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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405734

RESUMO

This study aimed to clarify the diagnostic and prognostic potential of strain rate in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (SAP). Strain rate by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) has been suggested to be able to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) and predict cardiovascular events in various patient groups. Prospectively enrolled patients (n = 296) with suspected SAP, no previous cardiac disease, and normal left ventricular ejection fraction were examined by 2DSTE, exercise ECG, and coronary angiography. Obstructive CAD was defined as stenosis ≥ 70% in ≥ 1 coronary artery on coronary angiography (n = 107). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) included myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. In multivariable analysis adjusted for baseline data, conventional echocardiography, and Duke score, early diastolic strain rate (SRe) was independently associated with significant CAD with a 1.35 increased risk of having CAD per 0.1 decrease in SRe (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.03-1.76, P = 0.027). Peak velocity of early diastolic filling (E)/SRe was not associated with significant CAD (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.81-1.62, P = 0.445). MACE occurred in 34 patients (12%) during follow-up (median 3.5 years) and both SRe (HR 1.26, 95% CI (1.07-1.49), P = 0.006) and E/SRe (HR 1.24, 95% CI (1.04-1.47), P = 0.017) were independent predictors after multivariable adjustment. In patients with suspected SAP, SRe by 2DSTE was independently associated with presence of CAD. In addition, SRe and E/SRe provided independent and incremental prognostic value for predicting future MACE.

2.
Biol Reprod ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401311

RESUMO

Uterine infection is associated with infertility in women and dairy cows, even after the resolution of infection. However, the mechanisms causing this persistent infertility are unclear. Here, we hypothesized that induced endometritis in non-lactating dairy cows would reduce the developmental competence of oocytes. Non-lactating Holstein cows received an intrauterine infusion of endometrial pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes; n = 12) or vehicle control (n = 11) on day 2 of the estrous cycle. Bacterial infusion increased expression of endometrial inflammatory mediators, and a mucopurulent discharge in the vagina confirmed the establishment of endometritis. Oocytes were collected by transvaginal ultrasound guided ovum pick-up on day 2, 24, 45, and 66 following infusion, and subjected to in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Bacterial infusion resulted in fewer cleaved oocytes developing to morulae compared to vehicle-infused controls (30.7% versus 45.0%), with the greatest effect observed in oocytes collected on day 24. Development to morula was inversely correlated with endometrial expression of IL6 on day 6. The expression of genes associated with embryo quality did not differ significantly between morulae from bacteria-infused and control cows. Artificial insemination 130 days after intrauterine infusion resulted in normal, filamentous embryos that produced interferon-tau 16 days after conception in both infusion groups. This model of experimentally induced uterine infection successfully resulted in endometritis and a reduction in the proportion of oocytes that developed to morulae following in vitro fertilization. In conclusion, endometritis reduced the capacity of oocytes to develop to morulae.

3.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; : 1-19, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364438

RESUMO

Aging baby boomers are expected to provide a large reservoir for the nonprofit sector. We find evidence which while broadly supportive of this idea also suggest limitations as to what can realistically be expected. Using data from the third (2017) wave of the Norwegian life-course, aging, and generation study (n = 2,993, age 53-71), we find that a sizable proportion is already engaged (65-68% in the past year) and around half of non-volunteers (from 58% among the youngest to 43% among the oldest) express interest in volunteering. However, most volunteering is sporadic and less than half of volunteers participate on a weekly basis. Furthermore, most of the non-volunteers who express interest seem unlikely to realize their interest as they simultaneously report important motivational and ability-related barriers to volunteering. A further challenge is that few boomers are willing to make a major commitment to volunteering. Findings suggest that to mobilize boomers, nonprofit organizations need to accommodate more self-interested and flexible forms of involvement.

4.
Int Heart J ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350205

RESUMO

In studies on left-sided valve disease, patients with combined lesions are generally excluded. We aimed to describe the clinical management and prognosis of patients with combined left-sided valve disease.From a single, tertiary care center, a total of 122 patients with combined left-sided valve disease of at least moderate severity were identified and compared with 143 controls with single-lesion valve disease (1VaD) of at least moderate severity. Endpoints were all-cause mortality and the combination of valve intervention and mortality.Overall survival for patients with two-lesion valve disease was significantly lower than that for patients with 1VaD (estimated 3-year survival: 52% versus 73%, P < 0.001). Compared with 1VaD, the combination of aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation (AS/AR) was associated with a similar overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI) ): 0.83 (0.47-1.48), P = 0.53), the combination of AR and mitral regurgitation (AR/MR) with an intermediate survival (HR (95% CI): 1.76 (1.03-3.00), P = 0.039) and the combination of AS and MR (AS/MR) with the poorest survival (HR (95% CI): 3.28 (2.16-4.98), P < 0.001). At 2.2 years of follow-up, the majority of patients in all three groups were either dead or had received valve intervention (AS/AR: 72%, AR/MR: 64%, and AS/MR: 80%).Combined valve disease was relatively rare but was associated with a decreased overall survival. Survival depended on the specific combination of valve lesions, with AS/MR carrying the worst prognosis. The majority of patients in all groups were either dead or had valve intervention performed within 2.2 years.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227263

RESUMO

Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) formation is a dangerous complication to acute myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that regional longitudinal strain impairment is associated with LVT formation. We included 373 prospectively enrolled patients with ST-segment elevation MI. All patients had an echocardiogram performed a median of 2 days post-MI. Using logistic regression, we investigated the relation between LVT and left ventricular (LV) speckle tracking, conventional echocardiographic measures and well-known echocardiographic features of LVT formation including LV smoke, aneurysm and valvular regurgitation. Overall, the mean age was 62 years of age, 75% were men, 5% had prior MI, and 48% had anterior infarcts. Mean LVEF was 46% and global longitudinal strain (GLS) was - 12%. Of 373 patients, 31 (8%) developed LVT on echocardiograms. Patients with LVT more frequently had anterior infarcts, prior MI, lower LVEF, lower e', lower GLS and regional strain, and these were all associated with LVT formation in univariable analyses. In multivariable analysis (including anterior infarcts, prior MI, LVEF, e'), GLS and regional strain remained independently associated with LVT formation (GLS: OR = 1.17 (1.00-1.36), midventricular strain: OR = 1.19 (1.03-1.38), apical strain: OR = 1.12 (1.00-1.25), per 1% absolute decrease, p < 0.05 for all]. In a combined diagnostic model, including anterior infarct, impaired LVEF (< 42%) and apical strain (>  - 8%), the sensitivity and negative predictive value was 100%, with a specificity and positive predictive value of 38 and 13%, respectively. In MI patients, non-anterior infarct, preserved LVEF and apical strain can rule out LVT formation. Reduced apical strain indicates a markedly increased LVT risk.

7.
Nat Genet ; 52(5): 482-493, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341526

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying brain complex traits. We show that psychiatric disorders are predominantly associated with projecting excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Neurological diseases were associated with different cell types, which is consistent with other lines of evidence. Notably, Parkinson's disease was genetically associated not only with cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons (which include dopaminergic neurons) but also with enteric neurons and oligodendrocytes. Using post-mortem brain transcriptomic data, we confirmed alterations in these cells, even at the earliest stages of disease progression. Our study provides an important framework for understanding the cellular basis of complex brain maladies, and reveals an unexpected role of oligodendrocytes in Parkinson's disease.

8.
Chemistry ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154603

RESUMO

The inverse electron demand Diels-Alder pyridazine elimination reaction between tetrazines and allylic substituted trans -cyclooctenes (TCOs) is a key player in bioorthogonal bond cleavage reactions. Determining the rate of elimination on alkylamine substrates has so far proven difficult. Here, we report a fluorogenic tool consisting of a TCO-linked EDANS fluorophore and a DABCYL quencher for accurate detection of both the click and release rates for any tetrazine at physiologically relevant concentrations.

9.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 182(7)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138811

RESUMO

The treatment of malignant bone tumours in children has improved significantly over the past 50 years. Previously, the only curative treatment was amputation, but today the surgical treatment has changed towards limb salvage surgery. However, there is not consensus regarding choice of surgical procedure, and it is mainly based upon the surgeon's previous experience. This review describes four reconstructive methods: rotationplasty, free vascularised fibula graft, bone transport and expandable endoprosthesis. All four methods are suitable surgical options with satisfactory functional outcome, though they vary in complications and revision rates.

10.
Transfusion ; 60(3): 553-560, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occasionally blood donation has a negative influence on some donors, while others express feelings of increased energy or wellbeing after donation. Some donors even report symptoms such as headache or feelings of unease indicating "it is time to donate blood again." This study aims to determine symptoms and frequencies of blood donors experiencing positive and negative effects of blood donation, and study possible associations with sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, and hemoglobin level. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We developed and validated a questionnaire with eight predefined physical and psychological symptoms related to blood donation using a 5-point Likert Scale. Participants in The Danish Blood Donor Study were asked to indicate if they experienced the present symptom prior to and/or after the donation. RESULTS: A total of 6,073 donors were included. Of the donors, 61% experienced one or more effects of blood donation. Positive effects were experienced by 18% of the donors, 29% experienced negative effects, and 14% experienced both. Most notable positive effects were alleviated headache (14%), feeling lighter (14%), and less tiredness (7%). Most notable negative effects were less energy (25%), more dizziness (22%), and more tiredness (21%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive effects were more likely among donors with higher BMI, older donors, and smokers. Negative effects were more likely among younger donors, donors with lower BMI, and among female donors. CONCLUSION: Analyses indicate that susceptibility to blood donation effects varies by BMI, sex, smoking status, and age, and therefore should be taken into consideration when informing donors about potential effects of blood donation.

11.
Neurogenetics ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076896

RESUMO

The most recent genome-wide association study of migraine increased the total number of known migraine risk loci to 38. Still, most of the heritability of migraine remains unexplained, and it has been suggested that rare gene dysregulatory variants play an important role in migraine etiology. Addressing the missing heritability of migraine, we aim to fine-map signals from the known migraine risk loci to regulatory mechanisms and associate these to downstream genic targets. We analyzed a large cohort of whole-genome sequenced patients from extended migraine pedigrees (1040 individuals from 155 families). We test for association between rare variants segregating in regulatory regions with migraine. The findings were replicated in an independent case-control cohort (2027 migraineurs, 1650 controls). We report an increased burden of rare variants in one CpG island and three polycomb group response elements near four migraine risk loci. We found that the association is independent of the common risk variants in the loci. The regulatory regions are suggested to affect different genes than those originally tagged by the index SNPs of the migraine loci. Families with familial clustering of migraine have an increased burden of rare variants in regulatory regions near known migraine risk loci, with effects that are independent of the variants in the loci. The possible regulatory targets suggest different genes than those originally tagged by the index SNPs of the migraine loci.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(5): 453-463, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS), coronary pathology may range from structurally normal vessels to severe coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test if coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) may be used to exclude coronary artery stenosis ≥50% in patients with NSTEACS. METHODS: The VERDICT (Very Early Versus Deferred Invasive Evaluation Using Computerized Tomography in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes) trial (NCT02061891) evaluated the outcome of patients with confirmed NSTEACS randomized 1:1 to very early (within 12 h) or standard (48 to 72 h) invasive coronary angiography (ICA). As an observational component of the trial, a clinically blinded coronary CTA was conducted prior to ICA in both groups. The primary endpoint was the ability of coronary CTA to rule out coronary artery stenosis (≥50% stenosis) in the entire population, expressed as the negative predictive value (NPV), using ICA as the reference standard. RESULTS: Coronary CTA was conducted in 1,023 patients-very early, 2.5 h (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.8 to 4.2 h), n = 583; and standard, 59.9 h (IQR: 38.9 to 86.7 h); n = 440 after the diagnosis of NSTEACS was made. A coronary stenosis ≥50% was found by coronary CTA in 68.9% and by ICA in 67.4% of the patients. Per-patient NPV of coronary CTA was 90.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.8% to 94.1%) and the positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity were 87.9% (95% CI: 85.3% to 90.1%), 96.5% (95% CI: 94.9% to 97.8%) and 72.4% (95% CI: 67.2% to 77.1%), respectively. NPV was not influenced by patient characteristics or clinical risk profile and was similar in the very early and the standard strategy group. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary CTA has a high diagnostic accuracy to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease in patients with NSTEACS.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate precise age-specific tubo-ovarian carcinoma (TOC) and breast cancer (BC) risks for carriers of pathogenic variants in RAD51C and RAD51D. METHODS: We analysed data from 6178 families, 125 with pathogenic variants in RAD51C; and 6690 families, 60 with pathogenic variants in RAD51D. TOC and BC relative and cumulative risks were estimated using complex segregation analysis to model the cancer inheritance patterns in families, while adjusting for the mode of ascertainment of each family. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in both RAD51C and RAD51D were associated with TOC (RAD51C RR = 7.55, 95%CI:5.60-10.19, p = 5 × 10-40; RAD51D RR = 7.60, 95%CI:5.61-10.30, p = 5 × 10-39) and BC (RAD51C RR = 1.99, 95%CI:1.39-2.85, p = 1.55 × 10-4; RAD51D RR = 1.83, 95%CI:1.24-2.72, p = 0.002). For both RAD51C and RAD51D, there was a suggestion that the TOC RRs increased with age until around age 60 years and decreased thereafter. The estimated cumulative risks of developing TOC to age 80 were 11% (95%CI:6-21%) for RAD51C and 13% (95%CI:7-23%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. The estimated cumulative risks of developing BC to 80 were 21% (95%CI:15-29%) for RAD51C and 20% (95%CI:14-28%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. Both TOC and BC risks for RAD51C/D pathogenic variant carriers varied by cancer family history, and could be as high as 32-36% for TOC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with TOC; or 44-46% for BC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with BC. CONCLUSIONS: These estimates will facilitate the genetic counselling of RAD51C and RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers and justify the incorporation of RAD51C and RAD51D into cancer risk prediction models.

15.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015533

RESUMO

Amongst the more than 18 different forms of water ice, only the common hexagonal phase and the cubic phase are present in nature on Earth. Nonetheless, it is now widely recognized that all samples of 'cubic ice' discovered so far do not have a fully cubic crystal structure but instead are stacking-disordered forms of ice I (namely, ice Isd), which contain both hexagonal and cubic stacking sequences of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. Here, we describe a method to obtain large quantities of cubic ice Ic with high structural purity. Cubic ice Ic is formed by heating a powder of D2O ice XVII obtained from annealing of pristine C0 hydrate samples under dynamic vacuum. Neutron diffraction experiments performed on two different instruments and Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm the structural purity of the cubic ice, Ic. These findings contribute to a better understanding of ice I polymorphism and the existence of the two natural ice forms.

16.
Eur J Pain ; 24(4): 783-790, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the pain field, it is essential to quantify nociceptive responses. The response to the application of von Frey filaments to the skin measures tactile sensitivity and is a surrogate marker of allodynia in states of peripheral and/or central sensitization. The method is widely used across species within the pain field. However, uncertainties appear to exist regarding the appropriate method for analysing obtained data. Therefore, there is a need for refinement of the calculations for transformation of raw data to quantifiable data. METHODS: Here, we briefly review the fundamentals behind von Frey testing using the standard up-down method and the associated statistics and show how different parameters of the statistical equation influence the calculated 50% threshold results. We discuss how to obtain the most accurate estimations in a given experimental setting. RESULTS: To enhance accuracy and reproducibility across laboratories, we present an easy to use algorithm that calculates 50% thresholds based on the exact filaments and their interval using math beyond the traditional methods. This tool is available to the everyday user of von Frey filaments and allows the insertion of all imaginable ranges of filaments and is thus applicable to data derived in any species. CONCLUSION: We advocate for the use of this algorithm to minimize inaccuracies and to improve internal and external reproducibility. SIGNIFICANCE: The von Frey testing procedure is standard for assessing peripheral and central sensitization but is associated with inaccuracies and lack of transparency in the associated math. Here, we describe these problems and present a novel statistical algorithm that calculates the exact thresholds using math beyond the traditional methods. The online platform is transparent, free of charge and easy to use also for the everyday user of von Frey filaments. Application of this resource will ultimately reduce errors due to methodological misinterpretations and increase reproducibility across laboratories.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(3): e013835, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973603

RESUMO

Background Early systolic lengthening (ESL) may occur in ischemic myocardial segments with reduced contractile force. We sought to evaluate the prognostic potential of ESL in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled 373 patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. All patients underwent a speckle tracking echocardiographic examination a median of 2 days (interquartile range, 1-3 days) after the percutaneous coronary intervention. We assessed a novel viability index, the ESL index, defined as follows: [-100×(peak positive systolic strain/peak negative strain in cardiac cycle)]. We also calculated ESL duration, defined as time from onset of QRS complex on the ECG to time of peak positive systolic strain. Both parameters were averaged from 18 myocardial segments. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years (interquartile range, 2.5-6.0 years), 145 (39%) experienced major adverse cardiovascular events, a composite of incident heart failure, new myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality. The ESL index and ESL duration were significantly increased in culprit lesion areas (6.7±6.2% versus 5.0±4.1% and 43±33 ms versus 33±24 ms, respectively; P<0.001 for both). In Cox proportional hazard models, the ESL index (hazard ratio, 1.27 per 1% increase; 95% CI, 1.13-1.43; P<0.001) and ESL duration (hazard ratio, 1.49 per 1-ms increase; 95% CI, 1.15-1.92; P=0.002) yielded prognostic information on major adverse cardiovascular events. Both associations remained significant after adjusting for clinical, echocardiographic, and invasive confounders. Conclusions Assessment of ESL after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction yields independent and significant prognostic information on the future risk of cardiovascular events.

18.
Science ; 367(6476): 428-430, 2020 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974251

RESUMO

Imaging a reaction taking place at the molecular level could provide direct information for understanding the catalytic reaction mechanism. We used in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy and a nanocrystalline anatase titanium dioxide (001) surface with (1 × 4) reconstruction as a catalyst, which provided highly ordered four-coordinated titanium "active rows" to realize real-time monitoring of water molecules dissociating and reacting on the catalyst surface. The twin-protrusion configuration of adsorbed water was observed. During the water-gas shift reaction, dynamic changes in these structures were visualized on these active rows at the molecular level.

19.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a rare form of migraine with aura that often has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Rare mutations in the CACNA1A, ATP1A2 and SCN1A genes can all cause FHM revealing genetic heterogeneity in the disorder. Furthermore, only a small subset of the affected individuals has a causal mutation. We set out to investigate what differentiates patients with FHM with no mutation in any known FHM gene from patients with common types of migraine in both familial and sporadic cases. METHODS: 2558 male and female participants from a migraine cohort from the Danish Headache Center were included. 112 had FHM; 743 had familial migraine; and 1703 had sporadic migraine. Using a linear regression model, we analysed for over-representation of rare functional variants in FHM versus familial migraine and sporadic migraine. Post hoc analyses included pathway analysis and testing for tissue specificity. RESULTS: We found that patients with FHM have significantly more rare frameshift indels compared with patients with familial migraine and sporadic migraine. Pathway analysis revealed that the 'ligand-gated ion channel activity' and 'G protein-coupled receptor downstream signalling' pathways were significantly associated with mutated genes. We moreover found that the mutated genes showed tissue specificity towards nervous tissue and muscle tissue. CONCLUSION: We show that patients with FHM compared with patients with common types of migraine suffer from a higher load of rare frameshift indels in genes associated with synaptic signalling in the central nervous system and possibly in muscle tissue contributing to vascular dysfunction.

20.
J Card Fail ; 26(1): 35-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative effectiveness of left atrial (LA) functional parameters (left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF), left atrial expansion index (LAi) and minimal left atrial volume index (MinLAVI)) with that of LA volume index (LAVI) in predicting heart failure (HF) and death following ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: HF is common following STEMI. Enlarged LA volume as determined by echocardiography predicts adverse outcome following STEMI. However, whether echocardiographic parameters of LA function, such as LAEF, LAi and MinLAVI, are superior to LAVI for predicting prognosis following STEMI is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 369 patients with STEMI but without atrial fibrillation or HF who were treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention were prospectively enrolled in the period between September 2006 and December 2008. Patients underwent echocardiography shortly after STEMI. The maximal and minimal LA volumes were measured using the biplane area-length method. LAVI, MinLAVI (minimal LA volume indexed to body surface area), LAEF ((maximal LA volume-minimal LA volume)/maximal LA volume), and LAi ((maximal LA volume-minimal LA volume)/minimal LA volume) were calculated. The endpoint was a composite consisting of HF or death from any cause. During a median follow-up of 66 months (interquartile range: 50-73 months), 112 patients reached the endpoint (68 HFs, 44 deaths). Following adjustment for clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic variables, only LAEF remained an independent predictor of the composite outcome, whereas LAVI did not (LAEF: HR 1.25, P = 0.043, per 1 SD decrease) (LAVI: HR 1.01, P = 0.91, per 1 SD increase). CONCLUSION: In patients with STEMI who were treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, LAEF, as measured by echocardiography shortly after infarction, was superior to LAVI in predicting incident HF and death.

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