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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710517

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease characterised by scarring of the lung that is believed to result from an atypical response to injury of the epithelium. Genome-wide association studies have reported signals of association implicating multiple pathways including host defence, telomere maintenance, signalling and cell-cell adhesion. OBJECTIVES: To improve our understanding of factors that increase IPF susceptibility by identifying previously unreported genetic associations. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: We conducted genome-wide analyses across three independent studies and meta-analysed these results to generate the largest genome-wide association study of IPF to date (2,668 IPF cases and 8,591 controls). We performed replication in two independent studies (1,456 IPF cases and 11,874 controls) and functional analyses (including statistical fine-mapping, investigations into gene expression and testing for enrichment of IPF susceptibility signals in regulatory regions) to determine putatively causal genes. Polygenic risk scores were used to assess the collective effect of variants not reported as associated with IPF. MAIN RESULTS: We identified and replicated three new genome-wide significant (P<5×10-8) signals of association with IPF susceptibility (associated with altered gene expression of KIF15, MAD1L1 and DEPTOR) and confirmed associations at 11 previously reported loci. Polygenic risk score analyses showed that the combined effect of many thousands of as-yet unreported IPF susceptibility variants contribute to IPF susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: The observation that decreased DEPTOR expression associates with increased susceptibility to IPF, supports recent studies demonstrating the importance of mTOR signalling in lung fibrosis. New signals of association implicating KIF15 and MAD1L1 suggest a possible role of mitotic spindle-assembly genes in IPF susceptibility. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

2.
Eur Respir J ; 54(6)2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537701

RESUMO

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are widely prescribed for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), yet have variable outcomes and adverse reactions, which may be genetically determined. The primary aim of the study was to identify the genetic determinants for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) changes related to ICS therapy.In the Lung Health Study (LHS)-2, 1116 COPD patients were randomised to the ICS triamcinolone acetonide (n=559) or placebo (n=557) with spirometry performed every 6 months for 3 years. We performed a pharmacogenomic genome-wide association study for the genotype-by-ICS treatment effect on 3 years of FEV1 changes (estimated as slope) in 802 genotyped LHS-2 participants. Replication was performed in 199 COPD patients randomised to the ICS, fluticasone or placebo.A total of five loci showed genotype-by-ICS interaction at p<5×10-6; of these, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs111720447 on chromosome 7 was replicated (discovery p=4.8×10-6, replication p=5.9×10-5) with the same direction of interaction effect. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data revealed that in glucocorticoid-treated (dexamethasone) A549 alveolar cell line, glucocorticoid receptor binding sites were located near SNP rs111720447. In stratified analyses of LHS-2, genotype at SNP rs111720447 was significantly associated with rate of FEV1 decline in patients taking ICS (C allele ß 56.36 mL·year-1, 95% CI 29.96-82.76 mL·year-1) and in patients who were assigned to placebo, although the relationship was weaker and in the opposite direction to that in the ICS group (C allele ß -27.57 mL·year-1, 95% CI -53.27- -1.87 mL·year-1).The study uncovered genetic factors associated with FEV1 changes related to ICS in COPD patients, which may provide new insight on the potential biology of steroid responsiveness in COPD.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424497

RESUMO

AIMS: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a poorly understood disease that predominantly affects women during middle-life, with features that include stenosis, aneurysm and dissection of medium-large arteries. Recently, plasma proteomics has emerged as an important means to understand cardiovascular diseases. Our objectives were: (1) To characterize plasma proteins and determine if any exhibit differential abundance in FMD subjects versus matched healthy controls; (2) To leverage these protein data to conduct systems analyses to provide biologic insights on FMD, and explore if this could be developed into a blood-based FMD test. METHODS AND RESULTS: Females with 'multifocal' FMD and matched healthy controls underwent clinical phenotyping, dermal biopsy and blood draw. Using dual-capture proximity-extension-assay and nuclear magnetic resonance-spectroscopy, we evaluated plasma levels of 981 proteins and 31 lipid sub-classes, respectively. In a discovery cohort (Ncases=90, Ncontrols=100), we identified 105 proteins and 16 lipid sub-classes (predominantly triglycerides and fatty acids) with differential plasma abundance in FMD cases versus controls. In an independent cohort (Ncases=23, Ncontrols=28), we successfully validated 37 plasma proteins and 10 lipid sub-classes with differential abundance. Among these, 5/37 proteins exhibited genetic control and Bayesian analyses identified 3 of these as potential upstream drivers of FMD. In a third cohort (Ncases=506, Ncontrols=876) the genetic locus of one of these upstream disease drivers, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), was independently validated as being associated with risk of having FMD (OR = 1.36; P = 0.0003). Immune-fluorescence staining identified that CD2AP is expressed by the endothelium of medium-large arteries. Finally, machine learning trained on the discovery cohort was used to develop a test for FMD. When independently applied to the validation cohort, the test showed a c-statistic of 0.73 and sensitivity of 78.3%. CONCLUSIONS: FMD exhibits a plasma proteogenomic and lipid signature that includes potential causative disease drivers, and which holds promise for developing a blood-based test for this disease. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a poorly understood disease with no specific therapies, which can cause stenosis, aneurysm and dissection of medium-large arteries. At present, FMD is usually diagnosed by imaging studies, and screening for this disease can be challenging. We performed a 'reverse-translational' clinical study leveraging plasma and DNA samples from FMD patients and healthy matched controls to better understand this disease. We found that FMD patients exhibit a plasma proteogenomic signature that includes promising disease candidates. While further development will be required, our proof-of-concept analyses suggest that it may also be possible to develop a blood-based test for FMD.

4.
Epigenetics ; : 1-16, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462129

RESUMO

Copper is an essential trace nutrient and an enzymatic cofactor necessary for diverse physiological and biological processes. Copper metabolism is uniquely controlled in the placenta and changes to copper metabolism have been linked with adverse birth outcomes. We investigated associations between patterns of DNA methylation (DNAm; measured at >485 k CpG sites) and copper concentration measured from placentae in two independent mother-infant cohorts: the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS, n = 306) and the Rhode Island Child Health Study (RICHS, n = 141). We identified nine copper-associated differentially methylated regions (DMRs; adjusted P < 0.05) and 15 suggestive CpGs (raw P < 1e-5). One of the most robust variably methylated CpGs associated with the expression of the antioxidant, GSTP1. Our most robust DMR negatively associates with the expression of the zinc-finger gene, ZNF197 (FDR = 4.5e-11). Genes co-expressed with ZNF197, a transcription factor, are enriched for genes that associate with birth weight in RICHS (OR = 2.9, P = 2.6e-6, N = 194), genes that are near a ZNF197 consensus binding motif (OR = 1.34, P = 0.01, N = 194), and for those classified in GO biological processes growth hormone secretion (P = 3.4e-4), multicellular organism growth (P = 3.8e-4), and molecular functions related to lipid biosynthesis (P = 1.9e-4). Further, putative transcriptional targets for ZNF197 include genes involved in copper metabolism and placentation. Our results suggest that copper metabolism is tied to DNAm in the placenta and that copper-associated patterns in DNAm may mediate normal placentation and foetal development.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 10-20% of patients develop long-term toxicity following radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Identification of common genetic variants associated with susceptibility to radiotoxicity might improve risk prediction and inform functional mechanistic studies. METHODS: We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies (n = 3,871) in men with European ancestry who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiotoxicities (increased urinary frequency, decreased urinary stream, hematuria, rectal bleeding) were graded prospectively. Grouped relative risk models tested associations with ∼6 million genotyped/imputed variants (time to first ≥grade 2 toxicity event). Variants with two-sided Pmeta<5x10-8 were considered statistically significant. Bayesian false discovery probability provided an additional measure of confidence. Statistically significant variants were evaluated in three Japanese cohorts (n = 962). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the European ancestry cohorts identified three genomic signals: single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17055178 with rectal bleeding (Pmeta=6.2x10-10), rs10969913 with decreased urinary stream (Pmeta=2.9x10-10) and rs11122573 with hematuria (Pmeta=1.8x10-8). Fine scale mapping of these three regions identified another independent signal (rs147121532) associated with hematuria (Pconditional=4.7x10-6). Credible causal variants at these four signals lie in gene-regulatory regions, some modulating expression of nearby genes. Previously identified variants showed consistent associations (rs17599026 with increased urinary frequency, rs7720298 with decreased urinary stream, rs1801516 with overall toxicity) in new cohorts. rs10969913 and rs17599026 had similar effects in the photon-treated Japanese cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study increases understanding of the architecture of common genetic variants affecting radiotoxicity, points to novel radio-pathogenic mechanisms, and develops risk models for testing in clinical studies. Further multi-national radiogenomics studies in larger cohorts are worthwhile.

8.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 804-814, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043758

RESUMO

Birth weight variation is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors, and has been reproducibly associated with future cardio-metabolic health outcomes. In expanded genome-wide association analyses of own birth weight (n = 321,223) and offspring birth weight (n = 230,069 mothers), we identified 190 independent association signals (129 of which are novel). We used structural equation modeling to decompose the contributions of direct fetal and indirect maternal genetic effects, then applied Mendelian randomization to illuminate causal pathways. For example, both indirect maternal and direct fetal genetic effects drive the observational relationship between lower birth weight and higher later blood pressure: maternal blood pressure-raising alleles reduce offspring birth weight, but only direct fetal effects of these alleles, once inherited, increase later offspring blood pressure. Using maternal birth weight-lowering genotypes to proxy for an adverse intrauterine environment provided no evidence that it causally raises offspring blood pressure, indicating that the inverse birth weight-blood pressure association is attributable to genetic effects, and not to intrauterine programming.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Troca Materno-Fetal/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215745, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026301

RESUMO

Circadian disruption is a common environmental and occupational exposure with public health consequences, but not much is known about whether circadian disruption affects in utero development. We investigated whether maternal circadian disruption, using night shift work as a proxy, is associated with variations in DNA methylation patterns of placental tissue in an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of night shift work. Here, we compared cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide (CpG) specific methylation genome-wide of placental tissue (measured with the Illumina 450K array) from participants (n = 237) in the Rhode Island Child Health Study (RICHS) who did (n = 53) and did not (n = 184) report working the night shift, using robust linear modeling and adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy smoking, infant sex, maternal adversity, and putative cell mixture. Statistical analyses were adjusted for multiple comparisons and results presented with Bonferroni or Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) adjustment for false discovery rate. Night shift work was associated with differential methylation in placental tissue, including CpG sites in the genes NAV1, SMPD1, TAPBP, CLEC16A, DIP2C, FAM172A, and PLEKHG6 (Bonferroni-adjusted p<0.05). CpG sites within NAV1, MXRA8, GABRG1, PRDM16, WNT5A, and FOXG1 exhibited the most hypomethylation, while CpG sites within TDO2, ADAMTSL3, DLX2, and SERPINA1 exhibited the most hypermethylation (BH q<0.10). Functional analysis indicated GO-terms associated with cell-cell adhesion and enriched GWAS results for psoriasis. Night shift work was associated with differential methylation of the placenta, which may have implications for fetal health and development. This is the first study to examine the epigenetic impacts of night shift exposure, as a proxy for circadian disruption, on placental methylation in humans, and, while results should be interpreted with caution, suggests circadian disruption may have epigenetic impacts.

10.
Environ Int ; 126: 413-421, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzophenones (BPs), parabens, and triclosan (TCS) are widely used in personal care products and may be neurotoxic to children, but limited studies have estimated the associations between exposure to these potential endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy and child neurocognitive development. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the relationships of prenatal exposure to BPs, parabens and TCS with child neurocognitive development at age 2. METHODS: From 2014 to 2015, 478 mother-child pairs from a longitudinal prenatal cohort in China were included in present study. We quantified BPs, parabens and TCS in three spot urine samples during pregnancy (in the first, second, and third trimester). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) test to children was performed at 2 years. Multivariate linear regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to examine changes in mental developmental index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) per 2-fold increase in averaged and trimester-specific maternal urinary phenols, respectively. RESULTS: In the adjusted models, each 2-fold increase in average prenatal paraben concentration was associated with lower MDI scores among girls [-1.08 (95% CI: -2.10, -0.06) and - 1.51 (95% CI: -2.69, -0.32) for methyl paraben (Mep) and Σparabens, respectively], but the association was not statistically significant among boys [-0.24 (95% CI: -1.46, 0.99), Psex-int = 0.37 and 0.18 (95% CI: -1.28, 1.64), Psex-int = 0.10 for Mep and Σparabens, respectively]. Increasing urinary 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP) concentration was associated with lower PDI scores among boys [-2.96 (95% CI: -4.48, -1.45)], not girls [-0.07 (95% CI: -1.57, 1.43)] and the association was significantly different in boys and girls (Psex-int = 0.01). No significant associations were observed between the average prenatal TCS exposure and BSID results. In trimester-specific analyses, increasing parabens was associated with lower girls' MDI only in the second trimester, while increasing 4-OH-BP was associated with lower boys' PDI in each trimester. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to BPs and parabens may be associated with impairment in child cognitive abilities at 2 years. Further human and animal studies are needed to verify our results and elucidate the biological mechanisms involved in these associations.


Assuntos
Benzofenonas/urina , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Parabenos/análise , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Triclosan/urina , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3546, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837576

RESUMO

Dietary polyphenols promote memory in models of sleep deprivation (SD), stress, and neurodegeneration. The biological properties of dietary polyphenols greatly depend upon the bioavailability of their phenolic metabolites derivatives, which are modulated by gut microbiota. We recently demonstrated that supplementation with grape-derived bioactive dietary polyphenol preparation (BDPP) improves SD-induced cognitive impairment. This study examined the role of the gut microbiota in the ability of BDPP to prevent memory impairment in response to SD. C57BL6/J mice, treated with antibiotics mix (ABX) or BDPP or both, were sleep-deprived at the end of a fear conditioning training session and fear memory was assessed the next day. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed in fecal samples and BDPP-driven phenolic acid metabolites extraction was measured in plasma. We report that the beneficial effect of BDPP on memory in SD is attenuated by ABX-induced dysbiosis. We identified specific communities of fecal microbiota that are associated with the bioavailability of BDPP-derived phenolic acids, which in turn, are associated with memory promotion. These results suggest the gut microbiota composition significantly affects the bioavailability of phenolic acids that drive the dietary polyphenols' cognitive resilience property. Our findings provide a preclinical model with which to test the causal association of gut microbiota-polyphenols, with the ultimate goal of potential developing dietary polyphenols for the prevention/treatment of cognitive impairment.

12.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 592-599, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926968

RESUMO

Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) integrate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene expression datasets to identify gene-trait associations. In this Perspective, we explore properties of TWAS as a potential approach to prioritize causal genes at GWAS loci, by using simulations and case studies of literature-curated candidate causal genes for schizophrenia, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and Crohn's disease. We explore risk loci where TWAS accurately prioritizes the likely causal gene as well as loci where TWAS prioritizes multiple genes, some likely to be non-causal, owing to sharing of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). TWAS is especially prone to spurious prioritization with expression data from non-trait-related tissues or cell types, owing to substantial cross-cell-type variation in expression levels and eQTL strengths. Nonetheless, TWAS prioritizes candidate causal genes more accurately than simple baselines. We suggest best practices for causal-gene prioritization with TWAS and discuss future opportunities for improvement. Our results showcase the strengths and limitations of using eQTL datasets to determine causal genes at GWAS loci.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética
13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is defined as either the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% or < lower limit of normal (LLN). This study aimed to assess the overlap between genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on airflow obstruction using these two definitions in the same population stratified by smoking. METHODS: GWASes were performed in the LifeLines Cohort Study for both airflow obstruction definitions in never-smokers (NS = 5071) and ever-smokers (ES = 4855). The FEV1/FVC < 70% models were adjusted for sex, age, and height; FEV1/FVC < LLN models were not adjusted. Ever-smokers models were additionally adjusted for pack-years and current-smoking. The overlap in significantly associated SNPs between the two definitions and never/ever-smokers was assessed using several p-value thresholds. To quantify the agreement, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the p-values and ORs. Replication was performed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study (NS = 432, ES = 823). The overlapping SNPs with p < 10- 4 were validated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen and Rotterdam Study cohorts (NS = 1966, ES = 3134) and analysed for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue (n = 1087). RESULTS: In the LifeLines cohort, 96% and 93% of the never- and ever-smokers were classified concordantly based on the two definitions. 26 and 29% of the investigated SNPs were overlapping at p < 0.05 in never- and ever-smokers, respectively. At p < 10- 4 the overlap was 4% and 6% respectively, which could be change findings as shown by simulation studies. The effect estimates of the SNPs of the two definitions correlated strongly, but the p-values showed more variation and correlated only moderately. Similar observations were made in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study. Two overlapping SNPs in never-smokers (NFYC and FABP7) had the same direction of effect in the validation cohorts and the NFYC SNP was an eQTL for NFYC-AS1. NFYC is a transcription factor that binds to several known COPD genes, and FABP7 may be involved in abnormal pulmonary development. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of airflow obstruction and the population under study may be important determinants of which SNPs are associated with airflow obstruction. The genes FABP7 and NFYC(-AS1) could play a role in airflow obstruction in never-smokers specifically.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína 7 de Ligação a Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homologia de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(7): e39, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722045

RESUMO

The associations between diseases/traits and copy number variants (CNVs) have not been systematically investigated in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), primarily due to a lack of robust and accurate tools for CNV genotyping. Herein, we propose a novel ensemble learning framework, ensembleCNV, to detect and genotype CNVs using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data. EnsembleCNV (a) identifies and eliminates batch effects at raw data level; (b) assembles individual CNV calls into CNV regions (CNVRs) from multiple existing callers with complementary strengths by a heuristic algorithm; (c) re-genotypes each CNVR with local likelihood model adjusted by global information across multiple CNVRs; (d) refines CNVR boundaries by local correlation structure in copy number intensities; (e) provides direct CNV genotyping accompanied with confidence score, directly accessible for downstream quality control and association analysis. Benchmarked on two large datasets, ensembleCNV outperformed competing methods and achieved a high call rate (93.3%) and reproducibility (98.6%), while concurrently achieving high sensitivity by capturing 85% of common CNVs documented in the 1000 Genomes Project. Given this CNV call rate and accuracy, which are comparable to SNP genotyping, we suggest ensembleCNV holds significant promise for performing genome-wide CNV association studies and investigating how CNVs predispose to human diseases.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
15.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
16.
Pediatr Res ; 85(4): 463-468, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis (CS), the premature fusion of one or more neurocranial sutures, is associated with approximately 200 syndromes; however, about 65-85% of patients present with no additional major birth defects. METHODS: We conducted targeted next-generation sequencing of 60 known syndromic and other candidate genes in patients with sagittal nonsyndromic CS (sNCS, n = 40) and coronal nonsyndromic CS (cNCS, n = 19). RESULTS: We identified 18 previously published and 5 novel pathogenic variants, including three de novo variants. Novel variants included a paternally inherited c.2209C>G:p.(Leu737Val) variant in BBS9 of a patient with cNCS. Common variants in BBS9, a gene required for ciliogenesis during cranial suture development, have been associated with sNCS risk in a previous genome-wide association study. We also identified c.313G>T:p.(Glu105*) variant in EFNB1 and c.435G>C:p.(Lys145Asn) variant in TWIST1, both in patients with cNCS. Mutations in EFNB1 and TWIST1 have been linked to craniofrontonasal and Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, respectively; both present with coronal CS. CONCLUSIONS: We provide additional evidence that variants in genes implicated in syndromic CS play a role in isolated CS, supporting their inclusion in genetic panels for screening patients with NCS. We also identified a novel BBS9 variant that further shows the potential involvement of BBS9 in the pathogenesis of CS.

17.
Elife ; 82019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666957

RESUMO

To identify factors that regulate gut microbiota density and the impact of varied microbiota density on health, we assayed this fundamental ecosystem property in fecal samples across mammals, human disease, and therapeutic interventions. Physiologic features of the host (carrying capacity) and the fitness of the gut microbiota shape microbiota density. Therapeutic manipulation of microbiota density in mice altered host metabolic and immune homeostasis. In humans, gut microbiota density was reduced in Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. The gut microbiota in recurrent Clostridium difficile infection had lower density and reduced fitness that were restored by fecal microbiota transplantation. Understanding the interplay between microbiota and disease in terms of microbiota density, host carrying capacity, and microbiota fitness provide new insights into microbiome structure and microbiome targeted therapeutics. Editorial note: This article has been through an editorial process in which the authors decide how to respond to the issues raised during peer review. The Reviewing Editor's assessment is that all the issues have been addressed (see decision letter).

18.
J Nutr Biochem ; 64: 170-181, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530257

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota actively converts dietary flavanols into phenolic acids, some of which are bioavailable in vivo and may promote resilience to select neurological disorders by interfering with key pathologic mechanisms. Since every person harbors a unique set of gut bacteria, we investigated the influence of the gut microbiota's interpersonal heterogeneity on the production and bioavailability of flavonoid metabolites that may interfere with the misfolding of alpha (α)-synuclein, a process that plays a central role in Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathies. We generated two experimental groups of humanized gnotobiotic mice with compositionally diverse gut bacteria and orally treated the mice with a flavanol-rich preparation (FRP). The two gnotobiotic mouse groups exhibited distinct differences in the generation and bioavailability of FRP-derived microbial phenolic acid metabolites that have bioactivity towards interfering with α-synuclein misfolding or inflammation. We also demonstrated that these bioactive phenolic acids are effective in modulating the development and progression of motor dysfunction in a Drosophila model of α-synucleinopathy. Lastly, through in vitro bacterial fermentation studies, we identified select bacteria that are capable of supporting the generation of these bioavailable and bioactive phenolic acids. Outcomes from our studies provide a better understanding of how interpersonal heterogeneity in the gut microbiota differentially modulates the efficacy of dietary flavanols to protect against select pathologic mechanisms. Collectively, our findings provide the basis for future developments of probiotic, prebiotic, or synbiotic approaches for modulating the onset and/or progression of α-synucleinopathies and other neurological disorders involving protein misfolding and/or inflammation.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 167: 269-277, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with respiratory function decline in epidemiological studies. We hypothesize that a possible underlying mechanism is the perturbation of airway microbiome by PM exposure. METHODS: During October 2016-October 2017, on two human cohorts (n = 115 in total) in Shanghai China, we systematically collected three categories of data: (1) respiratory functions, (2) airway microbiome from sputum, and (3) PM2.5 (PM of ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) level in ambient air. We investigated the impact of PM2.5 on airway microbiome as well as the link between airway microbiome and respiratory functions using linear mixed regression models. RESULTS: The respiratory function of our primary interest includes forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1). FEV1/FVC, an important respiratory function trait and key diagnosis criterion of COPD, was significantly associated with airway bacteria load (p = 0.0038); and FEV1 was associated with airway microbiome profile (p = 0.013). Further, airway microbiome was significantly influenced by PM2.5 exposure (p = 4.48E-11). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, for the first time, we demonstrated the impact of PM2.5 on airway microbiome, and reported the link between airway microbiome and respiratory functions. The results expand our understanding on the scope of PM2.5 exposure's influence on human respiratory system, and point to novel etiological mechanism of PM2.5 exposure induced diseases.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/análise , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Escarro/microbiologia , Capacidade Vital
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 169: 756-763, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a leading cause of global disease burden. Lack of suitable methods for long term measuring exposure level at individual level is crippling environmental epidemiology research of air pollution. METHODS: We report an integrative system, Bio3Air, for long term measurement of individual level air pollution exposure, currently focusing on ambient particulate matter (PM). The novel system in real-time quantifies individual's outdoor/indoor status, geological location, lung ventilation rate and PM concentration of individual's surrounding environment, and these metrics are subsequently incorporated in calculating PM exposure. RESULTS: The system is fully developed and tested in China, USA and Canada, and has been successfully applied in epidemiology study. Bio3Air offers high reliability, sensitivity, reproducibility (>99%) and accuracy. It has high time- and spatial- resolution (≤ 2 min and ≤ 20 m, respectively). Bio3Air achieved 91.89% consistency with "gold-standard" method (membrane collection and off-line analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Bio3Air represents a substantial methodological advance in environmental health research of air pollution. It captures information relevant in measuring individual's PM exposure (e.g. real-time outdoor/indoor status, location and lung ventilation rate). Such information is typically missed by conventional approaches. Additional features of Bio3Air include easy-to-use, cost-effectiveness and automated data collection, making it a powerful tool facilitating studies of air pollution exposure and health consequences.

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