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1.
Int J Legal Med ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372232

RESUMO

The identification of a suspect in a degraded and unbalanced DNA mixture has been a challenge for the standard short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STR) typing. Several methods have been introduced to solve this problem, such as DIP-STR, DIP-SNP, and SNP-STR markers. In this study, we proposed DIP-microhaplotype (deletion/insertion linked a chain of SNPs) as a kind of new genetic marker to type the unbalanced and degraded DNA mixture. We established the detection method with ten DIP-microhaplotype markers including 26 SNPs using allele-specific multiplex PCR followed by SNaPshot assay. This novel compound marker allows us to detect the minor DNA with a sensitivity of 1:100 to 1:1000 in a DNA mixture of any gender. Most of the DIP-microhaplotype markers had a relatively high probability of informative alleles with an average informative value (I value) of 0.308. In all, we proposed DIP-microhaplotype as a novel type of DNA marker for the detection of minor contributor from unbalanced DNA mixtures. Due to their inherent shorter length, higher polymorphism, and sensitivity, DIP-microhaplotypes are promising markers for the examination of the degraded and unbalanced mixtures in forensic stains or clinical chimeras.

2.
Electrophoresis ; 2020 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388864

RESUMO

In the past decades, messenger RNA (mRNA) biomarkers have been employed to identify the origin of body fluids in forensic medicine. We hypothesized that the polymorphism of mRNA could be applied to identify individuals in mixture samples composed of two body fluids. In this study, we selected five blood-specific mRNA biomarkers of venous blood (SPTB, CD3G, AMICA1, ANK1, and GYPA) that encompass 16 SNPs to identify the mixture contributor(s). Five specific gene markers for menstrual blood, semen, skin, saliva, and vaginal secretions were amplified and typed as body-fluid positive controls. We established the system of multiplex PCR and single base extension (SBE) reaction followed by CE. The amplicon size was between 90bp and 294bp. The peripheral blood specificity was examined against other human body fluids, including saliva, semen, skin, menstrual blood, and vaginal secretion. The 16 SNPs were peripheral blood specific and could be successfully typed in homemade mixtures which are composed of different body fluids with 1 ng peripheral blood mRNA added. This system showed a supersensitivity (1:100) in detecting the trace amount of peripheral blood mixed in other body fluids and a combined discrimination power (CDP) of 0.99929 in Chinese population. It was the first time to establish a method for identifying the blood donors and deconvoluting mixtures through detecting mRNA polymorphism with SNaPshot assay. This peripheral blood specific SNP typing system showed high sensitivity to the typing of blood source specific markers regardless of other body fluids in the mixture.

3.
Neuroimage ; : 116977, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450251

RESUMO

The human mind is equally fluent in thoughts that involve self-generated mental content as it is with information in the immediate environment. Previous research has shown that neural systems linked to executive control (i.e. the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) are recruited when perceptual and self-generated thoughts are balanced in line with the demands imposed by the external world. Contemporary theories (Smallwood and Schooler, 2015) assume that differentiable processes are important for self-generated mental content than its regulation. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with multidimensional experience sampling to address this possibility. We used a task with minimal demands to maximise our power at identifying correlates of self-generated states. Principal components analysis showed consistent patterns of self-generated thought when participants performed the task in either the lab or in the scanner (ICC ranged from 0.68 to 0.86). In a whole brain analyses we found that neural activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) increases when participants are engaged in experiences which emphasise experiences with episodic and socio-cognitive features. Our study suggests that neural activity in the vMPFC is linked to patterns of ongoing thought, particularly those with episodic or social features.

4.
Neuroimage ; 216: 116745, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278095

RESUMO

The 21st century marks the emergence of "big data" with a rapid increase in the availability of datasets with multiple measurements. In neuroscience, brain-imaging datasets are more commonly accompanied by dozens or hundreds of phenotypic subject descriptors on the behavioral, neural, and genomic level. The complexity of such "big data" repositories offer new opportunities and pose new challenges for systems neuroscience. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a prototypical family of methods that is useful in identifying the links between variable sets from different modalities. Importantly, CCA is well suited to describing relationships across multiple sets of data, such as in recently available big biomedical datasets. Our primer discusses the rationale, promises, and pitfalls of CCA.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 99: 103812, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302796

RESUMO

Alopecines A-E (1-5), five unusual matrine-type alkaloids featuring with an additional dichlorocyclopropane (1-3) or a di/tri-chloromethyl (4/5) attached on the D ring, were isolated from the seeds of Sophora alopecuroides. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, and X-ray diffraction analyses or time-dependent density functional theory-based electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations. Alkaloid 4 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the proliferation of ConA-induced T lymphocytes or LPS-induced B cells with IC50 value of 3.98 or 3.74 µM, respectively.

6.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227970

RESUMO

Increasing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells has relied on improving the passivation of CQD surfaces, enhancing CQD coupling and charge transport, and advancing device architecture. The presence of hydroxyl groups on the nanoparticle surface, as well as dimers-fusion between CQDs-has been found to be the major source of trap states, detrimental to optoelectronic properties and device performance. Here, we introduce a CQD reconstruction step that decreases surface hydroxyl groups and dimers simultaneously. We explored the dynamic interaction of charge carriers between band-edge states and trap states in CQDs using time-resolved spectroscopy, showing that trap to ground-state recombination occurs mainly from surface defects in coupled CQD solids passivated using simple metal halides. Using CQD reconstruction, we demonstrate a 60% reduction in trap density and a 25% improvement in charge diffusion length. These translate into a PCE of 12.5% compared to 10.9% for control CQDs.

7.
Int J Legal Med ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322984

RESUMO

Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) polymorphisms are useful in forensic identification, population genetics, and human structures. However, the current Y-STR systems are limited in discriminating distant relatives in a family with a low discrimination power. Increasing the capacity of detecting Y chromosomal polymorphisms will drastically narrow down the matching number of genealogy populations or pedigrees. In this study, we developed a system containing 17 Y-STRs that are complementary to the current commercially available Y-STR kits. This system was constructed by multiplex PCR with expected sizes of 126-400 bp labeled by different fluorescence molecules (DYS715, DYS709, DYS716, DYS713, and DYS607 labeled by FAM; DYS718, DYS723, DYS708, and DYS714 labeled by JOE; DYS712, DYS717, DYS721, and DYS605 labeled by TAMRA; and DYS719, DYS726, DYS598, and DYS722 labeled by ROX). The system was extensively tested for sensitivity, male specificity, species specificity, mixture, population genetics, and mutation rates following the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines. The genetic data were obtained from eight populations with a total of 1260 individuals. Our results showed that all the 17 Y-STRs are human- and male-specific and include only one copy of the Y-chromosome. The 17 Y-STR system detects 143 alleles and has a high discrimination power (0.996031746). Mutation rates were different among the 17 Y-STRs, ranging from 0.30 to 3.03%. In conclusion, our study provides a robust, sensitive, and cost-effective genotyping method for human identification, which will be beneficial for narrowing the search scope when applied to genealogy searching with the Y-STR DNA databank.

8.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134070

RESUMO

The utilization of refractive index (RI) change due to guest-host interactions between the guest volatile organic compound vapor and porous metal-organic frameworks (vapor-MOF interactions) is promising in photonic vapor sensors. Therefore, the study of light-matter interactions in nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is fundamental and essential for MOF-based photonic devices. In this work, the manipulation of light in MOFs to investigate the vapor-MOF interactions by using optical fiber devices is demonstrated. The vapor-MOF interactions and the light-vapor interactions (light in MOFs to sense the RI changes resulting from the vapor-MOF interactions) are investigated. The cladding mode is excited by a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) for evanescent field sensing in a ZIF-8 sensitive coating. The experimental results combining quantum chemical calculations and optical simulations reveal the relationships between the microscopic energy of vapor desorption, RI changes and evanescent field enhancement in ZIF-8 during the vapor-MOF interactions. With exceptionally large RI changes, the evanescent field of cladding mode in ZIF-8 is greatly enhanced to sense the vapor-MOF interactions. As a proof-of-concept, a LPFG sensor with ZIF-8 coating showed a high sensitivity of 1.33 pm ppm-1 in the linear range from 9.8 ppm to 540 ppm for the sensing of ethanol vapor. The investigation of light-matter interactions in ZIF-8 provides a useful guideline for the design and fabrication of MOF-based optical waveguide/fiber sensors.

9.
JCI Insight ; 5(5)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027619

RESUMO

Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern, whose effect on macrophages is not entirely elucidated. Here we identified that eCIRP promotes macrophage endotoxin tolerance. Septic mice had higher serum levels of eCIRP; this was associated with a reduced ex vivo immune response of their splenocytes to LPS. Pretreatment of macrophages with recombinant murine CIRP (rmCIRP) resulted in a tolerance to LPS stimulation as demonstrated by a reduction of TNF-α production. We found that eCIRP increased phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) in macrophages. A STAT3 inhibitor, Stattic, rescued macrophages from rmCIRP-induced tolerance by restoring the release of TNF-α in response to LPS stimulation. We discovered strong binding affinity between eCIRP and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) as revealed by Biacore, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and their colocalization in macrophages by immunostaining assays. Blockade of IL-6R with its neutralizing Ab inhibited eCIRP-induced p-STAT3 and restored LPS-stimulated TNF-α release in macrophages. Incubation of macrophages with rmCIRP skewed them toward an M2 phenotype, while treatment with anti-IL-6R Ab prevented rmCIRP-induced M2 polarization. Thus, we have demonstrated that eCIRP activates p-STAT3 via a novel receptor, IL-6R, to promote macrophage endotoxin tolerance. Targeting eCIRP appears to be a new therapeutic option to correct immune tolerance in sepsis.

10.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 3, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The propensity of the activated neutrophils to form extracellular traps (NETs) is demonstrated in multiple inflammatory conditions. In this study, we investigated the roles of NETs in metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and further explored the underlying mechanism of how NETs affect metastasis as well as the therapeutic value. METHODS: The neutrophils were isolated from the blood of human HCC patients and used to evaluate the formation of NETs. The expression of NET markers was detected in tumor specimens. A LPS-induced NET model was used to investigate the role of NETs on HCC metastasis. RNA-seq was performed to identify the key molecular event triggered by NETs, and their underlying mechanism and therapeutic significance were explored using both in vitro and in vivo assays. RESULTS: NET formation was enhanced in neutrophils derived from HCC patients, especially those with metastatic HCCs. NETs trapped HCC cells and subsequently induced cell-death resistance and enhanced invasiveness to trigger their metastatic potential, which was mediated by internalization of NETs into trapped HCC cells and activation of Toll-like receptors TLR4/9-COX2 signaling. Inhibition of TLR4/9-COX2 signaling abrogated the NET-aroused metastatic potential. A combination of DNase 1 directly wrecking NETs with anti-inflammation drugs aspirin/hydroxychloroquine effectively reduced HCC metastasis in mice model. CONCLUSIONS: NETs trigger tumorous inflammatory response and fuel HCC metastasis. Targeting NETs rather than neutrophils themselves can be a practice strategy against HCC metastasis.

11.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961485

RESUMO

Resibufogenin (RB) has been used for cancer treatment, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RB treatment on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, and to determine the underlying mechanisms. The cell counting kit-8 assay was used to determine cell viability. Cell morphology was observed under light microscopy, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay was employed to detect cell apoptosis. Intracellular ferrous iron (Fe2+ ), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and reactive oxygen species levels were detected by using commercial iron assay kit, MDA assay kit, GSH assay kit, and 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probes, respectively. The protein expressions were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. RB inhibited cell viability in the CRC cell lines (HT29 and SW480) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and caused cytotoxicity to the normal colonic epithelial cell line (NCM460) at high dose. Similarly, RB induced morphological changes in CRC cells from normal to round shape, and promoted cell death. Of note, RB triggered oxidative stress and ferroptotic cell death in CRC cells, and only ferroptosis inhibitors (deferoxamine and ferrostatin-1), instead of inhibitors for other types of cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis), reversed the inhibitory effects of RB on CRC cell proliferation. Furthermore, glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) was inactivated by RB treatment, and overexpression of GPX4 alleviated RB-induced oxidative cell death in CRC cells. Consistently, the in vivo experiments validated that RB also triggered oxidative stress, and inhibited CRC cells growth and tumorigenicity in mice models. RB can inhibit CRC cells growth and tumorigenesis by triggering ferroptotic cell death in a GPX4 inactivation-dependent manner.

12.
Orthop Surg ; 12(1): 277-285, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether miR-141 and the sex determination region of Y chromosome box 11 (SOX11) play roles in steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (SANFH), and to explore whether miR-141 could target SOX11 to influence the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC). METHODS: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) were isolated and cultured from 4-week-old Sprague Dawley rats. A flow cytometry assay was performed to identify BMSC. BMSC were divided into two groups: a control group and a dexamethasone (DEX) group. BMSC were transfected by miR-141 mimic, miR-141 inhibitor, and SOX11. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was performed to investigate the mRNA expression of miR-141 and SOX11. The results were used to determine the effect of transfection and to verify the expression in each group and the association between miR-141 and SOX11. Luciferase reporter assay revealed the targeted binding site between miR-141 and the 3'-untranslated region of SOX11 mRNA. MTT assays were performed to investigate the proliferation of BMSC in the miR-141 mimic, miR-141 inhibitor, and SOX11 groups. RESULT: The results of the flow cytometry assay suggested that cells were positive for CD29 and CD90 while negative for CD45. This meant that the isolated and cultured cells were not hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, cell transfection was successful based on the expression of miR-141 and SOX11. According to the results of real-time PCR assay, the mRNA expression of miR-141 in SANFH was upregulated (4.117 ± 0.042 vs 1 ± 0.027, P < 0.001), while SOX11 was downregulated (0.611 ± 0.055 vs 1 ± 0.027, P < 0.001) compared with the control group. Based on the results of the luciferase experiment, MiR-141 could directly target the expression of SOX11. Inhibition of miR-141 could upregulate the expression of SOX11 (2.623 ± 0.220 vs 1 ± 0.095, P < 0.001) according to the results of a real-time PCR assay. MiR-141 inhibited the proliferation of BMSC (0.618 ± 0.092 vs 1.004 ± 0.082, P < 0.001), while suppression of miR-141 increased the proliferation of BMSC (0.960 ± 0.095 vs 0.742 ± 0.091, P < 0.001). Furthermore, according to the results of the MTT assay, SOX11 promoted the proliferation of BMSC (1.064 ± 0.093 vs 0.747 ± 0.090, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: MiR-141 inhibited the proliferation of BMSC in SANFH by targeting SOX11. Inhibition of miR-141 upregulated the expression of SOX11 and promoted the proliferation of BMSC. MiR-141 and SOX11 could be new targets for investigating the mechanism of SANFH.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940991

RESUMO

Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is the second common histology of epithelial ovarian cancer in Taiwan. Stage IC is common, especially during minimally invasive surgery. Adjuvant chemotherapy in stage IC OCCC is unavoidable, and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy in Taiwan is self-paid. However, surgical spillage from minimally invasive surgery as a cause of unfavorable prognosis is still uncertain. The information of patients with stage IC OCCC, corresponding to a period of January 1995 to December 2016, was retrospectively collected following a chart and pathology review. Data regarding surgical methods, cytology status, regimens of adjuvant chemotherapy, survivorship, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) period were analyzed. In total, 88 patients were analyzed, and 64 and 24 patients were treated with paclitaxel- and nonpaclitaxel-based chemotherapy, respectively. Recurrence was identical between the two groups: PFS (47.5 ± 41.36 versus 54.0 ± 53.9 months, p = 0.157) and OS (53.5 ± 38.14 versus 79.0 ± 49.42 months, p = 0.070). Of the 88 patients, 12 had undergone laparoscopy for histological confirmation before complete open staging surgery; however, their PFS (49.5 ± 46.84 versus 49.0 ± 35.55 months, p = 0.719) and OS (56.5 ± 43.4 versus 51.0 ± 32.77 months, p = 0.600) were still comparable. Cytology results were only available for 51 patients, and positive washing cytology results seemed to worsen PFS (p = 0.026) but not OS (p = 0.446). In conclusion, adjuvant nonpaclitaxel chemotherapy and laparoscopic tumor spillage before the staging operation did not worsen the outcome in stage IC OCCC. Positive washing cytology has a negative effect on PFS but not on OS.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/cirurgia , Adulto , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Oral Dis ; 26(2): 302-312, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore whether RhoG/Rac1 was involved in migration and invasion of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: RhoG and Rac1 were evaluated in two SACC cell lines, namely SACC-83 and SACC-LM, with low and high rates of lung metastasis, respectively. Functional changes were evaluated using cell proliferation, transwell, and wound-healing assays, and molecular events were investigated using real-time PCR and Western blot assays. RESULTS: RhoG and Rac1 were highly expressed and more activated in SACC-LM cells than in SACC-83 cells. RhoG overexpression promoted SACC-83 cell migration and invasion through activating Rac1. The knockdown of RhoG or Rac1 partially blocked epiregulin-induced migration and invasion in SACC-83 cells. Epiregulin-induced activation of RhoG/Rac1 in SACC-83 cells was blocked by a Src inhibitor, or an AKT inhibitor or AKT siRNA, or an ERK1/2 inhibitor. Moreover, the epiregulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 in SACC-83 cells was blocked by a Src inhibitor, and the epiregulin-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was blocked by an AKT inhibitor or AKT siRNA. Overexpression of activated AKT induced activation of ERK1/2 and RhoG. CONCLUSIONS: RhoG/Rac1 signaling pathway was involved in SACC cell migration and invasion. RhoG/Rac1 at least partially mediated epiregulin/Src/AKT/ERK1/2 signaling to promote SACC cell migration and invasion.

15.
Appl Opt ; 58(31): 8457-8464, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873329

RESUMO

The level of internal stray radiation is an important criterion to evaluate the performance of a thermal infrared spectrometer. In this study, a novel method is proposed and evaluated to measure the internal stray radiation of a thermal infrared spectrometer based on temperature variation. The proposed method was used to measure the internal stray radiation values of an existing instrument. First, two output gray value curves were constructed for a single spectral channel in a cryogenic detector at two different spectrometer temperatures based on radiometric calibration measurements. Subsequently, the gray value and radiation flux of the internal stray radiation of the spectrometer were calculated. In addition, the internal stray radiation data measured at different spectral channels and different integration times were used to verify and evaluate the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method is valid, and the standard deviations of the various internal radiation values of the tested spectral channels and the various integration times are 3.47% and 1.46%, respectively. The proposed method is adaptable, flexible, and efficient.

16.
Mol Med ; 25(1): 52, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake predisposes to infections and sepsis. Alcohol and sepsis inhibit the expression of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8), a glycoprotein essential for optimal efferocytosis, resulting in the release of proinflammatory molecules and increased sepsis severity. We previously reported that recombinant mouse (rm) MFG-E8 attenuates sepsis-induced organ injury in rats with acute alcohol intoxication. In order to develop a therapy that can be safely used in humans, we have produced recombinant human (rh) MFG-E8 and evaluated its efficacy to ameliorate sepsis after acute exposure to alcohol. METHODS: We induced acute alcohol intoxication with a bolus injection of alcohol (1.75 g/kg BW) followed by an intravenous infusion of 300 mg/kg/h alcohol for 10 h. Sepsis was then induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). At -10, 0, and 10 h relative to CLP, rats received MFG-E8 or vehicle (albumin) intravenously. Animals were euthanized at 20 h after CLP for blood and tissue collection. Additional groups of animals were used for a survival study. RESULTS: Compared to vehicle, rhMFG-E8 treatment ameliorated blood levels of proinflammatory cytokines (% improvement: TNF-α 49.8%, IL-6 34.7%) and endotoxin (61.7%), as well as of transaminases (AST 36.2%, ALT 40.1%) and lactate (18.4%). Rats treated with rhMFG-E8 also had a significant histological attenuation of the acute lung injury, as well as a reduction in the number of apoptotic cells in the thymus (43.4%) and cleaved caspase 3 (38.7%) in the spleen. In addition, rhMFG-E8 improved the 10-day sepsis survival rate from 45 to 80% CONCLUSION: rhMFG-E8 significantly ameliorated sepsis in rats with acute alcohol exposure, demonstrating rhMFG-E8's potential to be developed as an effective therapy for sepsis in alcohol abusers.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0216182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697677

RESUMO

Neural activity within the default mode network (DMN) is widely assumed to relate to processing during off-task states, however it remains unclear whether this association emerges from a shared role in self or social content that is common in these conditions. In the current study, we examine the possibility that the role of the DMN in ongoing thought emerges from contributions to specific features of off-task experience such as self-relevant or social content. A group of participants described their experiences while performing a laboratory task over a period of days. In a different session, neural activity was measured while participants performed Self/Other judgements (e.g., Does the word 'Honest' apply to you (Self condition) or Barack Obama (Other condition)). Despite the prominence of social and personal content in off-task reports, there was no association with neural activity during off-task trait adjective judgements. Instead, during both Self and Other judgements we found recruitment of caudal posterior cingulate cortex-a core DMN hub-was above baseline for individuals whose laboratory experiences were characterised as detailed. These data provide little support for a role of the DMN in self or other content in the off-task state and instead suggest a role in how on-going thought is represented.

18.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(4): 453-456, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512844

RESUMO

We report a clinical case of type Ⅲ dens invaginatus with endodontic-periodontal lesion in a maxillary lateral incisor. The palatal radicular anomaly predisposed the tooth to periodontal lesions. The caries along the palatal groove caused tooth pulp necrosis and periapical lesions. By means of microscopic root canal therapy, apical surgery, and guided periodontal tissue regeneration, the apical and periodontal infection were controlled, and the affected tooth was retained.


Assuntos
Dens in Dente , Incisivo , Necrose da Polpa Dentária , Humanos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 132: 107133, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278908

RESUMO

Ageing provides an interesting window into semantic cognition: while younger adults generally outperform older adults on many cognitive tasks, knowledge continues to accumulate over the lifespan and consequently, the semantic store (i.e., vocabulary size) remains stable (or even improves) during healthy ageing. Semantic cognition involves the interaction of at least two components - a semantic store and control processes that interact to ensure efficient and context-relevant use of representations. Given older adults perform less well on tasks measuring executive control, their ability to access the semantic store in a goal driven manner may be compromised. Older adults also consistently show reductions in intrinsic brain connectivity, and we examined how these brain changes relate to age-related changes in semantic performance. We found that while older participants outperformed their younger counterparts on tests of vocabulary size (i.e., NART), younger participants were faster and more accurate in tasks requiring semantic control, and these age differences correlated with measures of intrinsic connectivity between the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), within the default mode network. Higher intrinsic connectivity from right ATL to mPFC at rest related to better performance on verbal (but not picture) semantic tasks, and older adults showed an exaggerated version of this pattern, suggesting that this within-DMN connectivity may become more important for conceptual access from words as we age. However, this appeared to be at the expense of control over semantic retrieval - there was little relationship between connectivity and performance for strong associations in either group, but older adults with stronger connectivity showed particularly inefficient retrieval of weak associations. Older adults may struggle to harness the default mode network to support demanding patterns of semantic retrieval, resulting in a performance cost.

20.
Neurosci Lett ; 707: 134301, 2019 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152853

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that sodium channel 1.7 (Nav1.7) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) was a critical factor in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation-induced hypernociception, but the mechanism underlying inflammation-induced upregulation of Nav1.7 remained unclear. Glial-neuron interaction plays a critical role in pain process and connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein expressed in satellite glial cells (SGCs) has been shown to play an important role in several pain models. In the present study, we investigate the role of Cx43 in TMJ inflammation-induced hypernociception and its possible impact on neuronal Nav1.7. We induced TMJ inflammation in rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into TMJ and observed a decrease in head withdraw threshold after 24 h. Electron microscopy showed morphological alterations of SGCs in TMJ-inflamed rats. The expression of Cx43, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Nav1.7 increased greatly compared with controls. In addition, pretreatment with Cx43 blockers in TMJ-inflamed rats could alleviate mechanical hypernociception, inhibit SGCs activation and IL-1ßrelease, and thus block the upregulation of Nav1.7. These findings indicate that the propagation of SGCs activation via Cx43 plays a critical role in Nav1.7-involved mechanical hypernociception induced by TMJ inflammation.

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