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1.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163063

RESUMO

Four D-A type Zn(ii) coordination complexes, [Zn(C29H29N3O2)·(CH3OH)]·(CH3OH) (1), Zn2(C74H90N6O4)·(CH3OH) (2), [Zn(C30H28N4O2)·(CH3OH)]·(CH3OH) (3) and [Zn(C38H44N4O2)·(C2H5OH)]·(C2H5OH) (4), were designed, synthesized, and studied. Their fluorescence properties in the solid state and in THF solution were comprehensively analysed based on their single-crystal structures. The results showed that the red-shift of fluorescence emission from complexes 1 to 4 was successfully achieved via the strategy of enhancing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) effects by increasing the number of electron-pulling and pushing groups gradually. Meanwhile, because of the fluorescence recognition abilities of these four complexes towards iodide anions in THF, they could be regarded as potential fluorescent sensors for I- in this organic solution in the future.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 716: 137095, 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059325

RESUMO

Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) is proposed as a promising vertical cutoff wall material to contain acid mine drainage (AMD). The study presents comprehensive investigations of hydraulic conductivity of ECC permeated with AMD and self-healing of ECC subjected to wet-dry cycles. The effectiveness of incorporating reactive magnesia (MgO) into ECC for self-healing enhancement is also investigated. The chemical species formed in ECC and MgO-ECC specimens after exposure to AMD are investigated via SEM, FTIR, XRD and TGA analyses. The results show hydraulic conductivity of un-cracked and cracked ECC and MgO-ECC specimens pre-strained up to 1.32% is below commonly accepted limits of 10-8 m/s when permeated with AMD. The self-healing capacity of ECC specimens subjected to wet-dry cycles using both tap water and AMD as immersing liquids is improved by MgO addition. MgO addition is also beneficial for reducing hydraulic conductivity of un-cracked and cracked ECC specimens permeated with AMD. MgO addition results formation of new self-healing products including hydromagnesite and brucite when exposed to tap water, and hydrotalcite-like phase (Ht) when exposed to AMD.

3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1867(4): 118647, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926942

RESUMO

Cisplatin-based chemotherapies have long been considered as a standard chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. However, cisplatin resistance restricts beneficial therapy for patients with ovarian cancer. The ubiquitin-like protein interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes a 15-kDa protein, that is implicated in the post-translational modification of diverse proteins. In this work, we found that ISG15 was downregulated in cisplatin resistant tissues and cell lines of ovarian cancer. Functional studies demonstrated that overexpression of wild type (WT) ISG15, but not nonISGylatable (Mut) ISG15 increased cell responses to cisplatin in resistant ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, we found that WT ISG15 decreased ABCC2 expression at the protein level. Importantly, overexpression of ABCC2 blocked sensitizing effect of ISG15 on cisplatin. In addition, we identified that hnRNPA2B1 was recruited to 5'UTR of ABCC2 mRNA and promoted its translation, which was blocked by ISG15. We further demonstrated that hnRNPA2B1 could be ISGylated, and ISGylation blocked its recruitment to ABCC2 mRNA, thereby suppressed translation of ABCC2. Altogether, our data support targeting ISG15 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for patients with cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer.

4.
Cell Prolif ; 53(1): e12722, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms underlying the effects of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and autophagy on rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-aggravated periodontitis are unclear. We aimed to explore a novel target, cathepsin K (Ctsk)-mediated TLR9-related autophagy, during the progress of periodontitis with RA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DBA/J1 mouse model of periodontitis with RA was created by local colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and injection of collagen. The expression of Ctsk was inhibited by adeno-associated virus (AAV). Micro-CT, immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of TLR9-related autophagy in periodontitis with RA. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) were applied in macrophages. Western blot, immunofluorescence (IF) and qRT-PCR were used to verify the in vivo results. RESULTS: RA can promote periodontitis bone destruction in the lesion area, while inhibiting Ctsk could effectively alleviate this effect. The infiltration of macrophages, TLR9, autophagy proteins (TFEB and LC3) and inflammatory cytokines increased in the periodontitis-with-RA group and was reduced by the inhibition of Ctsk in the periodontal region. Macrophage stimulation confirmed the in vivo results. With the activation of TLR9 by CpG ODN, inhibition of Ctsk could suppress both TLR9 downstream signalling proteins and autophagy-related proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This study advanced a novel role for Ctsk in TLR9 and autophagy to explain the interaction between periodontitis and RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Catepsina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor Toll-Like 9/imunologia , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/imunologia , Catepsina K/genética , Catepsina K/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/imunologia , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/genética , Periodontite/genética , Periodontite/imunologia , Periodontite/patologia , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética
5.
Exp Cell Res ; 387(2): 111804, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877302

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is a common malignancy of the bone tissue. The rapid growth exhibited by this cancer is a primary challenge in its treatment. In many types of cancers, FAT10, a ubiquitin-like protein, is involved in several biological activities, especially cell proliferation. Herein, we demonstrate that FAT10 plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and is overexpressed in tumor tissues compared to its expression in adjacent normal tissues. Functional assays revealed that knockdown of FAT10 expression significantly repressed the proliferation of osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, our results indicate that FAT10 exhibits oncogenic functions by regulating the level of YAP1, a key protein of the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway, and a significant positive correlation exists between the levels of FAT10 and YAP1. Further analysis showed that FAT10-induced growth of osteosarcoma cells is dependent on YAP1. Mechanistically, FAT10 stabilizes YAP1 expression by regulating its ubiquitination and degradation. Taken together, our results link the two drivers of cell growth in osteosarcoma and reveal a novel pathway for FAT10 regulation. We provide new evidence for the biological and clinical significance of FAT10 as a potential biomarker for osteosarcoma.

6.
Exp Cell Res ; 385(2): 111689, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678169

RESUMO

Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) are widely involved in cell biological activities and play a key role in controlling various cell phenomena. However, the underlying mechanisms connecting ROCK2 and PFKFB3 in osteosarcoma growth and metastasis are poorly understood. In this study, we explored and analysed the role and molecular mechanism of ROCK2 and PFKFB3 in osteosarcoma. We analysed ROCK2 and PFKFB3 protein expression in 51 surgical specimens from osteosarcoma patients and determined the correlation between ROCK2 and PFKFB3. In addition, we used Transwell and wound-healing assays to detect cell invasion and migration and CCK8 and EdU assays to assess cell proliferation. Herein, we confirmed that ROCK2 and PFKFB3 proteins were significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma compared with adjacent normal tissues. Further studies revealed that knockdown of ROCK2 significantly decreased the expression levels of PFKFB3; moreover, growth and metastasis were decreased in shROCK2 osteosarcoma cells. Additionally, upregulation of PFKFB3 rescued the decreased proliferation and metastasis induced by ROCK2 knockdown, whereas knockdown of PFKFB3 decreased ROCK2-enhanced osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis. These results suggest that PFKFB3 is essential for ROCK2-mediated proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells. Mechanistically, ROCK2 stabilizes PFKFB3 expression by modifying its ubiquitination and degradation. Taken together, our results link two drivers of proliferation and metastasis in osteosarcoma and identify a novel pathway for PFKFB3 regulation. Thus, we provide new evidence of the biological and clinical significance of PFKFB3 as a potential biomarker for osteosarcoma.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5341, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767881

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(75): 11191-11194, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465038

RESUMO

Square-planar cyclometalated platinum(ii) complexes have been found to serve as turn-on phosphorescent probes selectively for biological halogen ions. This is based on the halogen ion induced self-assembly of Pt(ii) compounds in aqueous media, resulting in intermolecular Pt-Pt interaction associated emission.

10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1603: 160-164, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272732

RESUMO

An environmentally benign and cost-effective method was designed for isolating and purifying condensed arenes from acetone-extractable portion (AEP) of a high-temperature coal tar through a high pressure preparative chromatograph (HPPC) with different packings, including silica gel, octadecyl silane, octyl bonded silica gel, and diol bonded silica gel. In total, 196 compounds were detected with a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer from AEP and its eluates. From the eluates, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were successfully isolated and purified, and their structures were confirmed by their 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra in addition to their mass spectra. Extraction-HPPC device and solvent recovery process were designed and developed, which can potentially be applied to industrial production because the process is easy-to-operate and ecofriendliness. In addition, the solvents used can be easily recovered and reused, and neither waste water nor other pollutions are emitted.


Assuntos
Alcatrão/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/isolamento & purificação , Pressão , Antracenos/isolamento & purificação , Fluorenos/isolamento & purificação , Naftalenos/isolamento & purificação , Fenantrenos/isolamento & purificação , Pirenos/isolamento & purificação
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(54): 7852-7855, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215553
12.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(5): 2877-2886, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217861

RESUMO

Statins and therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) have been shown to ameliorate angiogenesis on ischemic hindlimb animals and promote human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) tube formation and proliferation. Here, we evaluate the therapeutic effect of TUS in combination with atorvastatin (Ator) therapy on angiogenesis in hindlimb ischemia and HUVECs. After subjecting excision of the left femoral artery, all mice were randomly distributed to one of four groups: Control; Ator treated mice (Ator); TUS treated mice (TUS); and Ator plus TUS treated mice (Ator+TUS). At day 14 post-surgery, the Ator plus TUS treatment cohort had the greatest blood perfusion, accompanied by elevated capillary density. In vitro, Ator plus TUS augmented tube formation, migration and proliferative capacities of HUVECs. Additionally, the united administration upregulated expression of angiogenic factors phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS), as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), both in vivo and in vitro. These benefits could be blocked by either phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or eNOS inhibitor. Our data indicated that the united administration could significantly enhance ischemia-mediated angiogenesis and exert a protective effect against ischemic/hypoxia induced damage among HUVECs through up-regulating VEGF expression and activating the PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway.

13.
Mol Cancer Res ; 17(9): 1801-1814, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147393

RESUMO

Disseminating epithelial ovarian cancer cells often become assembled into spheroids prior to their arrival at metastatic sites within the peritoneal cavity. Although epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy, the mechanisms regulating formation and metastatic potential of spheroids are poorly understood. We show that expression of a cell surface glycoprotein CD44 is an important contributing factor for spheroid formation and spheroid adhesion to mesothelial cells, and its loss impairs mesenteric metastasis. In contrast, loss of CD44 resulted in significant increase of tumor burden at several locoregional sites, including liver, and unleashed distant metastases to the thoracic cavity. Altogether our studies suggest that CD44 regulates metastatic progression of EOC in an organ-specific manner. IMPLICATIONS: Expression of CD44 promotes spheroid formation, mesothelial adhesion, and formation of mesenteric metastasis, but it suppresses development of metastasis to several peritoneal sites, including liver, and the thoracic cavity.

14.
J Endod ; 45(7): 898-906, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104818

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Endodontic disease, 1 of the most prevalent chronic infectious diseases worldwide, occurs when the dental pulp becomes infected and inflamed, leading to bone destruction around the tooth root, severe pain, and tooth loss. Although many studies have tried to develop therapies to alleviate the bone erosion and inflammation associated with endodontic disease, there is an urgent need for an effective treatment. METHODS: In this study, we used a gene-based therapy approach by administering recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6v1c1 knockdown to target both periapical bone resorption and inflammation in the mouse model of endodontic disease. RESULTS: The results showed that Atp6v1c1 knockdown is simultaneously capable of reducing bone resorption by 70% through impaired osteoclast activation, inhibiting inflammation by decreasing T-cell infiltration in the periapical lesion by 75%, and protecting the periodontal ligament from destruction caused by inflammation. Notably, AAV-mediated gene therapy of Atp6v1c1 knockdown significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokine expression, including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1α, interleukin 17, interleukin 12, and interleukin 6 levels in periapical tissues caused by bacterial infection. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that Atp6v1c1 knockdown reduced osteoclast-specific functional genes (ie, Ctsk) in periapical tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that AAV-mediated Atp6v1c1 knockdown in periapical tissues slowed endodontic disease progression, prevented bone erosion, and alleviated inflammation in the periapical tissues and periodontal ligament potentially through regulation of toll-like receptor signaling, indicating that targeting Atp6v1c1 may facilitate the design of novel therapeutic approaches to reduce inflammation and bone erosion in endodontic disease.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Reabsorção Óssea , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras , Perda do Osso Alveolar/genética , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea/genética , Dependovirus , Inativação Gênica , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osteoclastos , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
15.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(4): 2990-3002, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137247

RESUMO

Aerator is an indispensable tool in aquaculture, and China is one of the largest aquaculture countries in the world. So, the intelligent control of the aerator is of great significance to energy conservation and environmental protection and the prevention of the deterioration of dissolved oxygen. There is no intelligent aerator related work in practice and research. In this paper, we mainly study the intelligent aerator control based on deep learning, and propose a dissolved oxygen prediction algorithm with long and short term memory network, referred as DopLSTM. The prediction results are used to the intelligent control design of the aerator. As a result, it is proved that the intelligent control of the aerator can effectively reduce the power consumption and prevent the deterioration of dissolved oxygen.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Oxigênio/análise , Animais , Aquicultura/instrumentação , Aquicultura/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Água/análise
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 3090, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816232

RESUMO

Ridge-furrow with full film mulching (RFFM) is widely used in the Loess Plateau (LP) to increase maize yield. However, continuous RFFM application may cause excessive depletion of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil water storage (SWS). The present study tested four production systems, namely, (1) RFFM; (2) ridge-furrow with polyethylene film and straw mulching (RFFSM); (3) non-contoured seedbed with film mulching (FFM); and (4) non-contoured seedbed without mulching (CK) in 2013 and 2014 to identify an optimal technique to increase maize yield yet minimizing the negative effects. SWS under RFFSM was significantly higher by 5.4% and 13.4% compared to RFFM and CK, respectively. The changes in SOC were -0.2, -0.2, and -0.4 g·kg-1 for RFFM, FFM, and CK, respectively, and 0.3 g·kg-1 for RFFSM. Increased root residue and extra external carbon input to soil under RFFSM directly contributed to SOC recovery. RFFSM had a comparable grain yield but higher water use efficiency compared to RFFM. The combination of RFFSM is promising for improving SOC stocks, water storage, and maize productivity.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4143, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858460

RESUMO

Rotator cuff tears are common and are associated with shoulder pain, disability, and dysfunction. Previous studies that have reported different arthroscopic techniques are controversial. A network meta-analysis with indirect and direct evidence was performed to compare the effectiveness of arthroscopic techniques for the treatment of rotator cuff tears. PUBMED, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and Scopus were searched based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and related studies that evaluated arthroscopic techniques for the treatment of rotator cuff tears were identified in May 2018. The primary outcome measure was the retear rate. The secondary outcome measures included the constant score and the range of motion (forward flexion and external rotation). Twenty-one trials comprising 1815 shoulders were included in the study. This study indicated that single-row (SR) repair resulted in a higher retear rate than suture bridge (SB) and double-row (DR) repairs. Moreover, the SR and DR repairs resulted in higher incidences of retear than SB repair. The ranking of the treatments based on the constant score and external rotation was SB repair, SR repair and DR repair, whereas the treatment ranking according to forward flexion was SB repair, DR repair and SR repair. In summary, this network meta-analysis provides evidence that SB repairs might be the best choice to improve the postoperative recovery of function and decrease the retear rate.

18.
Chem Sci ; 10(5): 1285-1293, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809342

RESUMO

Precise quantitative measurement of viscosity at the subcellular level presents great challenges. Two-photon phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (TPPLIM) can reflect micro-environmental changes of a chromophore in a quantitative manner. Phosphorescent iridium complexes are potential TPPLIM probes due to their rich photophysical properties including environment-sensitive long-lifetime emission and high two-photon absorption (TPA) properties. In this work, a series of iridium(iii) complexes containing rotatable groups are developed as mitochondria-targeting anticancer agents and quantitative viscosity probes. Among them, Ir6 ([Ir(ppy-CHO)2(dppe)]PF6; ppy-CHO: 4-(2-pyridyl)benzaldehyde; dppe: cis-1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethene) shows satisfactory TPA properties and long lifetimes (up to 1 µs). The emission intensities and lifetimes of Ir6 are viscosity-dependent, which is mainly attributed to the configurational changes in the diphosphine ligand as proved by 1H NMR spectra. Ir6 displays potent cytotoxicity, and mechanism investigations show that it can accumulate in mitochondria and induce apoptotic cell death. Moreover, Ir6 can induce mitochondrial dysfunction and monitor the changes in mitochondrial viscosity simultaneously in a real-time and quantitative manner via TPPLIM. Upon Ir6 treatment, a time-dependent increase in viscosity and heterogeneity is observed along with the loss of membrane potential in mitochondria. In summary, our work shows that multifunctional phosphorescent metal complexes can induce and precisely detect microenvironmental changes simultaneously at the subcellular level using TPPLIM, which may deepen the understanding of the cell death mechanisms induced by these metallocompounds.

19.
J Clin Periodontol ; 46(3): 286-296, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636333

RESUMO

AIM: In this study, we investigate the mechanistic link between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis to identify a novel target (cathepsin K; Ctsk) for the treatment of comorbid periodontitis and RA. METHODS: An experimental model of periodontitis with arthritis was established in DBA/1 mice. We then tested the effect of BML-244, a specific inhibitor of Ctsk, by quantifying several inflammatory markers of TLR9 signalling both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Our results showed that periodontitis-rheumatoid arthritis comorbidity causes severer periodontal bone and joint cartilage destruction than either disease alone. Inhibition of Ctsk reduced infiltration by dendritic cells and T cells and inflammatory cytokine production; these improvements alleviated the hard-tissue erosion in periodontitis and RA as measured by bone erosion in periodontal lesions and cartilage destruction in knee joints. Inhibition of Ctsk also decreased the expression of TLR4 and TLR9 in vivo, whereas in vitro experiments indicated that Ctsk is involved specifically in the production of cytokines in response to TLR9 engagement. CONCLUSION: Our data reveal that periodontitis and RA may have additive pathological effects through dysregulation of the TLR9 pathway and that Ctsk is a critical mediator of this pathway and contributes to the pathogenesis of RA and periodontitis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Periodontite , Animais , Catepsina K , Comorbidade , Regulação para Baixo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Receptor Toll-Like 9
20.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(8): 13720-13734, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644093

RESUMO

Nonhuman primates (NHPs) play an indispensable role in biomedical research because of their similarities in genetics, physiological, and neurological function to humans. Proteomics profiling of monkey heart could reveal significant cardiac biomarkers and help us to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of heart disease. However, the proteomic study of monkey heart is relatively lacking. Here, we performed the proteomics profiling of the normal monkey heart by measuring three major anatomical regions (vessels, valves, and chambers) based on iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS analysis. Over 3,200 proteins were identified and quantified from three heart tissue samples. Furthermore, multiple bioinformatics analyses such as gene ontology analysis, protein-protein interaction analysis, and gene-diseases association were used to investigate biological network of those proteins from each area. More than 60 genes in three heart regions are implicated with heart diseases such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and myocardial infarction. These genes associated with heart disease are mainly enriched in citrate cycle, amino acid degradation, and glycolysis pathway. At the anatomical level, the revelation of molecular characteristics of the healthy monkey heart would be an important starting point to investigate heart disease. As a unique resource, this study can serve as a reference map for future in-depth research on cardiac disease-related NHP model and novel biomarkers of cardiac injury.

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