providers (HCP) via a short messaging service (SMS) platform allows for regular communication and may improve quality of life (QoL) and medication compliance. METHODS: In collaboration with WelTel, we have implemented a secure, healthcare-specific SMS platform for PHTx aged 12-18 years. At enrollment, EF was assessed by both patient and parent reports using the BRIEF2 (reported global executive composite (GEC) T-score). PedsQL questionnaires and surveys to assess patient engagement with the SMS platform were measured at enrollment and will be reassessed after 1 year. Change in serum immunosuppression levels from baseline to 1 year post SMS intervention will be used as a surrogate measure of medication compliance. Patient response rate and number of care conversations (≥3 messages) were reviewed. RESULTS: We report preliminary data on 17 eligible PHTx. Eight have enrolled, 9 in total did not due to a lack of interest (n=2), no access to a cellular phone (n=5), and developmental delay (n=2). At baseline the BRIEF2 did not demonstrate any clinically significant abnormalities in EF, with all scores below the threshold of 70 (mean patient GEC T-score = 52.4, range 39-68; mean parent GEC T-score = 50, range 39-61). Median baseline QoL score was 85 (Range 70-98; healthy adolescents= 83+/-15). Patients have been connected to the SMS network for a median duration of 3.4 months (1.2 - 8.0 months) and there have been a total of 551 messages with 89 that have consisted of a conversation of ≥3 messages. CONCLUSION: We present a novel mode of communication between adolescent PHTx and their healthcare providers. At baseline there is no impairment in EF and QoL is consistent with healthy adolescents. Patients that are enrolled have demonstrated frequent communication using the SMS platform since its introduction. The long-term impact of increased communication on QoL and medication compliance will be reviewed after 1 year.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: During the last decades several methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones with the capability of global spread have emerged in the community. Here, we have investigated a large collection of clinical isolates belonging to MRSA clone t304/ST6, which has emerged in many European countries over the last years, in order to retrace its phylogeny and its spread. METHODS: We characterized 466 ST6 isolates from Denmark (n = 354), France (n = 10), Norway (n = 24), Sweden (n = 27) and the UK (n = 51). All had spa-type t304 (n = 454) or t304-related spa-types (n = 12) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) was carried out on Illumina Miseq or Hiseq with 100-300 bp reads. cgMLST was performed using Ridom SeqSphere. RESULTS: A minimum spanning tree (MST) of all 466 isolates showed one large cluster including 182 isolates collected only from Denmark and related to a long-term neonatal outbreak in Copenhagen. This cluster contrasted with numerous small clusters, including the remaining Danish isolates and isolates from the other countries that interspersed throughout the tree. Most isolates were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) negative (95%) and harboured SCCmec IVa. One genome was closed using Oxford Nanopore technology and Illumina MiSeq. It contained a plasmid of 19.769 bp including the blaZ gene. A similar plasmid was found in 78% of all isolates. DISCUSSION: t304/ST6 is a successful emerging clone and the fact that isolates from five countries are interspersed throughout the MST indicates a common origin. This clone is commonly described in the Middle East and its emergence in Europe coincides with influx of refugees from the Syrian Civil War.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 227, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937854

RESUMO

Metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is associated with high mortality, where monitoring of disease activity is still a major clinical challenge. The role of microRNAs (miRs) has been widely investigated in prostate cancer with both diagnostic and prognostic potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating miRs and treatment outcome in mCRPC patients. The relative expression of five miRs (miR-93-5p, -125b-1-5p, -141-3p, -221-3p, and miR-375-3p) was investigated in plasma samples from 84 mCRPC patients; 40 patients were treated with docetaxel (DOC cohort) and 44 patients with abiraterone (ABI cohort). Blood was sampled at baseline before treatment start and at radiological progression. The plasma levels of four miRs; miR-93-5p, -141-3p, -221-3p, and miR-375-3p decreased significantly after treatment initiation in patients receiving docetaxel, and for miR-141-3p and miR-375-3p the level increased again at the time of radiological progression. In the patients treated with abiraterone, the plasma level of miR-221-3p likewise decreased significantly after the first treatment cycle. High baseline levels of both miR-141-3p and miR-375-3p were significantly associated with a shorter time to radiological progression in both cohorts. Additionally, high baseline levels of miR-141-3p and miR-221-3p were significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (OS) in the ABI cohort, while high levels of miR-141-3p and miR-375-3p were significantly associated with shorter OS in the DOC cohort. Plasma levels of miR-141-3p and miR-375-3p may predict time to progression in mCRPC patients treated with docetaxel or abiraterone. The clinical impact of these findings is dependent on validation in larger cohorts.

8.
Conserv Physiol ; 7(1): coz072, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723431

RESUMO

High salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation levels resulting from intensive salmonid sea-cage aquaculture can threaten populations of wild salmonid hosts. This includes anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), which rely on short migrations into more productive seawater environments to build energy stores for maturation, spawning and over-wintering in freshwater. Elevated salmon lice burdens may limit the benefits of migration by constraining osmoregulation, growth, survival and reproduction. To test for these effects, we simulated anadromous migration in tanks by transferring individually tagged Arctic char smolts (n = 352, averaging 133 g) to seawater where they were infected with salmon lice or left as uninfected controls for 1 month, and then transferring them back to freshwater for 2 months. After the seawater phase, infected post-smolts had a mean of 0.33 (range of 0.09-0.91) mobile lice g-1 fish weight. At this point, specific growth rates (SGRs) dropped in infected compared to control fish (0.1% vs. 1.6% day-1). Higher plasma Na+ and osmolality in infected fish also indicate osmoregulatory impairment. Throughout the study, mortality was 18.2% and 1.7% in infected and control groups, but sexual maturation was low and comparable between groups. Infection intensity correlated positively with mortality rate and plasma Cl-, and correlated negatively with SGR and condition factor (CF). CF dropped (ΔCF < 0) at intensities of >0.09 lice g-1 fish weight, and intensities of >0.3 causing zero or negative SGRs and increased mortality were particularly concerning. If infection intensities reach these levels in the wild, char could be impacted by growth restrictions and increased mortality rates, which potentially cause shorter migration durations, lowered reproductive success and possibly also selection against anadromy. This study provides vital information for conservation practitioners wanting to understand the physiologically derived burden salmon lice can have on Arctic char populations, and can be used to define thresholds in the monitoring and conservation of Arctic char populations affected by aquaculture-driven salmon lice infestations.

9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 108: 150-154, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284079

RESUMO

Increasing evidence shows that latent infections and inflammation is associated with cognitive and behavioral changes in humans. This case-control study investigates the association between Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) infection and C-reactive Protein (CRP) levels, and psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. Public health register data from 81,912 participants in the Danish Blood Donor Study, were reviewed to identify individuals registered with an ICD-10 code of any psychiatric diagnosis, or who had attempted or committed suicide. We found 1,504 psychiatric cases and 353 suicidal cases; for all cases, controls were frequency-matched by age and sex, resulting in 5,336 participants. Plasma samples were analyzed for IgG-class antibodies against HSV-1 and CRP. HSV-1 infection was associated with suicidal behavior (odds-ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.77). Accounting for temporality, HSV-1 infection was associated with having first psychiatric disorder after the date of blood collection (incidence rate ration, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.05-1.95). No association between CRP and psychiatric disorders or suicidal behavior was found. The finding that HSV-1 was associated with suicidal behavior and first psychiatric disorder indicates that infection may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of suicidal behavior and development of psychiatric disorders.

10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 25(10): 1277-1285, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sample preparation for high-throughput sequencing (HTS) includes treatment with various laboratory components, potentially carrying viral nucleic acids, the extent of which has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim was to systematically examine a diverse repertoire of laboratory components used to prepare samples for HTS in order to identify contaminating viral sequences. METHODS: A total of 322 samples of mainly human origin were analysed using eight protocols, applying a wide variety of laboratory components. Several samples (60% of human specimens) were processed using different protocols. In total, 712 sequencing libraries were investigated for viral sequence contamination. RESULTS: Among sequences showing similarity to viruses, 493 were significantly associated with the use of laboratory components. Each of these viral sequences had sporadic appearance, only being identified in a subset of the samples treated with the linked laboratory component, and some were not identified in the non-template control samples. Remarkably, more than 65% of all viral sequences identified were within viral clusters linked to the use of laboratory components. CONCLUSIONS: We show that high prevalence of contaminating viral sequences can be expected in HTS-based virome data and provide an extensive list of novel contaminating viral sequences that can be used for evaluation of viral findings in future virome and metagenome studies. Moreover, we show that detection can be problematic due to stochastic appearance and limited non-template controls. Although the exact origin of these viral sequences requires further research, our results support laboratory-component-linked viral sequence contamination of both biological and synthetic origin.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Vírus/genética
11.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 34(9): 1565-1574, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The validity of pediatric estimated glomerular filtration rate equations (eGFRs) in early stages of CKD including hyperfiltration is unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop an eGFR equation for adolescents with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: eGFRs were developed from iohexol-derived GFRs (iGFRs) in 26 overweight/obese (BMI > 85th percentile) youth and 100 with T2D from the iCARE (Improving renal Complications in Adolescents with T2D through REsearch) cohort. Twenty percent of the cohort was withheld as a validation dataset. Linear regression analyses were used to develop the best formula based on body size, sex, creatinine, urea, ± cystatin C. Comparable validity of commonly used eGFR equations was assessed. RESULTS: Mean age 15.4 + 2.4 years, BMI Z-score 2.5 + 1.2, 61% female, and mean iGFR 129.0 + 27.7 ml/min/ 1.73 m2. The best adjusted eGFR formula (ml/min/1.73 m2) was 50.7 × BSA0.816 × (height (cm)/creatinine)0.405 × 0.8994 if sex = female | 1 otherwise. It resulted in 53.8% of eGFRs within 10% of measured iGFR and 96.2% within 30%. Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement in the external dataset were - 37.6 to 45.5 ml/min/1.73m2 (bias = 3.96), and the correlation was 0.62. This equation performed better than all previously published creatinine-based eGFRs. cystatin C did not significantly improve results; however, some other cystatin C formulas also performed well. CONCLUSIONS: The iCARE equation provides a more accurate creatinine-based eGFR in obese youth with and without T2D. Further studies are warranted to evaluate within-subject variability and applicability to lower GFRs and other populations.

12.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 198(1): 94-100, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104331

RESUMO

Despite improvements in treatment, coronary artery disease is still responsible for one-third of all deaths globally, due predominantly to myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. There is an important potential in developing new strategies for treatment of patients with these conditions. Inflammation, and in particular the actions of the complement system, has emerged as part of the pathogenesis in reperfusion injury in patients with MI. To further qualify this, we examined the association between the plasma levels of lectin pathway proteins and myocardial end-points, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size in a cohort of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A blood sample was drawn the day after percutaneous coronary intervention from 73 patients with STEMI. The primary end-points, LVEF and infarct size, were measured with magnetic resonance imaging 6-9 days after the infarct. Complement pattern-recognition molecules of the lectin pathway (mannan-binding lectin, H-ficolin, L-ficolin and M-ficolin) were analysed along with soluble membrane attack complex (sMAC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma with immunofluorometric assays <50%. CRP correlated negatively with LVEF, regression coefficient = -0·17 (P = 0·01). None of the lectin pathway proteins correlated to LVEF or infarct size, nor did soluble membrane attack complex (sMAC). There were no differences in plasma levels of these complement proteins when comparing patients with ejection fraction <50% to patients with ejection fraction <50%. Pattern-recognition molecules of the lectin pathway and sMAC do not predict short-term cardiac outcomes after MI.

13.
Pathologe ; 40(5): 529-533, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937513

RESUMO

We report a 78-year-old male patient suffering from hairy cell leukemia, presenting clinically mainly with dyspnea. Radiology exhibited bilateral ground-glass shadows. In order to prevent pneumonia as a possible side effect due to conventional chemotherapy, it was decided to first treat the patient with rituximab; however, dyspnea persisted. Therefore, bronchoscopy was performed and specimens were sampled for both histological examination and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis. BAL showed lymphocytosis (28.7%), and by means of immunocytochemistry a few CD79a+ B­lymphocytes as well as lymphoid cells positive for the hairy cell marker DBA44 were observed. In addition, molecular study revealed the BRAF V600E mutation. Thus, the findings of BAL were interpreted as lung infiltration by hairy cell leukemia. This result was confirmed by histology. Following a therapy switch to cladribine, a significant improvement was reached. Pulmonary infiltrates by hairy cell leukemia were rarely described. This case represents the first report of hairy cell leukemia diagnosed by means of BAL. It may be difficult to clearly separate between lymphoma infiltration of the lung and medicamentous pneumonitis, but this differential diagnosis can be supported by morphological methods.


Assuntos
Leucemia de Células Pilosas , Pneumonia , Idoso , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/métodos , Broncoscopia/instrumentação , Humanos , Pulmão
14.
Dis Esophagus ; 32(10): 1-6, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561570

RESUMO

Modern treatment of esophageal cancer is multimodal and highly dependent on a detailed diagnostic assessment of clinical stage, which includes nodal stage. Clinical appraisal of nodal stage is highly dependent on knowledge of normal radiological appearance, information of which is scarce. We aimed to describe lymph node appearance on computed tomography (CT) investigations in a randomly selected cohort of healthy subjects. In a sample of the Swedish Cardiopulmonary bioimage study, which investigates a sample of the Swedish population aged 50-64 years, the CT scans of 426 subjects were studied in detail concerning intrathoracic node stations relevant in clinical staging of esophageal cancer. With stratification for sex, the short axis of visible lymph nodes was measured and the distribution of lymph node sizes was calculated as well as proportion of patients with visible nodes above 5 and 10 millimeters for each station. Probability of having any lymph node station above 5 and 10 millimeters was calculated with a logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex. In the 214 men (aged: 57.3 ± 4.1 years) and 212 women (aged: 57.8 ± 4.4 years) included in this study, a total of 309 (72.5%) had a lymph node with a short axis of 5 mm or above was seen in at least one of the node stations investigated. When using 10 mm as a cutoff, nodes were visible in 29 (6.81%) of the subjects. Men had higher odds of having any lymph node with short axis 5 mm or above (OR 3.03 95% CI 1.89-4.85, P < 0.001) as well as 10 mm or above (OR 2.31 95% CI 1.02-5.23, P = 0.044) compared to women. Higher age was not associated with propensity for lymph nodes above 5 or 10 millimeters in this sample. We conclude that, in a randomly selected cohort of patients between 50 and 64 years, almost 10% of the men and 4% of the women had lymph nodes above 10 millimeters, most frequently in the subcarinal station (station 107). More than half of the patients had nodes above 5 millimeters on CT and men were much more prone to have this finding. The probability of finding lymph nodes in specific stations relevant of esophageal cancer is now described.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Suécia
16.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 30(12): 798-804, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206022

RESUMO

AIMS: Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal-derived neoplasm that can arise in any anatomical location in the body. SFT rarely metastasises, but aggressive behaviour is seen in a minority of cases, and relapses can occur several years after treatment. It would be a clinical advantage if high-risk patients could be identified before treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed a population-based cohort of SFT to describe treatment, outcome, prognostic factors and to further validate a previously published risk assessment tool (D-score) based on age, tumour size and mitotic index. Seventy-two patients diagnosed with SFT in the Central, North and Southern Denmark regions between 1979 and 2013 were included in the study. RESULTS: For patients with localised disease at the time of diagnosis (n = 64) the 5 and 10 year overall survival was 86% (95% confidence interval 74-92) and 65% (95% confidence interval 50-78), respectively. Seventeen of 62 patients (27%) who were in remission after radical treatment developed recurrence with either local or distant disease. The 5 year recurrence-free survival was 83% (95% confidence interval 70-90) and the 10 year was 69% (95% confidence interval 53-81). The 5 year local recurrence-free survival was 96% (95% confidence interval 86-99) and the 10 year was 92% (95% confidence interval 76-96). The median time to both overall recurrence and local recurrence was 4.3 years. Metastatic or inoperable SFT had a poor prognosis with a median overall survival of 8.4 months (range 3.6-26.4) and a 5 year overall survival of 11% (95% confidence interval 2-30). A further validation of a risk assessment tool (D-score) confirmed that patients classified as high-risk had a significantly decreased overall survival, with a hazard ratio of 3.7 (95% confidence interval 1.1-12.3). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that our management and outcome were comparable with other published studies describing SFT and confirmed the value of the D-score as a risk assessment tool. Because of late recurrences, long-term (e.g. 10 years) follow-up for moderate- and high-risk patients is recommended.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Tumores Fibrosos Solitários/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tumores Fibrosos Solitários/terapia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Org Biomol Chem ; 16(36): 6818-6823, 2018 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204204

RESUMO

Protectin D1 is a specialized pro-resolving mediator with potent pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo in several human disease models. Herein the preparation of the first synthetic analog of protectin D1, named 22-F-PD1, is presented together with data from in vivo investigations. This analog showed potent pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory properties. These results inspired the preparation of the radiotracer 22-[18F]F-PD1-ME that was used in a positron emission tomography proof of concept study. Altogether, the findings presented contribute to new knowledge on the biomolecular properties of protectin D1 analogs. In addition, an improved formal synthesis of the metabolite 22-OH-PD1 is reported.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/síntese química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Traçadores Radioativos
18.
J Intern Med ; 284(5): 464-477, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101502

RESUMO

In this review, we describe the extraordinary population of Greenland, which differs from large outbred populations of Europe and Asia, both in terms of population history and living conditions. Many years in isolation, small population size and an extreme environment have shaped the genetic composition of the Greenlandic population. The unique genetic background combined with the transition from a traditional Inuit lifestyle and diet, to a more Westernized lifestyle, has led to an increase in the prevalence of metabolic conditions like obesity, where the prevalence from 1993 to 2010 has increased from 16.4% to 19.4% among men, and from 13.0% to 25.4% among women, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The genetic susceptibility to metabolic conditions has been explored in Greenlanders, as well as other isolated populations, taking advantage of population-genetic properties of these populations. During the last 10 years, these studies have provided examples of loci showing evidence of positive selection, due to adaption to Arctic climate and Inuit diet, including TBC1D4 and FADS/CPT1A, and have facilitated the discovery of several loci associated with metabolic phenotypes. Most recently, the c.2433-1G>A loss-of-function variant in ADCY3 associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes was described. This locus has provided novel biological insights, as it has been shown that reduced ADCY3 function causes obesity through disrupted function in primary cilia. Future studies of isolated populations will likely provide further genetic as well as biological insights.


Assuntos
Inuítes/genética , Metabolismo/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Groenlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade/genética
19.
Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv ; 74(Pt 4): 357-372, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978846

RESUMO

This article reviews the Markov theoretic description of one-dimensional aperiodic crystals, describing the stacking-faulted crystal polytype as a special case of an aperiodic crystal. Under this description the centrosymmetric unit cell underlying a topologically centrosymmetric crystal is generalized to a reversible Markov chain underlying a reversible aperiodic crystal. It is shown that for the close-packed structure almost all stackings are irreversible when the interaction reichweite s > 4. Moreover, the article presents an analytic expression of the scattering cross section of a large class of stacking-disordered aperiodic crystals, lacking translational symmetry of their layers, including ice and opaline silica (opal CT). The observed stackings and their underlying reichweite are then related to the physics of various nucleation and growth processes of disordered ice. The article discusses how the derived expressions of scattering cross sections could significantly improve implementations of Rietveld's refinement scheme and compares this Q-space approach with the pair-distribution function analysis of stacking-disordered materials.

20.
Diabet Med ; 35(11): 1596-1604, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29999549

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and bone metabolism in people with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We assessed cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in 329 people with Type 1 diabetes according to heart rate response to deep breathing, to standing and to the Valsalva manoeuvre, and 2-min resting heart rate. More than one pathological non-resting test was defined as cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Bone mineral density of the femoral neck (BMDfn) was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum parathyroid hormone levels and other bone markers were measured. RESULTS: The mean (sd) age of the participants was 55.6 (9.4) years, 52% were men, and the mean (sd) diabetes duration was 40 (8.9) years, HbA1c 62 (9) mmol/mol and estimated GFR 78 (26) ml/min/1.73m2 . In all, 36% had cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Participants with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy had 4.2% (95% CI -8.0 to -0.2; P=0.038) lower BMDfn and 33.6% (95% CI 14.3 to 53.8; P=0.0002) higher parathyroid hormone levels compared with participants without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in adjusted models. Higher resting heart rate remained associated with higher parathyroid hormone level and lower BMDfn after additional adjustment for eGFR (P<0.0001 and P = 0.042, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was associated with reduced BMDfn and increased levels of parathyroid hormone. Kidney function may either confound or mediate these findings. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy could be associated with increased risk of osteoporosis in Type 1 diabetes. Whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy directly affects bone metabolism detrimentally or if this association is mediated via decreased kidney function should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/epidemiologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/complicações , Densidade Óssea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Angiopatias Diabéticas/complicações , Angiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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