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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 130, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are globally the leading cause of death and hypertension is a significant risk factor. Treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists has been associated with decreases in blood pressure and CVD risk. Our aim was to investigate the association between endogenous GLP-1 responses to oral glucose and peripheral and central haemodynamic measures in a population at risk of diabetes and CVD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 837 Danish individuals from the ADDITION-PRO cohort (52% men, median (interquartile range) age 65.5 (59.8 to 70.7) years, BMI 26.1 (23.4 to 28.5) kg/m2, without antihypertensive treatment and known diabetes). All participants received an oral glucose tolerance test with measurements of GLP-1 at 0, 30 and 120 min. Aortic stiffness was assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV). The associations between GLP-1 response and central and brachial blood pressure (BP) and PWV were assessed in linear regression models adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS: A greater GLP-1 response was associated with lower central systolic and diastolic BP of - 1.17 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI) - 2.07 to - 0.27 mmHg, P = 0.011) and - 0.74 mmHg (95% CI - 1.29 to - 0.18 mmHg, P = 0.009), respectively, as well as lower brachial systolic and diastolic BP of - 1.27 mmHg (95% CI - 2.20 to - 0.33 mmHg, P = 0.008) and - 1.00 (95% CI - 1.56 to - 0.44 mmHg, P = 0.001), respectively. PWV was not associated with GLP-1 release (P = 0.3). Individuals with the greatest quartile of GLP-1 response had clinically relevant lower BP measures compared to individuals with the lowest quartile of GLP-1 response (central systolic BP: - 4.94 (95% CI - 8.56 to - 1.31) mmHg, central diastolic BP: - 3.05 (95% CI - 5.29 to - 0.80) mmHg, brachial systolic BP: - 5.18 (95% CI - 8.94 to - 1.42) mmHg, and brachial diastolic BP: - 2.96 (95% CI - 5.26 to - 0.67) mmHg). CONCLUSION: Greater glucose-stimulated GLP-1 responses were associated with clinically relevant lower central and peripheral blood pressures, consistent with beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and reduced risk of CVD and mortality. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00237549. Retrospectively registered 10 October 2005.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14188, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578392

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, pyridoxal kinase (PDXK) acts in vitamin B6 salvage pathway to produce pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of the vitamin, which is implicated in numerous crucial metabolic reactions. In Drosophila, mutations in the dPdxk gene cause chromosome aberrations (CABs) and increase glucose content in larval hemolymph. Both phenotypes are rescued by the expression of the wild type human PDXK counterpart. Here we expressed, in dPdxk1 mutant flies, four PDXK human variants: three (D87H, V128I and H246Q) listed in databases, and one (A243G) found in a genetic screening in patients with diabetes. Differently from human wild type PDXK, none of the variants was able to completely rescue CABs and glucose content elicited by dPdxk1 mutation. Biochemical analysis of D87H, V128I, H246Q and A243G proteins revealed reduced catalytic activity and/or reduced affinity for PLP precursors which justify this behavior. Although these variants are rare in population and carried in heterozygous condition, our findings suggest that in certain metabolic contexts and diseases in which PLP levels are reduced, the presence of these PDXK variants could threaten genome integrity and increase cancer risk.

3.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471646

RESUMO

Pathogenic mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) are associated with obesity, increased linear growth, and higher bone mass in children, and rodent studies have indicated an effect of the MC4R on bone turnover. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) may influence bone metabolism. However, these associations have not been assessed in adults with pathogenic MC4R mutations. Thus, we wished to assess the impact of the MC4R on bone mass and metabolism. Secondly, we wished to investigate the impact of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide on bone mass in adults with pathogenic MC4R mutations. 17 patients with obesity-causing MC4R mutations (BMI: 35.5 ± 7.6) and 35 matched control participants with common obesity (BMI: 34.3 ± 7.1) underwent a DEXA scan for assessment of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral apparent density [BMAD = (BMD/√(bone area)], and bone turnover markers (BTMs). Individuals with a BMI above 28 (14 MC4R mutation carriers and 28 matched control participants) underwent 16 weeks treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg. The MC4R group had higher BMD [mean difference: 0.065 g/m2 (- 0.008 to 0.138), p = 0.03], but BMAD and BTMS were not different compared to the control group. In response to liraglutide, BMAD increased in the control group, compared to no change in the MC4R group [mean group difference: 0.0007 (0.0001-0.001), p = 0.04]. In conclusion, BMD is increased in MC4R causal obesity compared to common obesity, but when corrected for body size (BMAD), bone mass was not increased, and no evidence of an influence of the MC4R on bone metabolism in adults was found. Liraglutide treatment did not change bone metabolism in MC4R causal obesity, but increased bone mass as measured by BMAD in common obesity.

4.
Dan Med J ; 66(9)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There has been an increased focus on fast-track (FT) programmes and the potential to convert unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) from short-term admission to outpatient surgery. However, relatively few studies have been presented and with differences in selection criteria and completion rates. The purpose of this study was to describe patient selection and completion rates in a patient group undergoing UKR in two high-volume FT knee surgery clinics. METHODS: All consecutive patients (n = 368) referred to and selected for UKR were screened for eligibility for outpatient surgery with discharge on the day of surgery (DOS). Reasons why the patients were not discharged were recorded in patients not completing the outpatient pathway, and readmissions and complications were recorded until three months post-operatively. RESULTS: Among all referred and screened patients, 69% were considered eligible for outpatient surgery. DOS discharge occurred in 59% of the operated patients and in 37% of all referred and screened patients. Main reasons for why patients were not discharged were active wound drainage and lack of mobilisation due to pain, nausea and vomiting. Two patients were readmitted during the first 24 hours due to wound drainage. One patient had a lung embolus and one patient an acute myocardial infarction during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates that not all patients in a consecutive patient group for UKR were feasible for outpatient surgery. Further studies should focus on optimising pain treatment and reducing post-operative nausea. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization studies in adults suggest that abdominal adiposity is causally associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease in adults, but its causal effect on cardiometabolic risk in children remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the causal relation of abdominal adiposity with cardiometabolic risk factors in children by applying Mendelian randomization. METHODS: We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using variants previously associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI) and examined its associations with cardiometabolic factors by linear regression and Mendelian randomization in a meta-analysis of 6 cohorts, including 9895 European children and adolescents aged 3-17 y. RESULTS: WHRadjBMI GRS was associated with higher WHRadjBMI (ß = 0.021 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.016, 0.026 SD/allele; P = 3 × 10-15) and with unfavorable concentrations of blood lipids (higher LDL cholesterol: ß = 0.006 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.011 SD/allele; P = 0.025; lower HDL cholesterol: ß = -0.007 SD/allele; 95% CI: -0.012, -0.002 SD/allele; P = 0.009; higher triglycerides: ß = 0.007 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.012 SD/allele; P = 0.006). No differences were detected between prepubertal and pubertal/postpubertal children. The WHRadjBMI GRS had a stronger association with fasting insulin in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity (ß = 0.016 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.032 SD/allele; P = 0.037) than in those with normal weight (ß = -0.002 SD/allele; 95% CI: -0.010, 0.006 SD/allele; P = 0.605) (P for difference = 0.034). In a 2-stage least-squares regression analysis, each genetically instrumented 1-SD increase in WHRadjBMI increased circulating triglycerides by 0.17 mmol/L (0.35 SD, P = 0.040), suggesting that the relation between abdominal adiposity and circulating triglycerides may be causal. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal adiposity may have a causal, unfavorable effect on plasma triglycerides and potentially other cardiometabolic risk factors starting in childhood. The results highlight the importance of early weight management through healthy dietary habits and physically active lifestyle among children with a tendency for abdominal adiposity.

6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 421, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain catastrophizing contributes to acute and long-term pain after knee arthroplasty (KA), but the association between pain catastrophizing and physical function is not clear. We examined the association between preoperative pain catastrophizing and physical function one year after surgery, as well as differences in physical function, pain and general health in two groups of patients with high and low preoperative pain catastrophizing score. METHODS: We included 615 patients scheduled for KA between March 2011 and December 2013. Patients completed The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) prior to surgery. The Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) were completed prior to surgery, and 4 and 12 months after the surgery. RESULTS: Of the 615 patients, 442 underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and 173 unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). Mean age was 67.3 (SD: 9.7) and 53.2% were females. Patients with PCS > 21 had statistically significantly larger improvement in mean OKS for both TKA and UKA than patients with PCS < 11; 3.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 5.4) and 5.4 (95% CI: 2.2, 8.6), respectively. Furthermore, patients with preoperative PCS > 21 had statistically significantly lower OKS, SF-36 and EQ-5D and higher pain score than patients with PCS < 11 both preoperatively and 4 and 12 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high levels of preoperative pain catastrophizing have lower physical function, more pain and poorer general health both before and after KA than patients without elevated pain catastrophizing.

7.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 152, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consanguine families display a high degree of homozygosity which increases the risk of family members suffering from autosomal recessive disorders. Thus, homozygous mutations in monogenic obesity genes may be a more frequent cause of childhood obesity in a consanguineous population. METHODS: We identified 23 probands from 23 Pakistani families displaying autosomal recessive obesity. We have previously excluded mutations in MC4R, LEP and LEPR in all probands. Using a chip-based, target-region capture array, 31 genes involved in monogenic forms of obesity, were screened in all probands. RESULTS: We identified 31 rare non-synonymous possibly pathogenic variants (28 missense and three nonsense) within the 31 selected genes. All variants were heterozygous, thus no homozygous pathogenic variants were found. Two of the rare heterozygous nonsense variants identified (p.R75X and p.R481X) were found in BBS9 within one proband, suggesting that obesity is caused by compound heterozygosity. Sequencing of the parents supported the compound heterozygous nature of obesity as each parent was carrying one of the variants. Subsequent clinical investigation strongly indicated that the proband had Bardet-Biedl syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Mutation screening in 31 genes among probands with severe early-onset obesity from Pakistani families did not reveal the presence of homozygous obesity causing variants. However, a compound heterozygote carrier of BBS9 mutations was identified, indicating that compound heterozygosity must not be overlooked when investigating the genetic etiology of severe childhood obesity in populations with a high degree of consanguinity.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220805, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on the association of common GLIS3 variants with various forms of diabetes and the biological role of GLIS3 in beta-cells, we sequenced GLIS3 in non-diabetic and diabetic Danes to investigate the effect of rare missense variants on glucose metabolism. METHODS: We sequenced 53 patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), 5,726 non-diabetic participants, 2,930 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 206 patients with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) -positive diabetes. RESULTS: In total we identified 86 rare (minor allele frequency < 0.1%) missense variants. None was considered causal for the presence of MODY. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, we observed a higher prevalence of rare GLIS3 missense variants (2.5%) compared to non-diabetic individuals (1.8%) (odds ratio of 1.37 (interquartile range:1.01-1.88, p = 0.04)). A significantly increased HbA1c was found among patients with type 2 diabetes and with GADA-positive diabetes carrying rare GLIS3 variants compared to non-carriers of rare GLIS3 variants with diabetes (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004, respectively). One variant (p.I28V) was found to have a minor allele frequency of only 0.03% among patients with type 2 diabetes compared to 0.2% among non-diabetic individuals suggesting a protective function (odds ratio of 0.20 (interquartile range: 0.005-1.4, p = 0.1)), an effect which was supported by publically available data. This variant was also associated with a lower level of fasting plasma glucose among non-diabetic individuals (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: Rare missense variants in GLIS3 associates nominally with increased level of HbA1c and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the rare p.I28V variant associate with reduced level of fasting plasma glucose and may be protective against type 2 diabetes.

10.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies suggest that exercise affects the composition and function of the human gut microbiota, yet this has not been investigated in a randomized controlled trial. The primary aim of this study was to assess if exercise alters the diversity, composition and functional potential of the gut microbiota in free-living humans. A secondary aim was to test whether alpha diversity was associated with phenotypical outcomes. METHODS: Eighty eight participants with overweight or obesity completed a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 4 arms; habitual living (CON), active commuting by bike (BIKE) and leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD) or vigorous intensity (VIG). Faecal samples for 16 s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing were collected prior to randomization and again after 3 and 6 months, with simultaneous registration of phenotypical outcomes and diet. RESULTS: Shannon's diversity index increased by 5% in VIG (CI95 1-9%, P = 0.012) at 3 months compared with CON. No associations were observed between alpha diversity and phenotypical outcomes. Beta diversity changed in all exercise groups compared with CON, particularly the participants in VIG showed decreased heterogeneity. No genera changed significantly. The inferred functional potential of the microbiota in the exercise groups was increased, primarily at 3 months and in MOD. CONCLUSION: Structured exercise induced subtle changes to the human gut microbiota. Cardiorespiratory fitness and fat mass were not associated with alpha diversity.

11.
Acta Orthop ; : 1-11, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293193

RESUMO

Background and purpose - Differences in stress distribution in a mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) design might lead to a difference in fixation of the tibial component. We compared tibial component migration of a mobile-bearing (MB) UKA and a fixed-bearing (FB) UKA using radiostereometric analysis. Patients and methods - In a randomized, patient-blinded clinical trial 62 patients received either the MB Oxford UKA or the FB Sigma UKA. The patients were followed for 24 months with radiostereometric analysis. Clinical outcome was assessed with Oxford Knee Score (OKS), RAND-36 and leg extension power. Results - Migration of the tibial components was similar between groups throughout follow-up. At 12 months, MTPM of the tibial component was 0.44 mm (95% CI 0.34-0.55) for the MB group and 0.40 mm (CI 0.31-0.50) for the FB group. Between 12 and 24 months, the tibial components migrated with a median MTPM increase of 0.03 mm (CI -0.02 to 0.08) in the MB group and 0.03 mm (CI -0.02 to 0.07) in the FB group. Continuous migration of the tibial component was found for 1 MB UKA and 2 FB UKAs. Both groups showed similar and clinically relevant improvement in clinical outcome. Interpretation - MB and FB tibial components had similar good fixation and clinical improvement until 2 years. Based on this study, a low 5- to 10-year revision rate can be expected for both implants.

12.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 181(28)2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280761

RESUMO

Osteoarthrosis of the trapeziometacarpal joint is a common condition, especially in middle-aged women, and this review summarises the diagnosis and treatment modalities. Many patients have few symptoms and may be treated conservatively with orthoses, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and intra-articular steroid injections. In patients with more persistent symptoms, surgical treatment has generally shown good results. Several surgical procedures have been described, but at present, trapeziectomy is the preferred treatment. Total joint arthroplasty is possible and may provide faster rehabilitation and a better grip strength but at the expense of a relatively high risk of implant failure.

13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(10): 2007-2016, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most obese children show cardiometabolic impairments, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Yet some obese children retain a normal cardiometabolic profile. The mechanisms underlying this variability remain largely unknown. We examined whether genetic loci associated with increased insulin sensitivity and relatively higher fat storage on the hip than on the waist in adults are associated with a normal cardiometabolic profile despite higher adiposity in children. METHODS: We constructed a genetic score using variants previously linked to increased insulin sensitivity and/or decreased waist-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and examined the associations of this genetic score with adiposity and cardiometabolic impairments in a meta-analysis of six cohorts, including 7391 European children aged 3-18 years. RESULTS: The genetic score was significantly associated with increased degree of obesity (higher BMI-SDS beta = 0.009 SD/allele, SE = 0.003, P = 0.003; higher body fat mass beta = 0.009, SE = 0.004, P = 0.031), yet improved body fat distribution (lower WHRadjBMI beta = -0.014 SD/allele, SE = 0.006, P = 0.016), and favorable concentrations of blood lipids (higher HDL cholesterol: beta = 0.010 SD/allele, SE = 0.003, P = 0.002; lower triglycerides: beta = -0.011 SD/allele, SE = 0.003, P = 0.001) adjusted for age, sex, and puberty. No differences were detected between prepubertal and pubertal/postpubertal children. The genetic score predicted a normal cardiometabolic profile, defined by the presence of normal glucose and lipid concentrations, among obese children (OR = 1.07 CI 95% 1.01-1.13, P = 0.012, n = 536). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic predisposition to higher body fat yet lower cardiometabolic risk exerts its influence before puberty.

14.
Int J Cardiol ; 291: 145-151, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with breast cancer may be linked to shared genetics is unknown. Our objective was to investigate the association of genetic predisposition to breast cancer with CAD risk via 1) a polygenic risk score 2) a nationwide case-control study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the associations of a polygenic risk score based on 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies with the risk of CAD in a sample of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Secondary outcomes were prevalent atrial fibrillation, heart failure and breast cancer. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations. The risk of CAD associated with having a mother with breast cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression in the case-control study. Among 4985 patients undergoing coronary angiography (median age 66 years (Quartile (Q) 1-Q3 57-73), 65% male) 3724 (75%) had CAD. Increasing polygenic risk score was not associated with risks of CAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.08), atrial fibrillation (OR 1.03, CI 0.94-1.12), or heart failure (OR 0.97, CI 0.90-1.05). In women, increasing polygenic risk score was associated with the risk of breast cancer (OR 1.40, CI 1.14-1.73). The risk of CAD was not significantly increased in children with vs. without mothers with breast cancer (Hazard ratio 0.89 95% CI 0.83-0.96, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Our study found no evidence of a shared genetic predisposition of breast cancer with CAD, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure.

15.
Free Radic Res ; 53(6): 694-703, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161826

RESUMO

The relationship between RNA and DNA oxidation and pharmacological treatment has not been systematically investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate the association between pharmacological treatments and levels of urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in T2D patients. Vejle Diabetes Biobank cohort data was nested into nationwide registry data. Multiple logistic regression was used to associate drug usage with risk of high (above median) RNA and DNA oxidation. Data from 2664 T2D patients (64% male, age range: 25-75) were included. Questionnaire-validated lipid lowering drug use was associated with low RNA oxidation (Odds ratio, OR 0.71, 95% CI: [0.59-0.87]). Insulin and non-specific antidiabetic drugs were associated with low DNA oxidation (insulin: OR 0.60, 95% CI [0.49-0.73]). Oral antidiabetics were associated with high DNA oxidation and RNA oxidation (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.10-1.53] and OR 1.26, 95% CI [1.07-1.29]). Our findings indicate that diabetes-related drugs are associated with RNA and DNA oxidation and further studies are required to determine causality in T2D patients.

16.
Nat Genet ; 51(7): 1137-1148, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253982

RESUMO

Genetic studies promise to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D). Variants associated with T2D are often located in tissue-specific enhancer clusters or super-enhancers. So far, such domains have been defined through clustering of enhancers in linear genome maps rather than in three-dimensional (3D) space. Furthermore, their target genes are often unknown. We have created promoter capture Hi-C maps in human pancreatic islets. This linked diabetes-associated enhancers to their target genes, often located hundreds of kilobases away. It also revealed >1,300 groups of islet enhancers, super-enhancers and active promoters that form 3D hubs, some of which show coordinated glucose-dependent activity. We demonstrate that genetic variation in hubs impacts insulin secretion heritability, and show that hub annotations can be used for polygenic scores that predict T2D risk driven by islet regulatory variants. Human islet 3D chromatin architecture, therefore, provides a framework for interpretation of T2D genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals.

17.
Diabetologia ; 62(9): 1601-1615, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203377

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Here, we describe the characteristics of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Diabetes Research on Patient Stratification (DIRECT) epidemiological cohorts at baseline and follow-up examinations (18, 36 and 48 months of follow-up). METHODS: From a sampling frame of 24,682 adults of European ancestry enrolled in population-based cohorts across Europe, participants at varying risk of glycaemic deterioration were identified using a risk prediction algorithm (based on age, BMI, waist circumference, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking status and parental history of type 2 diabetes) and enrolled into a prospective cohort study (n = 2127) (cohort 1, prediabetes risk). We also recruited people from clinical registries with type 2 diabetes diagnosed 6-24 months previously (n = 789) into a second cohort study (cohort 2, diabetes). Follow-up examinations took place at ~18 months (both cohorts) and at ~48 months (cohort 1) or ~36 months (cohort 2) after baseline examinations. The cohorts were studied in parallel using matched protocols across seven clinical centres in northern Europe. RESULTS: Using ADA 2011 glycaemic categories, 33% (n = 693) of cohort 1 (prediabetes risk) had normal glucose regulation and 67% (n = 1419) had impaired glucose regulation. Seventy-six per cent of participants in cohort 1 was male. Cohort 1 participants had the following characteristics (mean ± SD) at baseline: age 62 (6.2) years; BMI 27.9 (4.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose 5.7 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 5.9 (1.6) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 6.0 (0.6) mmol/l; 2 h OGTT glucose 6.5 (2.0) mmol/l. In cohort 2 (diabetes), 66% (n = 517) were treated by lifestyle modification and 34% (n = 272) were treated with metformin plus lifestyle modification at enrolment. Fifty-eight per cent of participants in cohort 2 was male. Cohort 2 participants had the following characteristics at baseline: age 62 (8.1) years; BMI 30.5 (5.0) kg/m2; fasting glucose 7.2 (1.4) mmol/l; 2 h glucose 8.6 (2.8) mmol/l. At the final follow-up examination, the participants' clinical characteristics were as follows: fasting glucose 7.9 (2.0) mmol/l; 2 h mixed-meal tolerance test glucose 9.9 (3.4) mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The IMI DIRECT cohorts are intensely characterised, with a wide-variety of metabolically relevant measures assessed prospectively. We anticipate that the cohorts, made available through managed access, will provide a powerful resource for biomarker discovery, multivariate aetiological analyses and reclassification of patients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.

19.
Physiol Genomics ; 51(6): 254-260, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074700

RESUMO

The Ala allele of PPARG Pro12Ala ( rs1801282 ) is associated with greater improvements to the glucose metabolism in exercise studies, but whether this extends to peripheral insulin sensitivity is unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effect of PPARG Pro12Ala on exercise-induced changes in peripheral insulin sensitivity. A total of 124 (91 Pro homozygotes and 33 Ala carriers) previously physically inactive healthy young men and women with overweight or class 1 obesity who completed a 12 wk aerobic exercise intervention were included in the analysis. All participants underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp before and after the 12 wk intervention. The prescribed exercise frequency was 5-7 days/wk, and the exercise energy expenditure was 2,100 4,200 kcal/wk for men and 1,600 kcal/wk for women. Insulin sensitivity improved significantly in both genotype groups. However, Ala carriers had a 1.13-fold (95% confidence interval 1.01; 1.26, P = 0.032) greater improvement in insulin sensitivity from baseline compared with Pro homozygotes. Our data support that PPARG Pro12Ala modifies the effect of aerobic exercise on peripheral insulin sensitivity.

20.
J Nutr ; 149(5): 708-715, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), e.g., linoleic acid and n-3 (ω-3) long-chain PUFAs, has been shown in adults to affect plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs), respectively. Little is known about the effects of PUFAs on plasma lipids in early life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the associations between plasma concentrations of total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol and TGs in infants and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase genes (FADS) oppositely associated with docosahexaenoic acid (rs1535 and rs174448) and potential effect modification by a functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 gene variant (PPARG2 Pro12Ala). METHODS: In 9-mo-old infants (n = 561) from 3 Danish cohorts, we analyzed associations between plasma lipids, erythrocyte PUFAs, and FADS SNPs, and interactions with PPARG2 Pro12Ala genotype, by multiple linear regression. We also examined potential effect modification by breastfeeding, as 46% of the infants were still being breastfed. RESULTS: Minor allele carriage of rs174448 was associated with lower total cholesterol (difference: -0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.06 mmol/L; P = 0.006) and LDL cholesterol (difference: -0.15 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.29, -0.01 mmol/L; P = 0.035), but no associations were observed with TGs or for rs1535. Minor allele carriage of both FADS SNPs was associated with 1 SD lower HDL cholesterol, but only in currently breastfed infants (rs174448 × breastfeeding, P = 0.080; rs1535 × breastfeeding, P = 0.030) and PPARG2 minor allele carriers (rs174448 × PPARG2, P = 0.001; rs1535 × PPARG2, P = 0.004). Erythrocyte arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were inversely associated with LDL cholesterol [estimated effect (ß): -0.3 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.06, -0.00 mmol/L per percentage of fatty acids (FA%); P = 0.035] and TGs (ß: -0.23 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.05 mmol/L per FA%; P = 0.015), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The observed associations with FADS variants indicate that PUFAs are involved in plasma lipid regulation in 9-mo-old infants. Observed FADS SNP differences and interactions with breastfeeding and PPARG2 warrant additional studies to explore the effects of individual FADS SNPs on PUFA status and potential genetic modification of dietary PUFA effects.

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