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1.
Front Genet ; 12: 765580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733319

RESUMO

RNA editing is a posttranscriptional phenomenon that includes gene processing and modification at specific nucleotide sites. RNA editing mainly occurs in the genomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts in higher plants. In recent years, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, which may act as trans-acting factors of RNA editing have been identified, and the study of PPR proteins has become a research focus in molecular biology. The molecular functions of these proteins and their physiological roles throughout plant growth and development are widely studied. In this minireview, we summarize the current knowledge of the PPR family, hoping to provide some theoretical reference for future research and applications.

2.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 366, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) is an important marker of early renal damage (ERD) caused by hypertension. Recent studies showed that blood pressure was a significant inverse association with temperature and climate. The purposes of our study were sought to explore the association of common medical comorbidities with ERD, and find independent risk factors to ERD in Chinese tropics with essential hypertension. METHODS: From January 2018 to December 2019, we assessed UACR in a total of 599 hypertensive Chinese Hainan patients. We defined ERD as a UACR between 30 mg/g and 300 mg/g. We analysed differences between qualitative variables using the chi-squared (χ2) test. We calculated correlations between UACR and age, hypertension duration (HD), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Spearman's rho test. To determine the odds ratio (OR), we evaluated binary logistic regression models. RESULTS: Among the 599 patients, 281 (46.9%) were found to have ERD. ERD and factors related to sex, body mass index (BMI), and SBP did not differ significantly (all, p>0.05). Our main findings showed that age, HD, and DBP were associated with ERD (p<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, age ≥ 65 years, HD ≥10 years, DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, SBP ≥ 160 mmHg, and diabetes differed significantly according to ERD status (p < 0.05, respectively). In multivariate analysis using stepwise regression, age (OR = 1.468), DBP (OR = 1.853), and diabetes (OR = 2.031) were significant independent predictors of ERD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.677, and the sensitivity and specificity of the optimal cut-off value were 44.5 and 81.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Common medical comorbidities are associated with ERD; age, DBP, and diabetes are independent risk factors for ERD in patients with essential hypertension who live in the Chinese tropics. Early monitoring of the UACR, as well as control of blood glucose and DBP, can effectively delay ERD.

3.
Pathologica ; 113(5): 339-353, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837092

RESUMO

The term multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) encompasses a spectrum of conditions that share some overlapping clinicopathological manifestations. The fundamental pathogenetic mechanism involves dysregulated cytokine activity, causing systemic inflammatory symptoms as well as lymphadenopathy. Some of the histological changes in lymph nodes resemble the histology of unicentric Castleman disease (UCD). However, based on current knowledge, the use of this shared nomenclature is unfortunate, since these disorders differ in pathogenesis and prognosis. In Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated MCD, cytokine overactivity is caused by viral products, which can also lead to atypical lymphoproliferations and potential progression to lymphoma. In idiopathic MCD, the hypercytokinemia can result from various mechanisms, which ultimately lead to different constellations of clinical presentations and varied pathology in lymphoid tissues. The authors review the evolving concepts and definitions of the various conditions under the eponym of multicentric Castleman disease.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante , Herpesvirus Humano 8 , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/diagnóstico , Humanos , Linfonodos
4.
J Affect Disord ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838895

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to assess the association between early onset of affective disorders and hypothyroidism in a larger number of psychiatric drug-free patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Early onset of affective disorders was defined as BD and MDD developed before the age of 22 years. The hypothyroidism hierarchy were diagnosed biochemically and included subclinical and overt hypothyroidism in this study. Demographic and clinical data including diagnosis, illness duration and thyroid function parameters (TSH, T4, FT4, T3 and FT3) at admission were collected from patients' records. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), which were estimated by logistic regression model, were used to assess the association between early-onset affective disorder and hypothyroidism. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypothyroidism in early-onset affective disorders was higher than that in late-onset patients (in BD, 9.4% vs. 6.2%, χ2 =6.020, P=0.014; and in MDD 12.7% vs. 6.6%, χ2 =13.295, P < 0.001). Early-onset affective disorders were 2.097 times (95% CI: 1.409-3.123) more likely to have hypothyroidism compared with late-onset patients, after adjustment for age, gender, duration of illness and mood episode (adjusted OR: 1.965, 95% CI: 1.198-3.221 in BD, and adjusted OR: 2.831, 95% CI: 1.378-5.817 in MDD, respectively). LIMITATION: Because of the cross-sectional design of this study, we were unable to sort out causality between early-onset affective disorders and hypothyroidism. CONCLUSION: Early-onset affective disorder may be associated with higher prevalence of hypothyroidism.

5.
Iran J Public Health ; 50(9): 1805-1815, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722376

RESUMO

Background: Vibrio cholerae is an important bacterium causing profuse watery diarrhea. Cholera had swept the whole Shandong province from 1975 to 2013. Methods: From epidemiological data and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis data, we selected 86 V. cholerae isolates appearing in Shandong Province in China from 1975 to 2013 and characterized them by multilocus sequence typing (MLST)/multi-virulence locus sequence typing (MVLST), antibiogram and analysis of genes related to antibiotic resistance. Results: Combined MLST/MVLST data revealed 33 sequence types and a major group. Within the group, 3 subgroups (ST1, ST24 and ST29) were revealed, prevalent in the strains isolated during the 1980s, 1990s and 21st century, respectively. All the O1 isolates after 1990 were found to be El Tor variants harboring the classical ctxB gene. The tcpA gene of O139 strains had a mutation at amino acid position 62 (N→D). Antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae increased over time. Most El Tor variants between 1998 and 1999 were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The O139 strain, since its appearance in 1997, had significantly broader spectrum of antibiotic resistance than O1 variants. The presence of the SXT element corresponds to the trend of growing drug resistance. Conclusion: The analysis of genotypic polymorphism and enhanced resistance of V. cholerae indicated continuous variation and evolution of this pathogenic agent in Shandong Province.

6.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(29): 8782-8788, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute abdominal emergencies around the world, which is always associated with infection. Infection with Salmonella typhi, an enteric pathogen, is a rare cause of acute appendicitis. We here report a patient with acute appendicitis associated with Samonella typhi infection, accompanied with spleen and kidney infarction, providing a rare example for a common surgical emergency. CASE SUMMARY: A 25-year-old Pakistani man presented to the hospital with a 3-d history of fevers, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a thickened intestinal wall of the ileocecal junction with multiple enlarged lymph nodes nearby. He was diagnosed with acute appendicitis and received laparoscopic appendectomy, which showed mild inflammation of the appendix. After the surgery, the patient presented again with a high fever (> 39 °C) and diarrhea. A CT angiography scan indicated spleen and kidney infarction. According to the blood culture, the diagnosis was finally clear to be Samonella typhi infection. The pyrexia and enteric symptoms were relieved after the application of intravenous levofloxacin. CONCLUSION: This case, characterized by the combination of Salmonella typhi infection, acute appendicitis, and renal and splenic infraction, serves as a rare example for a common surgical emergency.

7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 750186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722681

RESUMO

Background: Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most effective chemotherapy agents used in the treatment of solid tumors and hematological malignancies. However, it causes dose-related cardiotoxicity that may lead to heart failure in patients. Luteolin (Lut) is a common flavonoid that exists in many types of plants. It has been studied for treating various diseases such as hypertension, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the cardioprotective and anticancer effects of Lut on Dox-induced cardiomyopathy in vitro and in vivo to explore related mechanisms in alleviating dynamin-related protein (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis. Methods: MTT and LDH assay were used to determine the viability and toxicity of cardiomyocytes treated with Dox and Lut. Flow cytometry was used to examine ROS levels, and electron and confocal microscopy was employed to assess the mitochondrial morphology. The level of apoptosis was examined by Hoechst 33258 staining. The protein levels of myocardial fission protein and apoptosis-related protein were examined using Western blot. Transcriptome analysis of the protective effect of Lut against Dox-induced cardiac toxicity in myocardial cells was performed using RNA sequencing technology. The protective effects of Lut against cardiotoxicity mediated by Dox in zebrafish were quantified. The effect of Lut increase the antitumor activity of Dox in breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo were further employed. Results: Lut ameliorated Dox-induced toxicity in H9c2 and AC16 cells. The level of oxidative stress was downregulated by Lut after Dox treatment of myocardial cells. Lut effectively reduced the increased mitochondrial fission post Dox stimulation in cardiomyocytes. Apoptosis, fission protein Drp1, and Ser616 phosphorylation were also increased post Dox and reduced by Lut. In the zebrafish model, Lut significantly preserved the ventricular function of zebrafish after Dox treatment. Moreover, in the mouse model, Lut prevented Dox-induced cardiotoxicity and enhanced the cytotoxicity in triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting proliferation and metastasis and inducing apoptosis.

8.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytokeratin 19-positive (CK19(+)) hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are generally associated with poor prognosis after hepatectomy. It is typically detected from postoperative immunochemistry. We have analyzed several clinically available biomarkers, in particular, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and aim to develop a panel of biomarkers in identifying CK19 expression in (HCC) preoperatively. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 36 HCC patients who underwent liver resections during January 2017 to March 2018 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Patients were grouped based on the status of CK19 expression and their baseline characteristics, perioperative and oncologic outcomes were compared. Novel biomarkers including NLR, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and uric acid were analyzed and correlated with CK19 expression. RESULTS: NLR is highly associated with CK19 expression. NLR alone gave an AUROC of 0.728 (p-value = 0.043), higher than AFP, CEA or tumor size alone. NLR when combined with AFP, CEA and uric acid, gave an AUROC as high as 0.933 (p-value = 0.004). CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated the predictive capability of NLR in combination with AFP, CEA and uric acid for CK19 expression in HCC patients preoperatively. Further prospective, large-scale studies are warranted to validate our findings.

9.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836308

RESUMO

Numerous strategies for perioperative nutrition therapy for patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) have been proposed. This systematic review aimed to summarize the current relevant published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating different nutritional interventions via a traditional network meta-analysis (NMA) and component network meta-analysis (cNMA). EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify the RCTs. The evaluated nutritional interventions comprised standard postoperative enteral nutrition by feeding tube (Postop-SEN), preoperative enteral feeding (Preop-EN), postoperative immunonutrients (Postop-IM), preoperative oral immunonutrient supplement (Preop-IM), and postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The primary outcomes were general, infectious, and noninfectious complications; postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF); and delayed gastric emptying (DGE). The secondary outcomes were mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS). The NMA and cNMA were conducted with a frequentist approach. The results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Two primary outcomes, infectious complications and POPF, were positively influenced by nutritional interventions. Preop-EN plus Postop-SEN (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.02~0.72), Preop-IM (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.08~0.62), and Preop-IM plus Postop-IM (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.03~0.37) were all demonstrated to be associated with a decrease in infectious complications. Postop-TPN (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.19~0.71) and Preop-IM plus Postop-IM (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.06~0.77) were clinically beneficial for the prevention of POPF. While enteral feeding and TPN may decrease infectious complications and POPF, respectively, Preop-IM plus Postop-IM may provide the best clinical benefit for patients undergoing PD, as this approach decreases the incidence of both the aforementioned adverse effects.

10.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(25): 7542-7550, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital biliary atresia is a type of obstruction of the bile ducts inside and outside the liver, which can lead to cholestatic liver cirrhosis and eventually liver failure. The preduodenal portal vein (PD-PV) is a rare developmental malformation of the PV. The PV courses in front of the duodenum. However, very few cases of neonatal biliary atresia combined with PD-PV have been reported in the scientific literature. CASE SUMMARY: A 1-mo-and-4-d-old child was admitted to the hospital in January because of yellowish skin. After surgical consultation, surgical intervention was recommended. The child underwent Hilar-jejunal anastomosis, duodenal rhomboid anastomosis, and abdominal drainage under general anesthesia. During the operation, the PV was located at the anterior edge of the duodenum. CONCLUSION: Diagnoses: (1) Congenital biliary atresia; (2) PD-PV; and (3) Congenital cardiovascular malformations. Outcomes: Recommendation for liver transplantation. Lessons: The choice of treatment options for neonatal biliary atresia combined with PD-PV.

11.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(4): 439-443, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693442

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To observe the occurrence of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) in patients with bimaxillary protrusion after orthodontic treatment, and to explore the possible factors causing this phenomenon, so as to guide rational prevention of TMD in clinic. METHODS: The clinical data of 80 patients with bimaxillary protrusion who received orthodontic treatment in Hebei Provincial People's Hospital from March 2019 to October 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients with TMD after orthodontic treatment were included in the experimental group and the remaining patients were included in control group. The baseline data questionnaire was designed for bimaxillary protrusion patients after orthodontic treatment. The risk factors of TMD were included in the study. Through a series of univariate and multivariate analysis, the influencing factors of TMD in patients with bimaxillary protrusion after orthodontic treatment were determined. SPSS 23.0 software package was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Among 80 patients with bimaxillary protrusion after orthodontic treatment, 15(18.75%) were included in the experimental group, while 65(81.25%) did not have TMD, and were included in the control group. After a preliminary analysis of the baseline data, the variables with significant difference were included in the independent variables for univariate analysis. After adjusting for the influence of other baseline data, the results showed that younger age, girl, high stress perception scale score, bad oral habits, dental caries, history of maxillofacial trauma, bad eating habits, and root canal treatment history were the causes of bimaxillary protrusion. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors of TMD of patients with bimaxillary protrusion after orthodontic treatment may be closely related to girl, younger age, high stress perception score, bad eating habits, previous caries, root canal treatment history and maxillofacial trauma. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the standardization of orthodontic treatment, publicize oral health awareness, establish good eating habits. Patients who had a history of root canal therapy, maxillofacial trauma and dental caries should be vigilant, which may be of positive significance in reducing the incidence of TMD.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular/epidemiologia
12.
Front Genet ; 12: 757109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659369

RESUMO

RNA editing, a vital supplement to the central dogma, yields genetic information on RNA products that are different from their DNA templates. The conversion of C-to-U in mitochondria and plastids is the main kind of RNA editing in plants. Various factors have been demonstrated to be involved in RNA editing. In this minireview, we summarized the factors and mechanisms involved in RNA editing in plant organelles. Recently, the rapid development of deep sequencing has revealed many RNA editing events in plant organelles, and we further reviewed these events identified through deep sequencing data. Numerous studies have shown that RNA editing plays essential roles in diverse processes, such as the biogenesis of chloroplasts and mitochondria, seed development, and stress and hormone responses. Finally, we discussed the functions of RNA editing in plant organelles.

13.
Pain Physician ; 24(7): E1015-E1023, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to nonspecific low back pain (Ns-LBP); however, the role of inflammation as a possible mediator between vitamin D levels and Ns-LBP is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To explore the mediating effects of inflammatory markers on the relationship between vitamin D levels and pain outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Department of Spinal Surgery of a hospital affiliated to a medical university. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we selected patients with non-specific acute low back pain (Ns-ALBP, n = 60) and non-specific chronic low back pain (Ns-CLBP, n = 78), as well as 60 people without Ns-LBP as controls, from January 2018 to January 2019. Serum 25(OH)D and inflammatory marker levels were examined. Regression and causal mediation analysis were used to evaluate the mediating effects of inflammatory markers on the association between vitamin D and pain. RESULTS: Mean serum concentrations of vitamin D in the control, Ns-ALBP, and Ns-CLBP groups were 25.70 ± 10.04, 21.44 ± 8.46 and 18.25 ± 8.05 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjustment for clinical factors, vitamin D deficiency was associated with Ns-LBP (P < 0.05); however, when the interleukin 6 (IL-6) level was added to the multivariable models, the association was no longer significant in Ns-CLBP patients. Mediation analysis estimated the overall mediated effect as -0.461 (P < 0.001) in Ns-CLBP patients, and the intermediary effect of IL-6 was 0.045. LIMITATIONS: A retrospective study may include inevitable bias. More sensitive biomarkers were not investigated in this study. Pain intensity evaluation using the visual analogue scale is inevitably subjective. CONCLUSION: Patients with Ns-LBP had lower vitamin D and higher inflammatory marker levels. This association between hypovitaminosis D and Ns-CLBP may be mediated by IL-6. Therefore, large-scale clinical trials are warranted to investigate the clinical efficacy of vitamin D supplementation for decreasing inflammation and relieving Ns-LBP.

14.
Bioresour Bioprocess ; 8(1): 93, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603939

RESUMO

Animal cells are used in the manufacturing of complex biotherapeutic products since the 1980s. From its initial uses in biological research to its current importance in the biopharmaceutical industry, many types of culture media were developed: from serum-based media to serum-free to protein-free chemically defined media. The cultivation of animal cells economically has become the ultimate goal in the field of biomanufacturing. Serum serves as a source of amino acids, lipids, proteins and most importantly growth factors and hormones, which are essential for many cell types. However, the use of serum is unfavorable due to its high price tag, increased lot-to-lot variations and potential risk of microbial contamination. Efforts are progressively being made to replace serum with recombinant proteins such as growth factors, cytokines and hormones, as well as supplementation with lipids, vitamins, trace elements and hydrolysates. While hydrolysates are more complex, they provide a diverse source of nutrients to animal cells, with potential beneficial effects beyond the nutritional value. In this review, we discuss the use of hydrolysates in animal cell culture and briefly cover the composition of hydrolysates, mode of action and potential contaminants with some perspectives on its potential role in animal cell culture media formulations in the future.

15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640800

RESUMO

The technique of active ionospheric sounding by ionosondes requires sophisticated methods for the recovery of experimental data on ionograms. In this work, we applied an advanced algorithm of deep learning for the identification and classification of signals from different ionospheric layers. We collected a dataset of 6131 manually labeled ionograms acquired from low-latitude ionosondes in Taiwan. In the ionograms, we distinguished 11 different classes of the signals according to their ionospheric layers. We developed an artificial neural network, FC-DenseNet24, based on the FC-DenseNet convolutional neural network. We also developed a double-filtering algorithm to reduce incorrectly classified signals. That made it possible to successfully recover the sporadic E layer and the F2 layer from highly noise-contaminated ionograms whose mean signal-to-noise ratio was low, SNR = 1.43. The Intersection over Union (IoU) of the recovery of these two signal classes was greater than 0.6, which was higher than the previous models reported. We also identified three factors that can lower the recovery accuracy: (1) smaller statistics of samples; (2) mixing and overlapping of different signals; (3) the compact shape of signals.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Taiwan
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(11): 5239-5249, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708963

RESUMO

Total suspended matter(TSM) is an important parameter that describes optical characteristics and water pollution level. Remote sensing was used to obtain suspended matter concentrations in the planar water body, which can monitor and analyze the reliability of turbidity and pollution levels. In this study, a semi-empirical model of suspended matter along the Yangtze River mainstream(from Chongqing to Shanghai) was constructed based on the field measured hyperspectral data and suspended matter concentration and its components, with reference to MODIS(1-4 band), Landsat 8(1-5 band), Sentinel 2(2-6 band), HJ-B1(1-4 band), and other commonly used band ranges. The results show that:① Turbidity and TSM of the Yangtze River mainstream increased from Chongqing to Shanghai during the dry season, whereas the proportion of OSM to TSM(OSM/TSM) decreased from Chongqing to Shanghai. ② The spectral properties of chlorophyll-a were not obvious; however, it showed a bimodal spectral characteristic of suspended matter concentration. Due to the low concentration of suspended matter in the water(<114.68 mg·L-1), the first peak value was significantly higher than the second peak. However, peak reflection and position had an obvious "red shift" phenomenon in the direction of the wavelength. ③ The reflectance values of the Yangtze River mainstream were most sensitive to the concentration of suspended matter in the 600-710 nm and 475-550 nm bands. Most of these fall in the green and red band of MODI, Landsat 8, Sentinel 2, and HJ-1B satellites. Therefore, the commonly used satellites have a band setting to detect the inversion of turbidity degree index of the Yangtze River main stream water body. The Sentinel 2 satellite band is most suitable for the inversion of suspended matter concentration in the Yangtze River mainstream. The mean absolute percentage error(MAPE) and root mean square error(RMSE) of the optimal exponential model were 10.23 mg·L-1 and 23%, respectively.


Assuntos
Rios , Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Iran J Basic Med Sci ; 24(7): 986-991, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712430

RESUMO

Objectives: Acute respiratory distress syndrome resulting from acute lung injury has become a momentous clinical concern because of high morbidity and mortality in discharged patients with pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases. This study aimed to explore the effect of protein kinase C (PKC) θ gene knockout on acute lung injury. Materials and Methods: Wt and PKC θ gene knockout mice were intravenously injected with oleic acid to induce acute lung injury. Pulmonary capillary permeability was assessed via measuring lung wet/dry weight ratio and level of protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Histological changes were used to examine acute lung injury. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in serum, together with inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), were determined. Furthermore, the expressions of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, nuclear factor kappa B (NF κB), and inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκB α) were detected in the lungs. Results: PKC θ gene knockout decreased lung wet/dry weight ratio, reduced levels of MDA, IL-6, and TNF-α in serum together with level of protein in BALF. Furthermore, PKC θ gene knockout increased the activities of SOD. Knockout of PKC θ was also observed to increase expression of HO-1 and reduce levels of p-NF κB and p-IKB α in the lungs. Conclusion: These results suggest that PKC θ gene knockout attenuates oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via improving oxidative stress and inflammation.

18.
J Immunother ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711791

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy for which new treatments are urgently needed. Redirecting the activity of T cells by bispecific antibodies against tumor cells is a potent approach. The B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a highly plasma cell-selective protein and therefore is an ideal therapeutic target for T-cell redirecting therapies. The main objective of this work is to target the BCMA by generating BCMA-specific murine monoclonal antibody and construct a cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3)/BCMA-directed tandem diabodies (Tandab). In brief, using standard hybridoma technology, we developed a novel BCMA-specific monoclonal antibody (clone 69G8), that specifically bind with BCMA+ cell lines and MM patient sample; whereas BCMA- cells were not recognized. For T cells by bispecific antibodies application, we constructed a Tandab (CD3/BCMA) simultaneously targeting both CD3 and BCMA and our studies demonstrated that Tandab (CD3/BCMA) was functional with specific binding capability both for CD3+ cells and BCMA+ cells. It induced selective, dose-dependent lysis of BCMA+ cell lines, activation of T cells, release of cytokines and T-cell proliferation; whereas BCMA- cells were not affected. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Tandab activity correlates with BCMA expression, with higher potency observed in highly BCMA expressing tumor cells. In vivo, the purified Tandab (CD3/BCMA) significantly inhibited the tumor growth in a subcutaneous NCI-H929 xenograft model. Taken together, these results show that the Tandab (CD3/BCMA) displays potent and selective anti-MM activities and represents a promising immunotherapeutic for the treatment of MM.

19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 229(Pt B): 109047, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Semi-structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA) was developed to assess substance-use disorders and other psychiatric traits. We translated the SSADDA into Chinese and evaluated its inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity in diagnosing DSM-IV methamphetamine (MA) dependence and DSM-5 MA-use disorder (MUD). METHODS: The sample comprised 231 participants who were interviewed using the Chinese SSADDA and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Chinese MINI) for concurrent validation. Of the 231 participants, 191 were interviewed by two different interviewers two weeks apart. We evaluated the inter-rater reliability and concurrent validity of the diagnoses using percent agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ). Cohen's linear weighted kappa was used to assess the reliability of DSM-5 MUD severity. RESULTS: It showed good inter-rater reliability and no significant differences among the DSM-5 MUD (κ = 0.71), DSM-IV MA abuse or dependence (κ = 0.72), and the DSM-IV diagnoses of MA dependence (κ = 0.66) and abuse (κ = 0.68) tested separately. The weighted kappa was 0.67 across the three DSM-5 MUD severity levels. The reliability of each individual diagnostic criterion for DSM-5 MUD ranged from fair to excellent (κ = 0.41-0.80), except for "repeated attempts to quit/control use" (κ = 0.38). The concurrent validity based on MINI-derived diagnoses ranged from good to excellent (κ = 0.65-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the Chinese version of SSADDA has good reliability and validity among Chinese MA users.

20.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683074

RESUMO

This study investigated differences in lower extremity muscle activations and vertical stiffness during a 2.2 Hz jump rope exercise with different midsole hardnesses (45, 50, 55, and 60 Shores C). Twelve healthy male participants wore customized shoes with different hardness midsoles and performed jump rope exercises in a random order. A nine-camera motion analysis system (150 Hz), a force platform (1500 Hz), and a wireless electromyography (EMG) system (Noraxon, 1500 Hz) were used to measure the biomechanical parameters during the jump rope exercise. The biceps femoris %MVC of barefoot participants was significantly greater than that of those wearing the 45 Shores C (p = 0.048) and 55 Shores C (p = 0.009) midsole 100 ms before landing. The vastus medialis %MVC of barefoot participants was significantly greater than that of those wearing the 55 C midsole (p = 0.005). Nonsignificant differences in vertical stiffness were found between midsole hardnesses and barefoot. Lower extremity muscle activation differed between conditions. The results of this study indicate that for repetitive activities that entail multiple impacts, sports shoes with a low midsole hardness (e.g., 50 Shores C or 45 Shores C) may be appropriate. It is important to provide customers with information regarding midsole hardness in shoe product labeling so that they properly consider the function of the shoes.

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