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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443336

RESUMO

We develop a suitable delivery system for niaouli essential oil (NEO) using a nanoemulsification method for acne vulgaris. Prepared nanoemulsions (NEs) were characterized for droplet dimension, rheology, surface charge, and stability. The ability of NEO formulations against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated and all formulations showed antiacne potential in vitro. Ex vivo permeation studies indicated significant improvement in drug permeations and steady state flux of all NEO-NEs compared to the neat NEO (p < 0.05). On the basis of the studied pharmaceutical parameters, enhanced ex vivo skin permeation, and marked effect on acne pathogens, formulation NEO-NE4 was found to be the best (oil (NEO; 10% v/v); Kolliphor EL (9.25% v/v), Carbitol (27.75% v/v), and water (53% v/v)). Concisely, the in vitro and ex vivo results revealed that nanoemulsification improved the delivery as well as bioactivities of NEO significantly.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Melaleuca/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Emulsões , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Pele/metabolismo , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249485, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831070

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to solubilize simvastatin (SIM) using different micellar solutions of various non-ionic surfactants such as Tween-80 (T80), Tween-20 (T20), Myrj-52 (M52), Myrj-59 (M59), Brij-35 (B35) and Brij-58 (B58). The solubility of SIM in water (H2O) and different micellar concentrations of T80, T20, M52, M59, B35 and B58 was determined at temperatures T = 300.2 K to 320.2 K under atmospheric pressure p = 0.1 MPa using saturation shake flask method. The experimental solubility data of SIM was regressed using van't Hoff and Apelblat models. The solubility of SIM (mole fraction) was recorded highest in M59 (1.54 x 10-2) followed by M52 (6.56 x 10-3), B58 (5.52 x 10-3), B35 (3.97 x 10-3), T80 (1.68 x 10-3), T20 (1.16 x 10-3) [the concentration of surfactants was 20 mM in H2O in all cases] and H2O (1.94 x 10-6) at T = 320.2 K. The same results were also recorded at each temperature and each micellar concentration of T80, T20, M52, M59, B35 and B58. "Apparent thermodynamic analysis" showed endothermic and entropy-driven dissolution/solubilization of SIM in H2O and various micellar solutions of T80, T20, M52, M59, B35 and B58.


Assuntos
Micelas , Modelos Moleculares , Sinvastatina/química , Tensoativos/química , Conformação Molecular , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Solubilidade , Solventes/química , Termodinâmica , Água/química
3.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 47(4): 654-662, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823120

RESUMO

The solubilization, Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs), and thermodynamic properties of delafloxacin (DLN) in various unique combination of Transcutol-HP® (THP) and 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid (BMIM-PF6) mixtures were evaluated for the first time in this research. The 'mole fraction solubilities (x3)' of DLN in different (THP + BMIM-PF6) compositions were determined at 'T = 298.2-318.2 K' and 'p = 0.1 MPa'. The HSPs of DLN, neat THP, neat BMIM-PF6, and binary (THP + BMIM-PF6) compositions free of DLN were also determined. The x3 data of DLN was regressed using 'van't Hoff, Apelblat, Yalkowsky-Roseman, Jouyban-Acree and Jouyban-Acree-van't Hoff models' with overall error values of less than 3.0%. The highest and lowest x3 value of DLN was recorded in neat THP (5.48 × 10-3 at T = 318.2 K) and neat BMIM-PF6 (6.50 × 10-4 at T = 298.2 K), respectively. The solubility of DLN was found to be enhanced significantly with an arise in temperature in all (THP + BMIM-PF6) compositions including pure THP and pure BMIM-PF6. However, there was slight increase in DLN solubility with increase in THP mass fraction in all (THP + BMIM-PF6) mixtures. The HSP of pure THP and pure BMIM-PF6 were found very close to each other, suggesting the great potential of both solvents in DLN solubilization. The maximum solute-solvent interactions at molecular level were recorded in DLN-THP compared to DLN-BMIM-PF6. An 'apparent thermodynamic analysis' study indicated an 'endothermic and entropy-driven dissolution' of DLN in all (THP + BMIM-PF6) compositions including neat THP and BMIM-PF6.


Assuntos
Água , Etilenoglicóis , Fluoroquinolonas , Solubilidade , Termodinâmica
4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(7): 592-608, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sinapic acid (SA) has been shown to have various pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Its mechanism of action is dependent upon its ability to curb free radical production and protect against oxidative stress-induced tissue injuries. AIM: To study the hepatoprotective effects of SA against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) in rats. METHODS: Experimental ALF was induced with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 8 µg LPS and 800 mg/kg D-GalN in normal saline. SA was administered orally once daily starting 7 d before LPS/D-GalN treatment. RESULTS: Data showed that SA ameliorates acute liver dysfunction, decreases serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO levels in ALF model rats. However, pretreatment with SA (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) reduced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and levels of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 6). Also, SA increased the activity of the nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, SA offers significant protection against LPS/D-GalN-induced ALF in rats by upregulating Nrf2/HO-1 and downregulating NF-κB.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Necrose Hepática Massiva , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Cumáricos , Fator de Transcrição GATA1 , Galactosamina/toxicidade , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante) , Heme Oxigenase-1 , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado , NF-kappa B , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
5.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572688

RESUMO

The solubility values, various Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) and thermodynamic behavior of emtricitabine (ECT) in twelve different pure solvents (PS) were estimated using various experimental as well as computational methods. Experimental solubility values (xe) of ECT in twelve different PS were obtained at T = 298.2 K to 318.2 K and p = 0.1 MPa. The xe values of ECT were correlated by "van't Hoff, Apelblat and Buchowski-Ksiazaczak λh models". Various HSPs for ECT and twelve different PS were also calculated using "HSPiP software". The xe values of ECT were estimated maximum in polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400; 1.41 × 10-1), followed by ethylene glycol, Transcutol-HP, propylene glycol, methanol, water, isopropanol, ethanol, 1-butanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, 2-butanol and EA (1.28 × 10-3) at T = 318.2 K. "Apparent thermodynamic analysis" showed an "endothermic and entropy-driven dissolution" of ECT. Overall, PEG-400 was found as the best/ideal solvent for solubility/miscibility of ECT compared to other solvents studied.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Emtricitabina/química , Solventes/química , Solubilidade , Termodinâmica
6.
Saudi Pharm J ; 28(10): 1253-1262, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132719

RESUMO

Cell- based targeted delivery is recently gain attention as a promising platform for delivery of anticancer drug in selective and efficient manner. As a new biotechnology platform, bacterial ghosts (BGs) have novel biomedical application as targeted drug delivery system (TDDS). In the current work, Salmonellas' BGs was utilized for the first time as hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in-vitro targeted delivery system. Successful BGs loading and accurate analysis of doxorubicin (DOX) were necessary steps for testing the applicability of DOX loaded BGs in targeting the liver cancer cells. Loading capacity was maximized to reach 27.5 µg/mg (27.5% encapsulation efficiency), by incubation of 10 mg BGs with 1 mg DOX at pH 9 in constant temperature (25 °C) for 10 min. In-vitro release study of DOX loaded BGs showed a sustained release (182 h) obeying Higuchi sustained kinetic release model. The death rate (tested by MTT assay) of HepG2 reached to 64.5% by using of 4 µg/ml, while it was about 51% using the same concentration of the free DOX (P value < 0.0001 One-way ANOVA analysis). The proliferative inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the DOX combined formula was 1.328 µg/ml that was about one third of the IC50 of the free DOX (3.374 µg/ml). Apoptosis analysis (tested by flow-cytometry) showed more accumulation in early apoptosis (8.3%) and late apoptosis/necrosis (91%) by applying 1 µg/ml BGs combined DOX, while 1 µg/ml free DOX showed 33.4% of cells in early apoptosis and 39.3% in late apoptosis/necrosis, (P value˃ 0.05: one-way ANOVA). In conclusion, DOX loaded Salmonellas' BGs are successfully prepared and tested in vivo with promising potential as hepatocellular cancer (HCC) targeted delivery system.

7.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 46(10): 1716-1725, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893682

RESUMO

The use of bacterial ghosts (BGs) for drug delivery is an extremely fascinating perspective especially with the inherited efficient target-ability to specialized tissues. Trafficking of drug molecules across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria are important to be understood for both loading (influx) and drug release (efflux). In this study, Escherichia coli (E. coli) BGs were prepared using modified protocol sponge-like reduced protocol (SLRP) which was used for loading of doxorubicin (DOX). First time in the literature, different possible factors affecting DOX loading from BGs were examined in this study. These factors including drug concentration, temperature, pH gradient, incubation time and tonicity, are proposed to effect on drug loading into E. coli BGs. Results of optimum effect from accompanied factors were found to be 10 mg/mL as DOX concentration at pH 6 with tonicity of 0.7% incubated overnight at 4 °C. After gather all factors, the amount of DOX loaded inside the BGs was recorded as 37.58%. The in vitro release studies of DOX loaded BGs over time showed a burst initial release rate of 26.75% at the first 12 h followed by a period of sustained release lasting for 16 days to give maximum release rate of 58.04%. Remarkably, DOX loaded in BG showed more apoptosis (55%) than control and DOX solution. Overall, the results indicated the presence of some important factors to be controlled when loading drugs into BGs. Also, data showed the future possibility of utilizing BGs to deliver DOX to colon cancer cells.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Escherichia coli , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
8.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 58(7): 629-635, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596711

RESUMO

A precise, swift and environmental-friendly reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of thymoquinone (TQ) in plasma samples using thymol (TM) as an internal standard was developed and validated. The method used a high strength silica C18 1.7 µm column (100 × 2.1 mm) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of a blend of methanol and 20 mM potassium dihydrogen ortho-phosphate (90:10 v/v; pH of 4.2). The selected eluent provided a short run time (≤2 min), better peak symmetry, lower limit of quantification of 10 ng/mL and satisfactory values of other chromatographic parameters including resolution (Rs = 1), capacity factor (k = 21.5 and 14.5 for TQ and TM, respectively), selectivity (α = 1.482) and number of theoretical plates (N = 1653 and 784 for TQ and TM, respectively). The method was efficiently applied to a pharmacokinetic study of TQ following an intraperitoneal administration of 2 mg/kg in mice. The concentrations of TQ in plasma were measurable up to 12 h with Cmax of 404.08 ± 28.91 ng/mL, T1/2 of 2.31 ± 0.10 h and area under plasma concentration-time curve of 1527.00 ± 46.61 ng/mL × h.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Animais , Benzoquinonas/química , Benzoquinonas/farmacocinética , Química Verde , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545724

RESUMO

The solubility values and thermodynamic parameters of a natural phytomedicine/nutrient piperine (PPN) in Transcutol-HP (THP) + water combinations were determined. The mole fraction solubilities (xe) of PPN in THP + water combinations were recorded at T = 298.2-318.2 K and p = 0.1 MPa by the shake flask method. Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) of PPN, pure THP, pure water and THP + water mixtures free of PPN were also computed. The xe values of PPN were correlated well with "Apelblat, Van't Hoff, Yalkowsky-Roseman, Jouyban-Acree and Jouyban-Acree-Van't Hoff" models with root mean square deviations of < 2.0%. The maximum and minimum xe value of PPN was found in pure THP (9.10 × 10-2 at T = 318.2 K) and pure water (1.03 × 10-5 at T = 298.2 K), respectively. In addition, HSP of PPN was observed more closed with that of pure THP. The thermodynamic parameters of PPN were obtained using the activity coefficient model. The results showed an endothermic dissolution of PPN at m = 0.6-1.0 in comparison to other THP + water combinations studied. In addition, PPN dissolution was recorded as entropy-driven at m = 0.8-1.0 compared with other THP + water mixtures evaluated.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Benzodioxóis/química , Etilenoglicóis/química , Piperidinas/química , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/química , Água/química , Solubilidade , Termodinâmica
10.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231154

RESUMO

This study was aimed to find out the solubility, thermodynamic behavior, Hansen solubility parameters and molecular interactions of an antiviral drug emtricitabine (ECT) in various "[polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) + water]" mixtures. The solubility of ECT in mole fraction was determined at "T = 298.2 to 318.2 K" and "p = 0.1 MPa" using an isothermal method. The experimental solubilities of ECT in mole fraction were validated and correlated using various computational models which includes "Van't Hoff, Apelblat, Yalkowsky-Roseman, Jouyban-Acree and Jouyban-Acree-Van't Hoff models". All the models performed well in terms of model correlation. The solubility of ECT was increased with the raise in temperature in all "PEG-400 + water" mixtures studied. The highest and lowest solubility values of ECT were found in pure PEG-400 (1.45 × 10-1) at "T = 318.2 K" and pure water (7.95 × 10-3) at "T = 298.2 K", respectively. The quantitative values of activity coefficients indicated higher interactions at molecular level in ECT and PEG-400 combination compared with ECT and water combination. "Apparent thermodynamic analysis" showed an "endothermic and entropy-driven dissolution" of ECT in all "PEG-400 + water" combinations studied. The solvation nature of ECT was found an "enthalpy-driven" in each "PEG-400 + water" mixture studied.


Assuntos
Emtricitabina/química , Modelos Químicos , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Termodinâmica , Água/química , Algoritmos , Emtricitabina/farmacologia , Transição de Fase , Solubilidade , Solventes
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3921796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258120

RESUMO

In the present study, we explored SA's activity against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and revealed its underlying mechanisms. Male Wistar rats (weight, 190-210g; n = 6) were randomly divided into four groups: group I, normal control; group II, DOX 15 mg/kg via intraperitoneal (ip) route; group III, administered DOX+SA 20 mg/kg; and group IV, administered DOX+captopril (CAP 30 mg/kg). SA and CAP were administered orally for seven days, and DOX (15 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally an hour before SA treatment on the fifth day. Forty-eight hours after DOX administration, animals were anesthetized and sacrificed for molecular and histology experiments. SA significantly mitigated the myocardial effects of DOX, and following daily administration, it reduced serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB to near normal values. Levels of oxidative stress markers, glutathione-peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, in the cardiac tissue were significantly increased, whereas malondialdehyde levels decreased after SA treatment in DOX-administered rats. Furthermore, DOX caused an inflammatory reaction by elevating the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and endothelin- (ET-) 1, as well as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) expression. Daily administration of SA significantly repressed TNF-α, IL-1ß, ET-1, and NF-κB levels. caspase-3 and Bax expression, bcl-2-like protein and caspase-3 activities and levels. Overall, we found that SA could inhibit DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptotic damage.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/genética , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Ratos
12.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(4)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344607

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (Dox) is an operational and largely used anticancer drug, used to treat an array of malignancies. Nonetheless, its beneficial use is constrained due to its renal and hepatotoxicity dose dependently. Numerous research findings favor the use of antioxidants may impact Dox-induced liver injury/damage. In the current study, Wistar rats were given naringenin (50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt.) orally for 20 days as prophylactic dose, against the hepatotoxicity induced by single intraperitoneal injection of Dox (20 mg/kg b.wt.). Potency of naringenin against the liver damage caused by Dox was assessed by measuring malonyl aldehyde (MDA) as a by-product of lipid peroxidation, biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and inflammatory mediators. Naringenin-attenuated ROS production, ROS-induced lipid peroxidation, and replenished reduced antioxidant armory, namely, catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH). Naringenin similarly diminished expression of Cox-2 and levels of NF-κB and other inflammatory molecules induced by the Dox treatment. Histology added further evidence to the defensive effects of naringenin on Dox-induced liver damage. The outcomes of the current study reveal that oxidative stress and inflammation are meticulously linked with Dox-triggered damage, and naringenin illustrates the potential effect on Dox-induced hepatotoxicity probably through diminishing the oxidative stress and inflammation.

13.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 17(10): 898-910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072911

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common liver malignancy, which has a low survival rate of all cancers. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is clinically recognized to treat HCC. However, the success of this therapy is highly limited due to rapid clearance and non- selective distribution. Cholesterol- conjugate (5-FUC) loaded liposomes proposed to facilitate the transport of 5-FUC into tumor cells via Low-Density Lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) that overexpressed in HCC. Thus, the aim of this study was to use 5-FUC loaded liposome as a promising strategy to combat HCC and improve the response of HCC to chemotherapy. METHODS: 5-FUC and 5-FU loaded liposomes were optimized based on Cholesterol (CHO) ratio and type of phospholipid to achieve a potential effect on HCC. Liposomes were prepared by the thin-film hydration method, and evaluated in terms of particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, Entrapment Efficiency (EE), morphology, drug release and cytotoxicity. RESULTS: The obtained liposomes had a suitable nano-range particle size with negative zeta potential, and acceptable EE%. In vitro drug release of 5-FUC loaded liposomes showed a lower cumulative release over 24 h as compared to 5-FU loaded liposomes. 5-FUC loaded liposomes exhibited a higher in vitro cytotoxic effect as compared to the free drug and 5-FU loaded liposomes against HepG2 cell lines after 48 h via MTT assay. CONCLUSION: These results concluded that 5-FUC loaded liposomes could be used as an alternative tactic to increase the therapeutic index of 5-FU and pave the way for potential clinical applications.

14.
ACS Omega ; 5(3): 1708-1716, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010845

RESUMO

Glipizide (GLZ) is an oral hypoglycemic agent, which is a weakly aqueous soluble drug. The solubility values of GLZ in various neat solvents are scarce in the literature. Hence, the solubility of GLZ in 12 different neat solvents, namely, "water, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol (IPA), 1-butanol, 2-butanol, ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glycol (PG), poly(ethylene glycol)-400 (PEG-400), ethyl acetate (EA), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and Transcutol-HP (THP)", at "T = 298.2-318.2 K" and "p = 0.1 MPa" was measured. The recorded solubilities of GLZ were correlated by "van't Hoff and Apelblat models" using root-mean-square deviation (RMSD). The overall RMSD was obtained as 1.21 and 1.40% for "Apelblat and van't Hoff models", respectively. Different solubility parameters of all studied materials including drug and solvent were calculated to find the best solvent for GLZ. The solubilities of GLZ (expressed in mole fraction) have been found highest in DMSO (2.81 × 10-2), followed by THP, EA, 2-butanol, 1-butanol, IPA, PEG-400, ethanol, PG, methanol, EG, and water (1.98 × 10-4) at "T = 318.2 K". All investigated solubility parameters of GLZ were recorded very close to the DMSO. "Apparent thermodynamic analysis" showed an "endothermic and entropy-driven dissolution" of GLZ in the 12 different neat solvents. The highest molecular interactions were recorded in GLZ-DMSO compared to other combinations. Overall, DMSO has been considered as the best solvent for the solubilization of GLZ.

15.
Curr Drug Deliv ; 17(10): 826-844, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026776

RESUMO

The prevalence of liver cancer is increasing over the years and it is the fifth leading cause of mortality worldwide. The intrusive features and burden of low survival rate make it a global health issue in both developing and developed countries. The recommended chemotherapy drugs for patients in the intermediate and advanced stages of various liver cancers yield a low response rate due to the nonspecific nature of drug delivery, thus warranting the search for new therapeutic strategies and potential drug delivery carriers. There are several new drug delivery methods available to ferry the targeted molecules to the specific biological environment. In recent years, the nano assembly of lipoprotein moieties (lipidic nanoparticles) has emerged as a promising and efficiently tailored drug delivery system in liver cancer treatment. This increased precision of nano lipoproteins conjugates in chemotherapeutic targeting offers new avenues for the treatment of liver cancer with high specificity and efficiency. This present review is focused on concisely outlining the knowledge of liver cancer diagnosis, existing treatment strategies, lipoproteins, their preparation, mechanism and their potential application in the treatment of liver cancer.

16.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546846

RESUMO

The current research work proposed the solubility data and solution thermodynamic properties of the cardiovascular agent 6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-one [PPD] in twelve pharmaceutical solvents at "T = 298.2 K to 318.2 K" and "p = 0.1 MPa". The measured solubilities of PPD were regressed well with "van't Hoff and Apelblat models". The solid phases of pure and equilibrated PPD were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray differactometry, and the results suggested no transformation of PPD into solvates/hydrates/polymorphs after equilibrium. The solubilities of PPD in a mole fraction at "T = 318.2 K" were noted at a maximum in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 4.73 × 10-1), followed by polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400, 4.12 × 10-1), Transcutol® (3.46 × 10-1), ethyl acetate (EA, 81 × 10-2), 2-butanol (2.18 × 10-2), 1-butanol (2.11 × 10-2), propylene glycol (PG, 1.50 × 10-2), isopropyl alcohol (IPA, 1.44 × 10-2), ethylene glycol (EG, 1.27 × 10-2), ethanol (8.22 × 10-3), methanol (5.18 × 10-3) and water (1.26 × 10-5). Similar tendencies were also noted at other studied temperatures. The results of the "apparent thermodynamic analysis" showed an endothermic and entropy-driven dissolution of PPD in all pharmaceutical solvents. The results of the activity coefficients suggested a maximum interaction at the molecular level in PPD-DMSO, PPD-PEG-400 and PPD-Transcutol, compared with other combination of the solute and solvents.


Assuntos
Piridazinas/química , Piridazinas/síntese química , Solventes/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Solubilidade , Termodinâmica , Difração de Raios X
17.
Saudi Pharm J ; 27(5): 629-636, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297016

RESUMO

This study was conducted to formulate, characterize, and investigate the bioavailability of hydrocortisone (HCT) when prepared as solid dispersions. HCT was mixed in an organic solvent with polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) and Kolliphor® P 407. Spray drying technique was employed to form a solid dispersion formulation at a specific ratio. Physical and chemical characterization of the formed particles were achieved using differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffractometry. Furthermore, comparative in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted between the formulated particles against neat HCT. The formulated solid dispersion showed elongated particles with leaf-like structure. Formation of new chemical bonds in the formed particle was suggested due to the change in the vibrational wave numbers and the significant improvement in the bioavailability of the dispersed particles proved the importance of this technique.

18.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 45(9): 1468-1476, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225760

RESUMO

This work was carried out to determine solubility, solution thermodynamics, solvation behavior, and molecular interactions of a natural compound ferulic acid (FLA) in different '[polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) + water]' binary solvent mixtures at 'T = 298.2 K to 318.2 K' and 'p = 0.1 MPa.' The mole fraction solubilities (xe) of FLA were determined by liquid chromatographic technique using a static equilibrium technique. The obtained solubility data of FLA were regressed using 'Van't Hoff, Apelblat, Yalkowsky-Roseman and Jouyban-Acree models.' The solubility of FLA (expressed in mole fraction) was enhanced with elevation in absolute temperature in each 'PEG-400 + water' binary solvent mixture evaluated. The maximum xe values of FLA were recorded in neat PEG-400 (1.94 × 10-1) at 'T = 318.2 K.' While, the minimum one was obtained in neat water (4.90 × 10-5) at 'T = 298.2 K.' The molecular interactions between FLA-PEG-400 and FLA-water were obtained by determination of activity coefficients of FLA in different 'PEG-400 + water' binary solvent mixtures. The physical data of activity coefficients recorded in this work suggested strong molecular interactions in FLA-PEG-400 in comparison with FLA-water. 'Apparent thermodynamic analysis' suggested an 'endothermic and entropy-driven dissolution' of FLA in each 'PEG-400 + water' binary solvent mixture investigated.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Modelos Químicos , Solventes/química , Química Farmacêutica , Entropia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Solubilidade , Água/química
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999274

RESUMO

A new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) system has been formulated for the resolution of closely related drugs apigenin (API, a bioflavinoid) and prednisolone (PRD) from their mixture. This developed method comprised of a "BEH™ C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm)" using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (35:65 v/v) at a supply rate of 0.25 mL·min-1 as eluent. It was found that selected eluent provided short run time (≤2.5 min) as well as better peak symmetry. Satisfactory values of chromatographic parameters such as resolution (Rs = 2.5), capacity factor (k; 13.6 and 23.4 for API and PRD respectively, selectivity (α = 1.72) and number of theoretical plates (N; 3789 and 42,435 for API and PRD respectively) indicate the efficiency of the developed method. The obtained separation was then exploited for the detection and measurement of API in rat plasma sample by means of PRD as an "internal standard" (IS). The eluted compounds in plasma were identified by tandem mass spectrometry by means of tandem quadrupole (TQ) detector ("Waters Corp., Milford, MA") fortified with an "electrospray ionisation (ESI)" source functioning in positive ionization mode. The determination of API in plasma was accomplished by means of "multiple reactions monitoring (MRM)" mode. Assortment of "ionization pairs" (m/z) was displayed in the following manner: API: 270.99 → 152.9 ("cone voltage" 57 V, "collision energy" 34 V), PRD: 403.172 → 385.224 ("cone voltage" 42 V, "collision energy" 13 V). The calibration curves followed linearity in concentration range of 05-1000 ng mL-1 with limit of detection "LOD" and limit of quantification "LOQ" of 7.30 and 22.77 ng mL-1, respectively. The developed method was validated taking into consideration various test conditions and satisfactory values of various parameters such as linearity (r2 ±â€¯SD = 0.9995 ±â€¯0.0005), interday accuracy (88-120%), interday precision % RSD = 3.30-13.65% whereas intraday accuracy (91-118%) intraday precision % RSD = 1.18-5.83) indicated its validity. The validation outcomes fulfilled the standards of united states food and drug administration "USFDA" in addition Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology "SWGTOX" guiding principles and were not beyond the tolerable constraint. The process developed in plasma was efficaciously harnessed in the pharmacokinetic investigation of various formulations of API after oral administration in rats.


Assuntos
Apigenina/isolamento & purificação , Apigenina/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Prednisolona/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Apigenina/sangue , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prednisolona/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
20.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(2): 48, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617674

RESUMO

Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are non-deformed bacterial cell envelopes that possess undamaged external configurations for precise attachment to different cells of the human body. The Escherichia coli BGs were successfully produced using a modified sponge-like reduced protocol and characterized by SEM. Four different concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were used to study the impact on the "ghosts" cell wall. 5-FU was then loaded into the BGs and the loading capacity (LC %) and entrapment efficiency (EE %) were determined and were found to be 38.3 ± 0.8 and 76.6 ± 0.8, respectively. The in vitro release studies were conducted in dialysis bags over a time period of 16 days and the accumulative 5-FU released (%) was calculated. Overall, 69.2% of the ghost-associated 5-FU was released from the BGs and release from the E. coli ghosts is governed by non-Fickian diffusion. The Caco-2 cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of 5-FU-loaded BGs.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fluoruracila/metabolismo , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/química , Células CACO-2 , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Escherichia coli/química , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos
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