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2.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789445

RESUMO

AIMS: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin when given in addition to standard care improved cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes, and reduced mortality. Trial participants were on a variety of glucose-lowering therapies at baseline, some of which could potentially affect CV risk. This analysis investigated whether the use of background diabetes therapy affected the risk of CV death, hospitalizations for heart failure, and progression of chronic kidney disease, among patients treated with empagliflozin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomized to placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg or empagliflozin 25 mg; glucose-lowering therapy was to remain unchanged for 12 weeks and then adjusted to achieve glycaemic control according to local guidelines. Differences in risk of cardio-renal outcomes between empagliflozin and placebo by baseline use of metformin, sulphonylurea (SU) and insulin were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Of 7020 eligible patients, 74% were receiving metformin, 43% SU and 48% insulin at baseline (each alone or in combination); the most common regimens were metformin plus SU (20%) and metformin plus insulin (20%). Empagliflozin reduced the risk of CV death irrespective of the use of: metformin [with: hazard ratio (HR) 0.71 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.54-0.94); without: 0.46 (0.32-0.68); Pinteraction = 0.07]; SU [with: HR 0.64 (0.44-0.92); without: 0.61 (0.46-0.81); Pinteraction = 0.85]; or insulin [with: HR 0.63 (0.46-0.85); without: 0.61 (0.44-0.85); Pinteraction = 0.92]. Reductions in three-point major adverse CV events, hospitalizations for heart failure, and all-cause mortality were consistent across subgroups of baseline therapies. Empagliflozin reduced the risks of incident or worsening nephropathy versus placebo irrespective of the use of SU or insulin at baseline (Pinteraction > 0.05), but there was a greater reduction in this risk for patients not using metformin [HR 0.47 (95% CI 0.37-0.59)] versus those using metformin [HR 0.68 (95% CI 0.58-0.79)] at baseline (Pinteraction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of empagliflozin to antihyperglycaemic regimens of patients with type 2 diabetes and CV disease consistently reduced their risks of adverse CV outcomes and mortality irrespective of baseline use of metformin, SU or insulin. For chronic kidney disease progression, there may be a larger benefit from empagliflozin in those patients who are not using metformin.

3.
Age Ageing ; 48(6): 859-866, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The risks of cardio-renal complications of diabetes increase with age. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin reduced cardiovascular (CV) mortality by 38% in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and CV disease. Here we compare outcomes with empagliflozin in older patients in EMPA-REG OUTCOME. METHODS: Patients with T2D and CV disease were randomised to empagliflozin 10 or 25 mg, or placebo plus standard of care. In post hoc analyses, risks of 3-point major adverse CV events (3P-MACE: composite of CV death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) or non-fatal stroke), CV death, hospitalisation for heart failure, all-cause mortality, all-cause hospitalisation and incident/worsening nephropathy were evaluated for empagliflozin versus placebo by baseline age (<65, 65 to <75, ≥75 years). Adverse events (AEs) were analysed descriptively. RESULTS: Effect of empagliflozin on all outcomes was consistent across age categories (P ≥ 0.05 for interactions) except 3P-MACE. The 3P-MACE hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84, 1.29), 0.74 (0.58, 0.93) and 0.68 (0.46, 1.00) in patients aged <65, 65 to <75, and ≥75 years, respectively (P = 0.047 for treatment-by-age group interaction). Corresponding CV death HRs were 0.72 (95% CI 0.52, 1.01), 0.54 (0.37, 0.79) and 0.55 (0.32, 0.94), respectively (P = 0.484 for treatment-by-age group interaction). Across age categories, empagliflozin AEs reflected its known safety profile. Rates of bone fractures, renal AEs and diabetic ketoacidosis were similar between empagliflozin and placebo across age categories. CONCLUSIONS: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin reduced risks of CV mortality, heart failure and renal outcomes, supporting its cardio-renal benefits in older patients.

4.
Am Heart J ; 215: 178-186, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349109

RESUMO

Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) have been employed in multiple therapeutic areas to explore whether a noncardiovascular drug increases the risk for cardiovascular events. These studies are now a central part of drug development programs for antihyperglycemic drugs. These programs are expected to demonstrate that new antihyperglycemic drugs for patients with Type 2 diabetes do not have unacceptable cardiovascular risk. The hazard ratio, which is usually provided as evidence that patients receiving the investigational treatment are not at statistically significantly greater cardiovascular risk than patients on the control treatment, can be difficult to interpret for various reasons. Therefore, an alternative approach known as the Restricted Mean Survival Time (RMST) or τ-year mean survival time is presented, and its ability to overcome interpretation challenges with the hazard ratio discussed. The RMST approach is applied to five completed CVOTs and is compared with the corresponding hazard ratios. Additionally, detailed considerations are given on how to design a non-inferiority CVOT using the RMST approach. The RMST methodology is shown to be a practical alternative to the hazard ratio methodology for designing a non-inferiority CVOT.

6.
Kidney Int ; 96(2): 489-504, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142441

RESUMO

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular (CV) disease, empagliflozin (EMPA) decreased progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), likely via a reduction in intraglomerular pressure. Due to prevalent comorbidities, such as hypertension and albuminuria, patients often receive other agents that alter intrarenal hemodynamics, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and diuretics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may also be used by some individuals. In this exploratory, non-prespecified analysis, we investigated whether the kidney benefits of EMPA are altered in individuals already using the medications in these categories. In the BI 10773 (Empagliflozin) Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME®) trial, 7020 patients were essentially equally randomized to EMPA 10 mg, 25 mg or placebo added to their standard care. Differences in risk of incident or worsening nephropathy for pooled EMPA vs placebo across subgroups by baseline background medications (to which patients were not randomized) were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Risk reductions in incident or worsening nephropathy with EMPA were consistent across medication subgroups, with no heterogeneity of treatment effect. As a representative example, the risk for acute renal failure was overall slightly increased in patients using ACEi/ARBs in all groups (placebo, EMPA 10 mg or EMPA 25 mg) but incidence rates were numerically lower in those assigned to EMPA. Similar patterns were observed for other medications included in this analysis. Thus, EMPA may assist to prevent CKD progression in patients with T2DM with CV disease, irrespective of common background medications that alter intrarenal hemodynamics, and without increasing acute renal adverse events.

7.
J Diabetes Investig ; 10(3): 760-770, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412655

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care improved clinically relevant kidney outcomes by 39%, slowed progression of chronic kidney disease, and reduced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease. This exploratory analysis investigated the effects of empagliflozin on the kidneys in Asian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial were randomized (1:1:1) to empagliflozin 10 mg, 25 mg or a placebo. In patients of Asian race, we analyzed incident or worsening nephropathy (progression to macroalbuminuria, doubling of serum creatinine, initiation of renal-replacement therapy or renal death) and its components, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio changes, and renal safety. RESULTS: Of 7,020 treated patients, 1,517 (26.1%) were Asian. In this subgroup, consistent with the overall trial population, empagliflozin reduced the risk of incident or worsening nephropathy (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.83), progression to macroalbuminuria (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.49-0.85) and the composite of doubling of serum creatinine, initiation of renal-replacement therapy or renal death (hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.92). Furthermore, empagliflozin-treated participants showed slower eGFR decline versus placebo, and showed rapid urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio reduction at week 12, maintained through week 164, with effects most pronounced in those with baseline microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. The kidney safety profile of empagliflozin in the Asian subgroup was similar to the overall trial population. CONCLUSIONS: In Asian patients from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, empagliflozin improved kidney outcomes, slowed eGFR decline and lowered albuminuria versus placebo, consistent with the overall trial population findings.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Albuminúria/etiologia , Albuminúria/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(11): 2755-2769, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin slowed the progression of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial. In a prespecified statistical approach, we assessed treatment differences in kidney function by analyzing slopes of eGFR changes. METHODS: Participants (n=7020) were randomized (1:1:1) to empagliflozin 10 mg/d, empagliflozin 25 mg/d, or placebo added to standard of care. We calculated eGFR slopes using random-intercept/random-coefficient models for prespecified study periods: treatment initiation (baseline to week 4), chronic maintenance treatment (week 4 to last value on treatment), and post-treatment (last value on treatment to follow-up). RESULTS: Compared with placebo, empagliflozin was associated with uniform shifts in individual eGFR slopes across all periods. On treatment initiation, adjusted mean slope (eGFR change per week, ml/min per 1.73 m2) decreased with empagliflozin (-0.77; 95% confidence interval, -0.83 to -0.71; placebo: 0.01; 95% confidence interval, -0.08 to 0.10; P<0.001). However, annual mean slope (ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year) did not decline with empagliflozin during chronic treatment (empagliflozin: 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.05 to 0.40; placebo: -1.46; 95% confidence interval, -1.74 to -1.17; P<0.001). After drug cessation, the adjusted mean eGFR slope (ml/min per 1.73 m2 per week) increased and mean eGFR returned toward baseline level only in the empagliflozin group (0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.62; placebo -0.02; 95% confidence interval, -0.12 to 0.08; P<0.001). Results were consistent across patient subgroups at higher CKD risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hemodynamic effects of empagliflozin, associated with reduction in intraglomerular pressure, may contribute to long-term preservation of kidney function.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/administração & dosagem
10.
Diabetologia ; 61(10): 2155-2163, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066148

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In addition to beneficial effects on glycaemia and cardiovascular death, empagliflozin improves adiposity indices. We investigated the effect of empagliflozin on aminotransferases (correlates of liver fat) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Changes from baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assessed in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial (n = 7020), pooled data from four 24-week placebo-controlled trials (n = 2477) and a trial of empagliflozin vs glimepiride over 104 weeks (n = 1545). Analyses were performed using data from all participants and by tertiles of baseline aminotransferases. RESULTS: In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial, mean ± SE changes from baseline ALT at week 28 were -2.96 ± 0.18 and -0.73 ± 0.25 U/l with empagliflozin and placebo, respectively (adjusted mean difference: -2.22 [95% CI -2.83, -1.62]; p < 0.0001). Reductions in ALT were greatest in the highest ALT tertile (placebo-adjusted mean difference at week 28: -4.36 U/l [95% CI -5.51, -3.21]; p < 0.0001). The adjusted mean difference in change in ALT was -3.15 U/l (95% CI -4.11, -2.18) with empagliflozin vs placebo at week 24 in pooled 24-week data, and -4.88 U/l (95% CI -6.68, -3.09) with empagliflozin vs glimepiride at week 28. ALT reductions were largely independent of changes in weight or HbA1c. AST changes showed similar patterns to ALT, but the reductions were considerably lower. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These highly consistent results suggest that empagliflozin reduces aminotransferases in individuals with type 2 diabetes, in a pattern (reductions in ALT>AST) that is potentially consistent with a reduction in liver fat, especially when ALT levels are high.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fígado/enzimologia , Transaminases/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 1(2): e00016, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815552

RESUMO

Aims: To analyse the effect of baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) on the reduction in HbA1c with empagliflozin compared with sitagliptin or glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: Using regression analyses of individual patient data from two Phase III studies, we compared the change in HbA1c according to a unit change in baseline HbA1c (the slope) with empagliflozin 10 mg or 25 mg vs sitagliptin (monotherapy) after 24 weeks, and with empagliflozin 25 mg vs glimepiride (as add-on to metformin) after 52 weeks. Results: Steeper slopes of HbA1c decline were observed with empagliflozin 10 or 25 mg vs sitagliptin monotherapy at week 24. Regression analysis showed slopes of -0.59 (95% CI -0.70, -0.47), -0.49 (95% CI -0.62, -0.37) and -0.29 (95% CI -0.42, -0.15) for empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg and sitagliptin, respectively (P < .001 and P < .05 for empagliflozin 10 mg and empagliflozin 25 mg, respectively, vs sitagliptin). Similarly, a steeper slope of HbA1c decline was observed with empagliflozin 25 mg vs glimepiride as add-on to metformin at week 52. Regression analysis showed slopes of - 0.52 (95% CI -0.59, -0.44) and -0.32 (95% CI -0.39, -0.25) for empagliflozin 25 mg and glimepiride, respectively (P < .001 for empagliflozin 25 mg vs glimepiride). Conclusions: Incremental reductions in HbA1c with increasing baseline HbA1c are greater with empagliflozin compared with sitagliptin or glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes.

13.
Diabetes Care ; 41(2): 356-363, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the BI 10773 (Empagliflozin) Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial involving 7,020 patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular (CV) disease, empagliflozin given in addition to standard of care reduced the risk of CV death by 38% versus placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62 [95% CI 0.49, 0.77]). This exploratory mediation analysis assesses the extent to which treatment group differences in covariates during the trial contributed to CV death risk reduction with empagliflozin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Effects of potential mediators, identified post hoc, on the HR for CV death with empagliflozin versus placebo were analyzed by Cox regression models, with treatment group adjusted for the baseline value of the variable and its change from baseline or updated mean (i.e., considering all prior values), each as a time-dependent covariate. HRs were compared with a model without adjustment for covariates. Multivariable analyses also were performed. RESULTS: Changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin mediated 51.8% and 48.9%, respectively, of the effect of empagliflozin versus placebo on the risk of CV death on the basis of changes from baseline, with similar results in analyses on the basis of updated means. Smaller mediation effects (maximum 29.3%) were observed for uric acid, fasting plasma glucose, and HbA1c. In multivariable models, which incorporated effects of empagliflozin on hematocrit, fasting glucose, uric acid, and urine albumin:creatinine ratio, the combined changes from baseline provided 85.2% mediation, whereas updated mean analyses provided 94.6% mediation of the effect of empagliflozin on CV death. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory analysis from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, changes in markers of plasma volume were the most important mediators of the reduction in risk of CV death with empagliflozin versus placebo.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Eur Heart J ; 39(5): 363-370, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020355

RESUMO

Aims: Empagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular (CV) death and heart failure (HF) hospitalizations in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and established CV disease (CVD) in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial. We investigated whether the benefit of empagliflozin was observed across the spectrum of HF risk. Methods and results: Seven thousand and twenty patients with T2D (HbA1c 7-10% and eGFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) were treated with empagliflozin 10 or 25 mg, or placebo once daily and followed for median 3.1 years. In patients without HF at baseline (89.9%), we derived the 5-year risk for incident HF using the 9-variable Health ABC HF Risk score [classified as low-to-average (<10%), high (10-20%), and very high (≥ 20%)]. Overall, 67.2% of the population had low-to-average, 24.2% high, and 5.1% very high 5-year HF risk. Across these groups, the effect on CV death and HF hospitalization with empagliflozin was consistent [hazard ratio 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.96), 0.52 (0.36, 0.75), and 0.55 (0.30, 1.00), respectively]. Effects on CV death in the ostensibly highest HF risk group (HF at baseline and/or incident HF during the trial) in whom 37.9% of the overall CV deaths occurred, was also beneficial [0.67 (0.47, 0.97)], yet, similar benefits were seen in the lower risk patients. Conclusion: In patients with T2D and established CVD, a sizeable proportion without HF at baseline are at high or very high risk for HF outcomes, indicating the need for active case finding in this patient population. Empagliflozin consistently improved HF outcomes both in patients at low or high HF risk.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 43(4): 484-489, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28210989

RESUMO

The direct oral anticoagulants, e.g., dabigatran etexilate (DE), are effective and well tolerated treatments for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Net clinical benefit (NCB) is a useful concept in weighing potential benefits against potential harm of comparator drugs. The NCB of DE vs. warfarin in VTE treatment was compared. Post-hoc analyses were performed on pooled data from the 6-month RE-COVER® and RE-COVER™ II trials, and data from the RE-MEDY™ trial (up to 36 months), to compare the NCB of DE (150 mg twice daily) and warfarin [target international normalized ratio (INR) 2.0-3.0]. Patients (≥18 years old) had symptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. NCB was the composite of cardiovascular endpoints (non-fatal events of recurrent VTE, myocardial infarction, stroke or systemic embolism), all-cause death, and bleeding outcomes, all weighted equally. A broad definition of NCB included major bleeding events (MBE) and clinically relevant non-major bleeding events as bleeding outcomes, while a narrow definition included just MBE. The pooled dataset totalled 5107 patients from RE-COVER/RE-COVER II and 2856 patients from RE-MEDY. When NCB was narrowly defined, NCB was similar between DE and warfarin. When broadly defined, NCB was superior with DE vs. warfarin [RE-COVER/RE-COVER II, hazard ratio (HR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.95 and RE-MEDY, HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.59-0.91]. These findings were unaffected by warfarin time in therapeutic range. The NCB of DE was similar or superior to warfarin, depending on the NCB definition used, regardless of the quality of INR control.


Assuntos
Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio , Embolia Pulmonar , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa
16.
Clin Ther ; 38(6): 1299-1313, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27085585

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this analysis was to establish the safety profile and tolerability of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to pooled data from several clinical trials. METHODS: Pooled data were analyzed from patients with T2DM treated with placebo (n = 3695), empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 3806), or empagliflozin 25 mg (n = 4782) in 17 randomized, Phase I, II, and III clinical trials plus 6 extension studies. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed descriptively in patients who took ≥1 dose of the study drug. AE incidence rates per 100 patient-years were calculated to adjust for differences in drug exposure across trials. FINDINGS: Total exposure was 3254, 3840, and 5649 patient-years in the placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg, and empagliflozin 25 mg groups, respectively. The incidence of any AEs, AEs leading to treatment discontinuation, severe AEs, and serious AEs was no higher in patients treated with empagliflozin than with placebo. Empagliflozin was not associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia versus placebo, except in patients on background sulfonylurea and/or insulin. The incidence of events consistent with urinary tract infection was similar across treatment groups (9.4-11.3/100 patient-years); 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.3% of patients in the placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg, and empagliflozin 25 mg groups, respectively, had urinary tract infections that required or prolonged hospitalization. The incidence of events consistent with genital infection was higher in patients treated with empagliflozin (4.7 and 5.0/100 patient-years for empagliflozin 10 and 25 mg, respectively) than placebo (1.3/100 patient-years), but only 0.1%, 0.1%, and <0.1% in the placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg, and empagliflozin 25 mg groups, respectively, had genital infections that required or prolonged hospitalization. The incidence of AEs consistent with volume depletion was similar with placebo, empagliflozin 10 mg, and empagliflozin 25 mg (1.6, 1.5, and 1.3/100 patient-years, respectively) and was higher with empagliflozin 25 mg than placebo or empagliflozin 10 mg in patients aged >75 years (4.4 vs 2.3 and 2.5/100 patient-years, respectively). The incidences of bone fractures, malignancies, decreased renal function, hepatic injury, venous thromboembolic events, and diabetic ketoacidosis were low and similar across the treatment groups. IMPLICATIONS: In this predefined analysis that was based on >9000 patient-years' exposure to empagliflozin, empagliflozin 10 mg, and empagliflozin 25 mg were well tolerated in patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Incidência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia
17.
Eur Heart J ; 37(19): 1526-34, 2016 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26819227

RESUMO

AIMS: We previously reported that in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME(®) trial, empagliflozin added to standard of care reduced the risk of 3-point major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause death, and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. We have now further investigated heart failure outcomes in all patients and in subgroups, including patients with or without baseline heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo. Seven thousand and twenty patients were treated; 706 (10.1%) had heart failure at baseline. Heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death occurred in a significantly lower percentage of patients treated with empagliflozin [265/4687 patients (5.7%)] than with placebo [198/2333 patients (8.5%)] [hazard ratio, HR: 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.55-0.79); P < 0.001], corresponding to a number needed to treat to prevent one heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death of 35 over 3 years. Consistent effects of empagliflozin were observed across subgroups defined by baseline characteristics, including patients with vs. without heart failure, and across categories of medications to treat diabetes and/or heart failure. Empagliflozin improved other heart failure outcomes, including hospitalization for or death from heart failure [2.8 vs. 4.5%; HR: 0.61 (0.47-0.79); P < 0.001] and was associated with a reduction in all-cause hospitalization [36.8 vs. 39.6%; HR: 0.89 (0.82-0.96); P = 0.003]. Serious adverse events and adverse events leading to discontinuation were reported by a higher proportion of patients with vs. without heart failure at baseline in both treatment groups, but were no more common with empagliflozin than with placebo. CONCLUSION: In patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk, empagliflozin reduced heart failure hospitalization and cardiovascular death, with a consistent benefit in patients with and without baseline heart failure.

18.
Thromb J ; 13: 36, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26578849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two phase 3 trials compared 28-35 days of treatment with oral dabigatran 220 mg or 150 mg (RE-NOVATE) or 220 mg (RE-NOVATE II) once daily with subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg once daily for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after elective total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: This prespecified pooled analysis compared the outcomes for the dabigatran 220 mg dose with enoxaparin, which included 4,374 patients. Total VTE (venographic and symptomatic) plus all-cause mortality (primary efficacy), major VTE (proximal deep vein thrombosis [DVT] or non-fatal pulmonary embolism) plus VTE-related death, and bleeding events were evaluated. Efficacy analysis was based on the modified intention-to-treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was based on all treated patients. The common risk difference (RD) for dabigatran versus enoxaparin was estimated using a fixed effects model. RESULTS: Total VTE and all-cause mortality occurred in 6.8 % (114/1,672) and 7.7 % (129/1,682) (RD:-0.8 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] -2.6 to 0.9) for dabigatran and enoxaparin, respectively. Major VTE plus VTE-related mortality occurred in 2.7 % (46/1,714) and 4.0 % (69/1,711) (RD: -1.4 %, 95 % CI -2.6 to -0.2) of patients receiving dabigatran 220 mg and enoxaparin, respectively. Major bleeding occurred in 1.7 % (37/2,156) and 1.3 % (27/2,157) (RD: 0.5 %, 95 % CI -0.2 to 1.2), for dabigatran and enoxaparin respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Extended prophylaxis with oral dabigatran 220 mg once daily was as effective as enoxaparin 40 mg once daily in reducing the risk of total VTE and all-cause mortality after total hip arthroplasty, with a similar bleeding profile. The clinically relevant outcome of major VTE and VTE-related death was significantly reduced with dabigatran versus enoxaparin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00657150 and NCT00168818.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 373(22): 2117-28, 2015 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26378978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients to receive 10 mg or 25 mg of empagliflozin or placebo once daily. The primary composite outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, as analyzed in the pooled empagliflozin group versus the placebo group. The key secondary composite outcome was the primary outcome plus hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS: A total of 7020 patients were treated (median observation time, 3.1 years). The primary outcome occurred in 490 of 4687 patients (10.5%) in the pooled empagliflozin group and in 282 of 2333 patients (12.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the empagliflozin group, 0.86; 95.02% confidence interval, 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.04 for superiority). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of myocardial infarction or stroke, but in the empagliflozin group there were significantly lower rates of death from cardiovascular causes (3.7%, vs. 5.9% in the placebo group; 38% relative risk reduction), hospitalization for heart failure (2.7% and 4.1%, respectively; 35% relative risk reduction), and death from any cause (5.7% and 8.3%, respectively; 32% relative risk reduction). There was no significant between-group difference in the key secondary outcome (P=0.08 for superiority). Among patients receiving empagliflozin, there was an increased rate of genital infection but no increase in other adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events who received empagliflozin, as compared with placebo, had a lower rate of the primary composite cardiovascular outcome and of death from any cause when the study drug was added to standard care. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPA-REG OUTCOME ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01131676.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
20.
Thromb Haemost ; 114(1): 150-7, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25739680

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of dabigatran for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) were demonstrated in two trials. It is unclear if the results pertain to patients with cancer and VTE. Data from two randomised trials comparing dabigatran and warfarin for acute VTE were pooled. Primary efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent VTE and related death from randomisation to the end of the treatment period. Safety outcomes were major, major and clinically relevant non-major, and any bleeding during the oral-only treatment period. Patients with active cancer (=within 5 years) at baseline or diagnosed during the study were analysed. Compared with 4,772 patients without cancer, recurrent VTE occurred more frequently in 335 patients with cancer at any time (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 2.1-5.3) and more often in 114 with cancer diagnosed during the study compared to 221 with cancer at baseline (HR 2.6; 95 % CI, 1.1-6.2). There was no significant difference in efficacy between dabigatran and warfarin for cancer at baseline (HR 0.75; 95 % CI, 0.20-2.8) or diagnosed during the study (HR 0.63; 95 % CI, 0.20-2.0). Major bleeding (HR 4.1; 95 % CI, 2.2-7.5) and any bleeding (HR 1.5; 95 % CI, 1.2-2.0) were more frequent in patients with cancer than without, but with similar incidence in cancer with dabigatran or warfarin. In conclusion, in cancer patients, dabigatran provided similar clinical benefit as warfarin. VTE recurrence or bleeding were similar in patients on dabigatran or warfarin. The efficacy of dabigatran has not been assessed in comparison with low-molecular-weight heparin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
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