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1.
Epigenetics ; : 1-12, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784848

RESUMO

Selenium is an important micronutrient for foetal development. MicroRNAs play an important role in the function of the placenta, in communication between the placenta and maternal systems, and their expression can be altered through environmental and nutritional cues. To investigate the associations between placental selenium concentration and microRNA expression in the placenta, our observational study included 393 mother-child pairs from the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) and the Rhode Island Child Health Study (RICHS). Placental selenium concentrations were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and microRNA transcripts were measured using RNA-seq. We fit negative binomial additive models for assessing the association between selenium and microRNAs. We used the microRNA Data Integration Portal (mirDIP) to predict the target mRNAs of the differentially expressed microRNAs and verified the relationships between miRNA and mRNA targets in a subset of samples using existing whole transcriptome data (N = 199). We identified a non-monotonic association between selenium concentration and the expression of miR-216a-5p/miR-217-5p cluster (effective degrees of freedom, EDF = 2.44 and 2.08; FDR = 3.08 × 10-5) in placenta. Thirty putative target mRNAs of miR-216a-5p and/or miR-217-5p were identified computationally and empirically and were enriched in selenium metabolic pathways (driven by selenoprotein coding genes, TXNRD2 and SELENON). Our findings suggest that selenium influences placental microRNA expression. Further, miR-216a-5p and its putative target mRNAs could be the potential mechanistic targets of the health effect of selenium.

2.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757660

RESUMO

Metabolites, the biochemical products of the cellular process, can be used to measure alterations in biochemical pathways related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the relationships between systemic abnormalities in metabolism and the pathogenesis of AD are poorly understood. In this study, we aim to identify AD-specific metabolomic changes and their potential upstream genetic and transcriptional regulators through an integrative systems biology framework for analyzing genetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data in AD. Metabolite co-expression network analysis of the blood metabolomic data in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) shows short-chain acylcarnitines/amino acids and medium/long-chain acylcarnitines are most associated with AD clinical outcomes, including episodic memory scores and disease severity. Integration of the gene expression data in both the blood from the ADNI and the brain from the Accelerating Medicines Partnership Alzheimer's Disease (AMP-AD) program reveals ABCA1 and CPT1A are involved in the regulation of acylcarnitines and amino acids in AD. Gene co-expression network analysis of the AMP-AD brain RNA-seq data suggests the CPT1A- and ABCA1-centered subnetworks are associated with neuronal system and immune response, respectively. Increased ABCA1 gene expression and adiponectin protein, a regulator of ABCA1, correspond to decreased short-chain acylcarnitines and amines in AD in the ADNI. In summary, our integrated analysis of large-scale multiomics data in AD systematically identifies novel metabolites and their potential regulators in AD and the findings pave a way for not only developing sensitive and specific diagnostic biomarkers for AD but also identifying novel molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis.

3.
Exp Neurol ; 347: 113919, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752786

RESUMO

Despite several decades of research and prevention efforts, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) remain the most common preventable cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities worldwide. Animal and human studies have implicated fetal alcohol-induced alterations in epigenetic programming as a chief mechanism in FASD. Several studies have demonstrated fetal alcohol-related alterations in methylation and expression of imprinted genes in placental, brain, and embryonic tissue. Imprinted genes are epigenetically regulated in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, in which only the maternal or paternal allele is expressed, and the other allele is silenced. The chief functions of imprinted genes are in placental development, somatic growth, and neurobehavior-three domains characteristically affected in FASD. In this review, we summarize the growing body of literature characterizing prenatal alcohol-related alterations in imprinted gene methylation and/or expression and discuss potential mechanistic roles for these alterations in the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Future research is needed to examine potential physiologic mechanisms by which alterations in imprinted genes disrupt development in FASD, which may, in turn, elucidate novel targets for intervention. Furthermore, mechanistic alterations in imprinted gene expression and/or methylation in FASD may inform screening assays that identify individuals with FASD neurobehavioral deficits who may benefit from early interventions.

4.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic and environmental factors are underlying causes of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We hypothesized that integration of the genetic loci controlling a metabolite's abundance, with known IBD genetic susceptibility loci, may help resolve metabolic drivers of IBD. METHODS: We measured the levels of 1300 metabolites in the serum of 484 ulcerative colitis (UC) and 464 Crohn's disease (CD) patients and 365 controls. Differential metabolite abundance was determined for disease status, subtype, clinical and endoscopic disease activity as well as IBD phenotype including disease behavior, location and extent. To inform on the genetic basis underlying metabolic diversity, we integrated metabolite and genomic data. Genetic colocalization and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed using known IBD risk loci to explore whether any metabolite was causally associated with IBD. RESULTS: We found 173 genetically controlled metabolites (mQTL, 9 novel) within 63 non-overlapping loci (7 novel). Furthermore, several metabolites significantly associated with IBD disease status and activity as defined by clinical and endoscopic indexes. This constitutes a resource for biomarker discovery and IBD biology insights. Using this resource, we show that a novel mQTL for serum butyrate levels containing ACADS was not supported as causal for IBD; replicate the association of serum omega-6 containing lipids with the fatty acid desaturase 1/2 locus and identify these metabolites as causal for CD through MR; and validate a novel association of serum plasmalogen and TMEM229B, which was predicted causal for CD. CONCLUSION: An exploratory analysis combining genetics and unbiased serum metabolome surveys can reveal novel biomarkers of disease activity and potential mediators of pathology in IBD.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 131(22)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499625

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles in donor kidneys associate with graft loss, but whether recipient risk allele expression affects transplant outcomes is unclear. To test whether recipient APOL1 risk alleles independently correlate with transplant outcomes, we analyzed genome-wide SNP genotyping data on donors and recipients from 2 kidney transplant cohorts: Genomics of Chronic Allograft Rejection (GOCAR) and Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation 01/17 (CTOT-01/17). We estimated genetic ancestry (quantified as the proportion of African ancestry, or pAFR) by ADMIXTURE and correlated APOL1 genotypes and pAFR with outcomes. In the GOCAR discovery set, we noted that the number of recipient APOL1 G1/G2 alleles (R-nAPOL1) associated with an increased risk of death-censored allograft loss (DCAL), independent of ancestry (HR = 2.14; P = 0.006), as well as within the subgroup of African American and Hispanic (AA/H) recipients (HR = 2.36; P = 0.003). R-nAPOL1 also associated with an increased risk of any T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) event. These associations were validated in CTOT-01/17. Ex vivo studies of PMBCs revealed, unexpectedly, high expression levels of APOL1 in activated CD4+/CD8+ T cells and NK cells. We detected enriched immune response gene pathways in risk allele carriers compared with noncarriers on the kidney transplant waitlist and among healthy controls. Our findings demonstrate an immunomodulatory role for recipient APOL1 risk alleles associated with TCMR and DCAL. We believe this finding has broader implications for immune-mediated injury to native kidneys.

7.
Gastroenterology ; 161(6): 1953-1968.e15, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Disease extent varies in ulcerative colitis (UC) from proctitis to left-sided colitis to pancolitis and is a major prognostic factor. When the extent of UC is limited there is often a sharp demarcation between macroscopically involved and uninvolved areas and what defines this or subsequent extension is unknown. We characterized the demarcation site molecularly and determined genes associated with subsequent disease extension. METHODS: We performed RNA sequence analysis of biopsy specimens from UC patients with endoscopically and histologically confirmed limited disease, of which a subset later extended. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the endoscopically inflamed upper (proximal) limit of disease, immediately adjacent to the uninvolved colon, as well as at more proximal, endoscopically uninflamed colonic segments. RESULTS: Differentially expressed genes were identified in the endoscopically inflamed biopsy specimens taken at each patient's most proximal diseased site relative to healthy controls. Expression of these genes in the more proximal biopsy specimens transitioned back to control levels abruptly or gradually, the latter pattern supporting the concept that disease exists beyond the endoscopic disease demarcation site. The gradually transitioning genes were associated with inflammation, angiogenesis, glucuronidation, and homeodomain pathways. A subset of these genes in inflamed biopsy specimens was found to predict disease extension better than clinical features and were responsive to biologic therapies. Network analysis revealed critical roles for interferon signaling in UC inflammation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 14 (PARP14) was a predicted key driver gene of extension. Higher PARP14 protein levels were found in inflamed biopsy specimens of patients with limited UC that subsequently extended. CONCLUSION: Molecular predictors of disease extension reveal novel strategies for disease prognostication and potential therapeutic targeting.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5095, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429407

RESUMO

Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) contributes to poor birth outcomes, in part through disrupted placental functions, which may be reflected in the placental epigenome. Here we present a meta-analysis of the associations between MSDP and placental DNA methylation (DNAm) and between DNAm and birth outcomes within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium (N = 1700, 344 with MSDP). We identify 443 CpGs that are associated with MSDP, of which 142 associated with birth outcomes, 40 associated with gene expression, and 13 CpGs are associated with all three. Only two CpGs have consistent associations from a prior meta-analysis of cord blood DNAm, demonstrating substantial tissue-specific responses to MSDP. The placental MSDP-associated CpGs are enriched for environmental response genes, growth-factor signaling, and inflammation, which play important roles in placental function. We demonstrate links between placental DNAm, MSDP and poor birth outcomes, which may better inform the mechanisms through which MSDP impacts placental function and fetal growth.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Gravidez , Tabaco
9.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411004

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDThe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele is more prevalent among African Americans compared with other races and ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the African American population.METHODSWe identified 6218 patients who were admitted into Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020, in New York City. We evaluated whether the outpatient and in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in an African American compared with non-African American population.RESULTSOf the 6218 patients with COVID-19, 1138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P = 0.001), African American population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P = 0.005), and non-African American population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P = 0.06). In the African American population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P = 0.006), whereas outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P = 0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the African American population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P = 0.001), whereas ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population.CONCLUSIONIn-hospital use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive African American patients.FUNDINGNone.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , COVID-19 , Mortalidade Hospitalar/etnologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Idoso , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Chin J Dent Res ; 24(2): 125-132, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the reduction of residual dentine thickness of two different post preparation methods on the mandibular second molars with a C-shaped root canal configuration. METHODS: A total of 26 extracted right mandibular second molars with a C-shaped root canal configuration were selected and paired based on similar canal morphology. Each of the paired teeth was randomly allocated to the heat and ultrasonic instruments group (HU group) or Peeso Reamer (Mani, Utsonomiya, Japan) group (PR group) (n = 13) and received post preparation with different instruments after the same endodontic treatment. The reduction of residual dentine thickness and the minimal remaining dentine thickness at the apical sections at 4 or 7 mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) were recorded. The data were analysed using an independent samples t test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The reduction of residual dentine thickness for the HU group was less than that for the PR group in the two sections. Moreover, at the section 7 mm below the CEJ, the teeth reduction of the distolingual wall in the HU group (0.022 ± 0.007 mm) was significantly lower than that in the PR group (0.101 ± 0.013 mm) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Using heat and ultrasonic instruments to perform post preparation could follow the original canal configuration to save more tooth structure in the remaining root canal wall, minimise the reduction of residual dentine thickness and decrease the incidence of root canal perforation.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Raiz Dentária , Humanos , Mandíbula , Dente Molar , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
11.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(6): 492-503, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128372

RESUMO

Dysregulated crosstalk between different signaling pathways contributes to tumor development, including resistance to cancer therapy. In the present study, we found that the mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor trametinib failed to suppress the proliferation of PANC-1 and MGC803 cells by activating the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway, while the JAK2 inhibitor fedratinib failed to inhibit the growth of the PANC-1 cells upon stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. In particular, the most prominent enhancement of the anti-proliferative effect resulted from the concurrent blockage of the JAK2/STAT3 and ERK signaling pathways. Furthermore, the combination of the two inhibitors resulted in a reduced tumor burden in mice. Our evidence suggests novel crosstalk between JAK2/STAT3 and ERK signaling in gastric cancer (GC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells and provides a therapeutic strategy to overcome potential resistance in gastrointestinal cancer.

12.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 700, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103634

RESUMO

To identify candidate causal genes of asthma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in UK Biobank on a broad asthma definition (n = 56,167 asthma cases and 352,255 controls). We then carried out functional mapping through transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) and Mendelian randomization in lung (n = 1,038) and blood (n = 31,684) tissues. The GWAS reveals 72 asthma-associated loci from 116 independent significant variants (PGWAS < 5.0E-8). The most significant lung TWAS gene on 17q12-q21 is GSDMB (PTWAS = 1.42E-54). Other TWAS genes include TSLP on 5q22, RERE on 1p36, CLEC16A on 16p13, and IL4R on 16p12, which all replicated in GTEx lung (n = 515). We demonstrate that the largest fold enrichment of regulatory and functional annotations among asthma-associated variants is in the blood. We map 485 blood eQTL-regulated genes associated with asthma and 50 of them are causal by Mendelian randomization. Prioritization of druggable genes reveals known (IL4R, TSLP, IL6, TNFSF4) and potentially new therapeutic targets for asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transcriptoma , Reino Unido
13.
Environ Res ; 199: 111342, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence links maternal exposure to particulate matter <2.5 µM in diameter (PM2.5) and deviations in fetal growth. Several studies suggest that the placenta plays a critical role in conveying the effects of maternal PM2.5 exposure to the developing fetus. These include observed associations between air pollutants and candidate placental features, such as mitochondrial DNA content, DNA methylation and telomere length. However, gaps remain in delineating the pathways linking the placenta to air pollution-related health effects, including a comprehensive profiling of placental processes impacted by maternal PM2.5 exposure. In this study, we examined alterations in a placental transcriptome-wide network in relation to maternal PM2.5 exposure prior to and during pregnancy and infant birthweight. METHODS: We evaluated PM2.5 exposure and placental RNA-sequencing data among study participants enrolled in the Rhode Island Child Health Study (RICHS). Daily residential PM2.5 levels were estimated using a hybrid model incorporating land-use regression and satellite remote sensing data. Distributed lag models were implemented to assess the impact on infant birthweight due to PM2.5 weekly averages ranging from 12 weeks prior to gestation until birth. Correlations were assessed between PM2.5 levels averaged across the identified window of susceptibility and a placental transcriptome-wide gene coexpression network previously generated using the WGCNA R package. RESULTS: We identified a sensitive window spanning 12 weeks prior to and 13 weeks into gestation during which maternal PM2.5 exposure is significantly associated with reduced infant birthweight. Two placental coexpression modules enriched for genes involved in amino acid transport and cellular respiration were correlated with infant birthweight as well as maternal PM2.5 exposure levels averaged across the identified growth restriction window. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that maternal PM2.5 exposure may alter placental programming of fetal growth, with potential implications for downstream health effects, including susceptibility to cardiometabolic health outcomes and viral infections.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Criança , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Placenta/química , Gravidez , Rhode Island
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(20): 2531-2550, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016266

RESUMO

In this second of a 5-part Focus Seminar series, we focus on precision medicine in the context of vascular disease. The most common vascular disease worldwide is atherosclerosis, which is the primary cause of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and a large proportion of strokes and other disorders. Atherosclerosis is a complex genetic disease that likely involves many hundreds to thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, each with a relatively modest effect for causing disease. Conversely, although less prevalent, there are many vascular disorders that typically involve only a single genetic change, but these changes can often have a profound effect that is sufficient to cause disease. These are termed "Mendelian vascular diseases," which include Marfan and Loeys-Dietz syndromes. Given the very different genetic basis of atherosclerosis versus Mendelian vascular diseases, this article was divided into 2 parts to cover the most promising precision medicine approaches for these disease types.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Doenças Vasculares/terapia , Humanos
16.
Med Oncol ; 38(4): 34, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660148

RESUMO

Protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is a 415-aa multidomain scaffold protein encoded by the PICK1 gene. Accumulating evidence suggests that PICK1 is involved in the progression of cancer. However, the role of PICK1 in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. Using integrated analysis of publicly available GC transcriptome data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and immunohistochemistry analysis of samples obtained from clinical GC patients, we found that PICK1 expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric tumor tissues in comparison with adjacent normal tissues. Our analyses also revealed that decreased expression of PICK1 conferred a disadvantage on overall survival time in GC patients. Additionally, PICK1 expression showed a strong association with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway, and PICK1 might represent a functional bridge for EMT. Moreover, PICK1 expression was significantly decreased in the EMT subtype of GC and was negatively correlated with the expression of fibronectin 1 (FN1) and myosin light chain 9 (MYL9) mRNAs. Thus, our study provides evidence that PICK1 is a promising biomarker for the molecular etiology of GC.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Fibronectinas/genética , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/genética , Cadeias Leves de Miosina/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Prognóstico , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade
17.
J Pers Med ; 11(2)2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669429

RESUMO

Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) often experience gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. In recent years, the intestinal microbiome has been postulated as a contributor to the development of CF-associated GI complications, hence representing a potential therapeutic target for treatment. We recently developed a rabbit model of CF, which is shown to manifest many human patient-like pathological changes, including intestinal obstruction. Here, we investigated the feces microbiome in young CF rabbits in the absence of antibiotics treatment. Stool samples were collected from seven- to nine-week-old CF rabbits (n = 7) and age-matched wild-type (WT) rabbits (n = 6). Microbiomes were investigated by iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and functional profiles were predicted using PICRUSt. Consistent with reports of those in pediatric CF patients, the fecal microbiomes of CF rabbits are of lower richness and diversity than that of WT rabbits, with a marked taxonomic and inferred functional dysbiosis. Our work identified a new CF animal model with the manifestation of intestinal dysbiosis phenotype. This model system may facilitate the research and development of novel treatments for CF-associated gastrointestinal diseases.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1610, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712570

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 40 loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the causal variants, regulatory elements, genes and pathways remain largely unknown, impeding a mechanistic understanding of AD pathogenesis. Previously, we showed that AD risk alleles are enriched in myeloid-specific epigenomic annotations. Here, we show that they are specifically enriched in active enhancers of monocytes, macrophages and microglia. We integrated AD GWAS with myeloid epigenomic and transcriptomic datasets using analytical approaches to link myeloid enhancer activity to target gene expression regulation and AD risk modification. We identify AD risk enhancers and nominate candidate causal genes among their likely targets (including AP4E1, AP4M1, APBB3, BIN1, MS4A4A, MS4A6A, PILRA, RABEP1, SPI1, TP53INP1, and ZYX) in twenty loci. Fine-mapping of these enhancers nominates candidate functional variants that likely modify AD risk by regulating gene expression in myeloid cells. In the MS4A locus we identified a single candidate functional variant and validated it in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived microglia and brain. Taken together, this study integrates AD GWAS with multiple myeloid genomic datasets to investigate the mechanisms of AD risk alleles and nominates candidate functional variants, regulatory elements and genes that likely modulate disease susceptibility.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genômica , Células Mieloides , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Macrófagos , Microglia/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
19.
Environ Pollut ; 280: 116951, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrate is a major pollutant component in ambient PM2.5. It is known that chronic exposure to PM2.5 NO3- damages respiratory functions. We aim to explore the underlying toxicological mechanism at single cell resolution. METHODS: We systematically conducted exposure experiments on forty C57BL/6 mice, assessed respiratory functions, and profiled lung transcriptome. . Afterward, we estimated the cell type compositions from RNA-seq data using deconvolution analysis. The genes and pathways associated with respiratory function and dysregulated by to PM2.5 NO3- exposure were characterized at bulk-tissue and single-cell resolution. RESULTS: PM2.5 NO3- exposure did not significantly modify the cell type composition in lung, but profoundly altered the gene expression within each cell type. At ambient concentration (22 µg/m3), exposure significantly (FDR<10%) altered 95 genes' expression. Among the genes associated with respiratory functions, a large fraction (74.6-91.7%) were significantly perturbed by PM2.5 NO3- exposure. For example, among the 764 genes associated with peak expiratory flow (PEF), 608 (79.6%) were affected by exposure (p = 1.92e-345). Pathways known to play role in lung disease pathogenesis, including circadian rhythms, sphingolipid metabolism, immune response and lysosome, were found significantly associated with respiratory functions and disrupted by PM2.5 NO3- exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This study extended our knowledge of PM2.5 NO3- exposure's effect to the levels of lung gene expression, pathways, lung cell type composition and cell specific transcriptome. At single cell resolution, we provided insights in toxicological mechanism of PM2.5 NO3- exposure and subsequent pulmonary disease risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Consenso , Exposição Ambiental , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nitratos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
20.
Hum Genet ; 140(6): 969-979, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604698

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the current health crisis. Despite intensive research efforts, the genes and pathways that contribute to COVID-19 remain poorly understood. We, therefore, used an integrative genomics (IG) approach to identify candidate genes responsible for COVID-19 and its severity. We used Bayesian colocalization (COLOC) and summary-based Mendelian randomization to combine gene expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) from the Lung eQTL (n = 1,038) and eQTLGen (n = 31,784) studies with published COVID-19 genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative. Additionally, we used COLOC to integrate plasma protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) from the INTERVAL study (n = 3,301) with COVID-19 loci. Finally, we determined any causal associations between plasma proteins and COVID-19 using multi-variable two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR). The expression of 18 genes in lung and/or blood co-localized with COVID-19 loci. Of these, 12 genes were in suggestive loci (PGWAS < 5 × 10-05). LZTFL1, SLC6A20, ABO, IL10RB and IFNAR2 and OAS1 had been previously associated with a heightened risk of COVID-19 (PGWAS < 5 × 10-08). We identified a causal association between OAS1 and COVID-19 GWAS. Plasma ABO protein, which is associated with blood type in humans, demonstrated a significant causal relationship with COVID-19 in the MR analysis; increased plasma levels were associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 and, in particular, severe COVID-19. In summary, our study identified genes associated with COVID-19 that may be prioritized for future investigations. Importantly, this is the first study to demonstrate a causal association between plasma ABO protein and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pulmão/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fatores de Risco
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