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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1903407, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486182

RESUMO

III-nitride semiconductors have attracted considerable attention in recent years owing to their excellent physical properties and wide applications in solid-state lighting, flat-panel displays, and solar energy and power electronics. Generally, GaN-based devices are heteroepitaxially grown on c-plane sapphire, Si (111), or 6H-SiC substrates. However, it is very difficult to release the GaN-based films from such single-crystalline substrates and transfer them onto other foreign substrates. Consequently, it is difficult to meet the ever-increasing demand for wearable and foldable applications. On the other hand, sp2 -bonded two-dimensional (2D) materials, which exhibit hexagonal in-plane lattice arrangements and weakly bonded layers, can be transferred onto flexible substrates with ease. Hence, flexible III-nitride devices can be implemented through such 2D release layers. In this progress report, the recent advances in the different strategies for the growth of III-nitrides based on 2D materials are reviewed, with a focus on van der Waals epitaxy and transfer printing. Various attempts are presented and discussed herein, including the different kinds of 2D materials (graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides) used as release layers. Finally, current challenges and future perspectives regarding the development of flexible III-nitride devices are discussed.

2.
Appl Opt ; 58(13): 3555-3563, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044854

RESUMO

We propose a novel approach to laser frequency noise characterization by delayed self-heterodyne. Compared with the traditional treatment, our method applies to both long and short delay, corresponding to uncorrelated and correlated self-heterodyne. In the case of long delay, it overcomes the influence of 1/f noise on the intrinsic linewidth extraction from a broadened spectrum, and the results are more accurate than Voigt profile fitting. For short delayed correlated heterodyne, it eliminates artifact peaks at multiples of the reciprocal of delay time introduced by transferring measured RF phase noise to laser phase noise, thus extending the measurement range. In addition, it calibrates the frequency noise overestimation caused by a finite noise floor. This method remains valid when the delay and the coherence time are comparable. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in characterizing lasers with intrinsic linewidth ranging from sub-100 Hz to megahertz.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(1): 1228-1238, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521305

RESUMO

Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode is widely adopted for the self-assembled growth of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), wherein a relatively large critical thickness is essential and a thick wetting layer (WL) is formed beneath the QD layer. In this paper, we report the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy of green InGaN QDs, employing a growth interruption method to decrease the critical thickness and improve the morphology of QDs. The QDs exhibit similar photoluminescence properties with those grown by conventional SK mode, implying the existence of a WL. We experimentally verify that the formation of QDs, whether based on the SK mode or the growth interruption method, conforms to the phase separation theory. However, the density of QDs grown by the interruption method exhibits abnormal dependence on the strain when a quantum well (QW) is inserted beneath the QD layer. Furthermore, the underlying QW not only influences the morphology of the QDs but also plays as a reservoir of electrons, which helps enhance the photoluminescence and the electroluminescence of the QDs. The method of QD growth with improved morphology and luminescence by introducing the QW-QD coupled nanostructure is universally applicable to similar material systems. Furthermore, a 550 nm green light-emitting diode (LED) and a 526 nm superluminescent LED based on the nanostructure are demonstrated.

4.
Opt Express ; 26(19): 24985-24991, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469606

RESUMO

The GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have a great potential for visible light communication (VLC) due to their ubiquitous application in general lighting, but the modulation bandwidth of conventional c-plane LEDs is limited by carrier recombination rate in InGaN quantum wells (QWs) due to the polarization-field-induced quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). Furthermore, the high modulation bandwidth on c-plane sapphire substrates can only be achieved at high current densities. Here, blue LEDs with ultra-thin InGaN QWs (1nm) and GaN barriers (3nm) are grown on c-plane sapphire substrate to suppress QCSE and extend the cut-off frequency from 214 MHz for conventional LEDs to 536 MHz at a current density of 2.5 kA/cm2, which is comparable to devices grown on semi-polar substrates.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2652, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985405

RESUMO

Semiconductor devices capable of generating a vortex beam with a specific orbital angular momentum (OAM) order are highly attractive for applications ranging from nanoparticle manipulation, imaging and microscopy to fiber and quantum communications. In this work, an electrically pumped integrated OAM emitter operating at telecom wavelengths is fabricated by monolithically integrating an optical vortex emitter with a distributed feedback laser on the same InGaAsP/InP epitaxial wafer. A single-step dry-etching process is adopted to complete the OAM emitter, equipped with specially designed top gratings. The vortex beam emitted by the integrated device is captured and its OAM mode purity characterized. The integrated OAM emitter eliminates the external laser required by silicon- or silicon-on-insulator-based OAM emitters, thus demonstrating great potential for applications in communication systems and the quantum domain.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 10(11)2017 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072611

RESUMO

Efficiency droop in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) under high injection current density perplexes the development of high-power solid-state lighting. Although the relevant study has lasted for about 10 years, its mechanism is still not thoroughly clear, and consequently its solution is also unsatisfactory up to now. Some emerging applications, e.g., high-speed visible light communication, requiring LED working under extremely high current density, makes the influence of efficiency droop become more serious. This paper reviews the experimental measurements on LED to explain the origins of droop in recent years, especially some new results reported after 2013. Particularly, the carrier lifetime of LED is analyzed intensively and its effects on LED droop behaviors are uncovered. Finally, possible solutions to overcome LED droop are discussed.

7.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45082, 2017 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327629

RESUMO

Based on carrier rate equation, a new model is proposed to explain the non-exponential nature of time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) decay curves in the polar InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures. From the study of TRPL curves at different temperatures, it is found that both radiative and non-radiative recombination coefficients vary from low temperature to room temperature. The variation of the coefficients is compatible with the carrier density of states distribution as well as the carrier localization process. These results suggest that there is a novel method to calculate the internal quantum efficiency, which is a complement to the traditional one based on temperature dependent photoluminescence measurement.

8.
Opt Express ; 25(2): 587-594, 2017 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157948

RESUMO

We demonstrate aluminum nitride (AlN) on sapphire as a novel platform for integrated optics. High-confinement AlN microring resonators are realized by adopting a partially etched (pedestal) waveguide to relax the required etching selectivity for exact pattern transfer. A wide taper is employed at the chip end facets to ensure a low fiber-to-chip coupling loss of ~2.8 dB/facet for both transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes. Furthermore, the intrinsic quality factors (Qint) recorded with a high-resolution linewidth measurement are up to ~2.5 and 1.9 million at telecom band for fundamental TE00 and TM00 modes, corresponding to a low intracavity propagation loss of ~0.14 and 0.2 dB/cm as well as high resonant buildup of 473 and 327, respectively. Such high-Q AlN-on-sapphire microresonators are believed to be very promising for on-chip nonlinear optics.

9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35978, 2016 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27775088

RESUMO

In ultra-high sensitive APDs, a vibrate of temperature might bring a fatal decline of the multiplication performance. Conventional method to realize a temperature-stable APD focuses on the optimization of device structure, which has limited effects. While in this paper, a solution by reducing the carrier scattering rate based on an GaN/AlN periodically-stacked structure (PSS) APD is brought out to improve temperature stability essentially. Transport property is systematically investigated. Compared with conventional GaN homojunction (HJ) APDs, electron suffers much less phonon scatterings before it achieves ionization threshold energy and more electrons occupy high energy states in PSS APD. The temperature dependence of ionization coefficient and energy distribution is greatly reduced. As a result, temperature stability on gain is significantly improved when the ionization happens with high efficiency. The change of gain for GaN (10 nm)/AlN (10 nm) PSS APD from 300 K to 310 K is about 20% lower than that for HJ APD. Additionally, thicker period length is found favorable to ionization coefficient ratio but a bit harmful to temperature stability, while increasing the proportion of AlN at each period in a specific range is found favorable to both ionization coefficient ratio and temperature stability.

10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 35597, 2016 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27759099

RESUMO

The spin and optical polarization based on a coupled InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) and quantum dots (QDs) structure is investigated. In this structure, spin-electrons can be temporarily stored in QW, and spin injection from the QW into QDs via spin-conserved tunneling is enabled. Spin relaxation can be suppressed owing to the small energy difference between the initial state in the QW and the final states in the QDs. Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements are carried out on optical spin-injection and -detection. Owing to the coupled structure, spin-conserved tunneling mechanism plays a significant role in preventing spin relaxation process. As a result, a higher circular polarization degree (CPD) (~49.1%) is achieved compared with conventional single layer of QDs structure. Moreover, spin relaxation time is also extended to about 2.43 ns due to the weaker state-filling effect. This coupled structure is believed an appropriate candidate for realization of spin-polarized light source.

11.
Opt Express ; 24(10): A797-809, 2016 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27409953

RESUMO

Indium tin oxide (ITO)/ indium oxide (InxO) double layer structure was adopted as the transparent conduction and light scattering function layer to improve the light extraction efficiency of the GaN-based blue LEDs. The double layer structure was first deposited in one run by electron beam evaporation using ITO and Indium as the source respectively, and then annealed in an oxygen environment. This method can fabricate transparent electrode with microstructure and low specific contact resistivity one time free from lithography and etching, which makes the fabrication process simple and at a ower cost. For the 220 nm ITO/ 170 nm InxO double layer sample annealed at 600°C for 15 min in oxygen, measurement results show that its root mean square of roughness of the surface microstructure can be as high as 85.2 nm which introduces the strongest light scattering. Its light transmittance at 450 nm can maintain 92.4%. At the same time, it can realize lower specific contact resistivity with p-InGaN. Compared with the GaN-based blue LEDs with only 220 nm ITO electrode, the light output power of the LEDs with 220 nm ITO/ 170 nm InxO double layer structure can be increased about 58.8%, and working voltage at 20 mA injection current is decreased about 0.23 V due to the enhanced current spreading capability. The light output power improvement is also theoretically convinced by finite difference time domain simulations.

12.
Opt Lett ; 41(15): 3599-602, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472628

RESUMO

An all-optically tunable microwave photonic phase shifter is demonstrated based on an epitaxial aluminum nitride (AlN) microring with an intrinsic quality factor of 3.2×106. The microring adopts a pedestal structure, which allows overcoupling with 700 nm gap size and facilitates the fabrication process. A phase shift for broadband signals from 4 to 25 GHz is demonstrated by employing the thermo-optic effect and the separate carrier tuning technique. A phase tuning range of 0°-332° is recorded with a 3 dB radio frequency (RF) power variation and 48 mW optical power consumption. In addition, AlN exhibits intrinsic second-order optical nonlinearity. Thus, our work presents a novel platform with a low propagation loss and the capability of electro-optic modulation for applications in integrated microwave photonics.

13.
Opt Express ; 24(8): 8420-8, 2016 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27137280

RESUMO

A novel backside-illuminated mesa-structure dual-drifting layer (DDL) uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) is reported to demonstrate high-power performance at sub-THz frequencies. The DDL structure consists of a velocity overshoot layer and a velocity saturation layer, formed by inserting a 20 nm p-type cliff layer into the thick depletion region. In the overshoot layer, photo-generated electrons drift at overshoot velocity under the carefully designed electric field profile, thus resulting in a short electron transit time. The saturation layer serves as a voltage sacrificing layer to enable high bias voltage operation, which leads to alleviated load voltage swing effect, as well as improved saturation performance. Our DDL UTC-PD exhibits a 3-dB bandwidth of 106 GHz with a responsivity of 0.17 A/W under a wide bias voltage range from 4 to 8 V. The photocurrent reaches up to 28 mA, corresponding to an output power of 7.3 dBm at 105 GHz.

14.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 228: 105-22, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732300

RESUMO

Highly ordered nanostructures have gained substantial interest in the research community due to their fascinating properties and wide applications.Micro-/nano-spherical lens photolithography (SLPL) has been recognized as an inexpensive, inherently parallel, and high-throughput approach to the creation of highly ordered nanostructures. SLPL based on monolayer colloidal crystals (MCCs) of self-assembled colloidal micro-/nano-spheres have recently made remarkable progress in overcoming the constraints of conventional photolithography in terms of cost, feature size, tunability, and pattern complexity. In this review, we highlight the current state-of-the-art in this field with an emphasis on the fabrication of a variety of highly ordered nanostructures based on this technique and their demonstrated applications in light emitting diodes, nano-patterning semiconductors, and localized surface plasmon resonance devices. Finally, we present a perspective on the future development of MCC-based SLPL technique, including a discussion on the improvement of the quality of MCCs and the compatibility of this technique with other semiconductor micromachining process for nanofabrication.

15.
Opt Express ; 24(26): A1489-A1504, 2016 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28059280

RESUMO

Energy accumulating optimization based on dynamic programming is proposed to design non-rotational 3D high-compactness freeform optical surface for extended source. Each small piece which constructs the freeform optical surface is treated as a stage, and the normal vectors of the small pieces are treated as the decision variables. Then each small piece with a normal-vector-selection-range is calculated stage-by-stage, which is different to the common used loop-iterations-optimization-strategy. The state of the accumulated light distribution on the target plane is varied with the evolvement of the calculations. The optimal decisions are ascertained in a retrospective way only after all the calculations are finished, which are ensured by the principle of optimality. Moreover, several treatments are proposed to confine the normal vector selection range, and the feedback adjustment is developed as well. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by designing the 20 mm height freeform optical surfaces for 10 mm diameter Lambertian sources to achieve uniform illuminance distributions with dual-axial symmetry and single-axial symmetry, respectively. The energy utilization ratios are above 82% with Fresnel loss, while the relative standard deviation of the illuminance distribution can be less than 0.2.

16.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 10(1): 383, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26437653

RESUMO

By introducing an aluminization process to achieve nucleation of nanowires (NWs), spontaneous growth of AlN NWs on Si substrates has been realized by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The AlN NWs are grown from the nuclei formed by the aluminization process, and the NW density and diameter can be controlled by the aluminization parameters. The influence of growth conditions on the morphologies of AlN NWs is carefully investigated. Island-like films are found to grow between the NWs due to poor migration ability of Al adatoms. The films are proved to be Al-polar different from the N-polar AlN NWs, which can explain the absence of newly formed NWs. Increasing the V/III ratio can efficiently suppress the growth of Al-polar AlN films.

17.
Nanotechnology ; 26(7): 075302, 2015 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25629234

RESUMO

Nanopillars with diameters down to 20 nm were fabricated from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) by using a nanosphere-SiO2 double mask and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. Clear photoluminescence (PL) signals of the nanopillars were observed at room temperature, and the PL peak energy at 20 K showed a large blueshift of 220 meV compared with that of the original MQWs. The exciton activation energy in the temperature range of 100 ∼ 300 K increased from 33 meV for MQWs to 83 meV for nanopillars. According to the measurements and numerical simulation results, the strain relaxation effect is believed to play a dominant role rather than the quantum confinement effect in determining the emission wavelength of nanopillars. This work also demonstrates a promising method for obtaining III-nitride quantum dots.

18.
Small ; 10(9): 1668-86, 2014 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24532411

RESUMO

One of the major challenges for the application of GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) in solid-state lighting lies in the low light output power (LOP). Embedding nanostructures in LEDs has attracted considerable interest because they may improve the LOP of GaN-based LEDs efficiently. Recent advances in nanostructures derived from monolayer colloidal crystal (MCC) have made remarkable progress in enhancing the performance of GaN-based LEDs. In this review, the current state of the art in this field is highlighted with an emphasis on the fabrication of ordered nanostructures using large-area, high-quality MCCs and their demonstrated applications in enhancement of LOP from GaN-based LEDs. We describe the remarkable achievements that have improved the internal quantum efficiency, the light extraction efficiency, or both from LEDs by taking advantages of diverse functions that the nanostructures provided. Finally, a perspective on the future development of enhancement of LOP by using the nanostructures derived from MCC is presented.

19.
Nanotechnology ; 24(33): 335301, 2013 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23881090

RESUMO

Patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) have been widely used to enhance the light output power in GaN-based light emitting diodes. The shape and feature size of the pattern in a PSS affect its enhancement efficiency to a great degree. In this work we demonstrate the nanoscale fabrication of volcano-shaped PSS using a wet chemical etching approach in combination with a colloidal monolayer templating strategy. Detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the unique pattern shape is a result of the different corrosion-resistant abilities of silica masks of different effective heights during wet chemical etching. The formation of silica etching masks of different effective heights has been ascribed to the silica precursor solution in the interstice of the colloidal monolayer template being distributed unevenly after infiltration. In the subsequent wet chemical etching process, the active reaction sites altered as etching duration was prolonged, resulting in the formation of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates.

20.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 7(1): 617, 2012 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23134721

RESUMO

InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dot (QD) structure is a potential type of active regions for yellow-green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The surface morphologies and crystalline quality of GaN barriers are critical to the uniformity of InGaN QD layers. While GaN barriers were grown in multi-QD layers, we used improved growth parameters by increasing the growth temperature and switching the carrier gas from N2 to H2 in the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. As a result, a 10-layer InGaN/GaN QD LED is demonstrated successfully. The transmission electron microscopy image shows the uniform multilayer InGaN QDs clearly. As the injection current increases from 5 to 50 mA, the electroluminescence peak wavelength shifts from 574 to 537 nm.

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