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1.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12518, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564522

RESUMO

Background Accurate management of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients can be achieved by stratifying risks as early as possible on hospital admission. Previously, the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score has been validated and used on patients presenting with NSTEMI or unstable angina (UA) in developed countries. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the TIMI risk score in patients presenting with NSTEMI in Pakistan. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken on 300 patients who were diagnosed with NSTEMI. Data were collected from medical records, the TIMI score was calculated, and 14-day outcome was recorded. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed, and area under the curve (AUC) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was reported. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratio (OR) along with 95% CI was reported. Results This cross-sectional study was undertaken on 300 patients who were diagnosed with NSTEMI. Data were collected from medical records, the TIMI score was calculated, and 14-day outcome was recorded. Validity of TIMI score in predicting hospital mortality 14 days after the diagnosis of NSTEMI in a population in Pakistan was assessed by ROC curve and logistic regression analysis. The AUC of the TIMI score for predicting 14-day outcome was 0.788 [95% CI: 0.689-0.887], with optimal cutoff of ≥4 with sensitivity of 77.78%. On multivariate analysis, cardiac arrest at presentation and the TIMI risk score were found to be independent predictors of 14-day mortality with adjusted ORs of 136.49 [10.23-1821.27] and 2.67 [1.09-6.57], respectively. Conclusions The TIMI risk score is a useful and simple score for the stratification of patients with high risk of 14-day mortality with reasonably acceptable discriminating ability in patients with NSTEMI acute coronary syndrome.

2.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11488, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335817

RESUMO

A 60-year-old male with a history of primary hypertension presented to the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital, in Pakistan, with complaints of fever, cough, and shortness of breath. He tested positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction, with bilateral infiltrates found in chest X-ray. At admission, oxygen saturation was 80% on room air; hence, he was immediately put on non-invasive ventilation. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated D-dimer, international normalized ratio, and total leukocyte count. C-reactive protein was markedly elevated (82.5 mg/L), indicating the state of a cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Treatment started with antibiotics, prophylactic enoxaparin (40-mg subcutaneous once daily), methyl prednisone 60 mg BD and multivitamins. Intravenous tocilizumab (TCZ) 6 mg/kg was started from Day 1 to address the CRS. On Day 3, he complained of pain in the right lower limb with signs of hypothermia, numbness, and slight blackening of the right foot. Peripheral pulses were not palpable, and vascular ultrasound showed no vascular flow in the popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis artery. The Vascular Surgery department declared the limb unsalvageable and right limb above-knee amputation. On Day 9, the right foot was blackened and atrophied extending up to the knee. Above-knee amputation was done, and he was discharged on rivaroxaban after 48 hours of observation. We conclude that heparin is effective in treating coronavirus disease 2019-associated coagulopathy, while TCZ, simultaneously, decreases the severity of CRS. Our case suggests that the concomitant use of TCZ and anticoagulation therapy can be beneficial in patients presenting with arterial and venous thrombosis.

3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(11)2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168535

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid excess is an under-recognised cause of cardiovascular adverse effects. The sources can be either endogenous (Cushing's syndrome) or exogenous (Anabolic steroid abuse). Cardiovascular complications due to excess glucocorticoid includes hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Although anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy is a well-recognised phenomenon, endogenous corticosteroid-induced cardiomyopathy and heart failure are rarely reported sequelae of glucocorticoid excess in the body. We report a glucocorticoid-induced dilated cardiomyopathy in a 26-year-old African-American man with cushingoid features and symptomatic heart failure.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Cushing/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiotoxicidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Eletrocardiografia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11617, 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240734

RESUMO

As the second most common cause of death amongst men in the United States, prostate cancer is a type of cancer that is known to develop and originate in the prostate gland. The main function of the prostate gland is to produce seminal fluid in which the sperm bathes. The seminal fluids are necessary for allowing the sperm to move easily through the urethra and also allows successful fertilization by providing an alkaline environment for the sperm in the acidic nature of the vagina. The seminal vesicles are two smaller glands that are attached to either side of the prostate gland and in radical prostatectomies, can get removed. In the event that the seminal vesicles are removed during a radical prostatectomy, the individual is unable to produce any seminal fluids and thus, becoming infertile. Prostate cancer is most commonly seen in patients over the age of 66 years, however, in the presence of predisposing risk factors, may occur as early as in the late 40s. Certain risk factors may speed the presentation of prostate cancer in individuals and thus, mandatory screening is recommended around the age of 45. If no risk factors are present, screening is recommended to begin after the age of 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer is focused on looking for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a blood test, though this may not be the most reliable method. The method of diagnosis stems from further testing done following an abnormal PSA test. A digital rectal examination and ultrasonography may also be used to assist with the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Though there are several different types of pharmaceutical interventions currently present in the eradication of prostate cancer, with androgen deprivation therapy being the most commonly used, surgical interventions may be utilized to completely resect cancer from an individual. Different radical prostatectomies are used; the appropriate approach utilized is dependent on the extensiveness of cancer and the type of cancer that is present.

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