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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Withania somnifera (WS), also referred to as Medhya Rasayana(nootropic or rejuvenating), has traditionally been prescribed for various neurological ailments, including dementia. Despite substantial evidence, pharmacological roles of WS, neither as nootropic nor as an anti-dementia agent, are well-understood at the cellular and molecular levels. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at elucidating the pharmacological action mechanisms of WS root constituents against Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. METHODS: Various bioinformatics tools and resources, including DAVID, Cytoscape, NetworkAnalyst and KEGG pathway database were employed to analyze the interaction of WS root bioactive molecules with the protein targets of AD-associated cellular processes. We also used a molecular simulation approach to validate the interaction of compounds with selected protein targets. RESULTS: Network analysis revealed that ß-sitosterol, withaferin A, stigmasterol, withanolide A, and withanolide Dare the major constituents of WS root that primarily target the cellular pathways such as PI3K/Akt signaling, neurotrophin signaling and toll-like receptor signal-ing and proteins such as tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), glycogen synthase kinase-3ß(GSK-3ß), toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4), and ß-secretase (BACE-1).Also, the in silico analysis further validated the interaction patterns and binding affinity of the major WS compounds, particularly stigmasterol,withanolide A, withanolide D and ß-sitosterol with TrkB, GSK-3ß, TLR2/4, and BACE-1. CONCLUSION: The present findings demonstrate that stigmasterol,withanolide A, withanolideDand ß-sitosterolare the major metabolites that are responsible for the neuropharmacological action of WS root against AD-associated pathobiology, and TrkB, GSK-3ß, TLR2/4, and BACE-1 could be the potential druggable targets.

2.
Food Sci Nutr ; 8(7): 3578-3589, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724620

RESUMO

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is a natural source of antioxidants and possesses valuable medicinal properties. However, the protective effect of amla in the kidney of two-kidneys-one-clip (2K1C) rats has not been explained sufficiently. This study was performed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of amla fruit powder (2.5% W/W) supplementation in kidneys of 2K1C rats. 2K1C rats increased the remnant kidney wet weight and also increased plasma creatinine and uric acid concentration compared to the control. Amla supplementation ameliorates elevated creatinine and uric acid concentration in plasma of 2K1C rats. Various oxidative stress indicators such as malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), and advanced protein oxidation product (APOP) were also increased in plasma, heart, and kidney tissues in 2K1C rats that were also significantly brought down to normal level by amla supplementation. Moreover, the inflammatory cells entry and fibrosis in the 2K1C rat's tissues were prevented by amla supplementation. These research results suggest that amla may restore plasma antioxidant capacities and prevents oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in 2K1C rats. Taken these results as a base, clinical supplementation of dried amla powder in diet or juice to the CKD patients would be beneficial.

3.
Mar Drugs ; 18(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630301

RESUMO

Beyond their significant contribution to the dietary and industrial supplies, marine algae are considered to be a potential source of some unique metabolites with diverse health benefits. The pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol homeostasis, protein clearance and anti-amyloidogenic potentials of algal metabolites endorse their protective efficacy against oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired proteostasis which are known to be implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders and the associated complications after cerebral ischemia and brain injuries. As was evident in various preclinical studies, algal compounds conferred neuroprotection against a wide range of neurotoxic stressors, such as oxygen/glucose deprivation, hydrogen peroxide, glutamate, amyloid ß, or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and, therefore, hold therapeutic promise for brain disorders. While a significant number of algal compounds with promising neuroprotective capacity have been identified over the last decades, a few of them have had access to clinical trials. However, the recent approval of an algal oligosaccharide, sodium oligomannate, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease enlightened the future of marine algae-based drug discovery. In this review, we briefly outline the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries for identifying the targets of pharmacological intervention, and then review the literature on the neuroprotective potentials of algal compounds along with the underlying pharmacological mechanism, and present an appraisal on the recent therapeutic advances. We also propose a rational strategy to facilitate algal metabolites-based drug development.

4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 306, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gibberellin (GA) is one of the most essential phytohormones that modulate plant growth and development. Jute (Corchorus sp.) is the second most important source of bast fiber. Our result has shown that exogenous GA can positively regulate jute height and related characteristics which mean increasing endogenous GA production will help to get a jute variety with improved characteristics. However, genes involved in jute GA biosynthesis have not been analyzed precisely. RESULTS: Genome-wide analysis identified twenty-two candidate genes involved in jute GA biosynthesis pathway. Among them, four genes- CoCPS, CoKS, CoKO and CoKAO work in early steps. Seven CoGA20oxs, three CoGA3oxs, and eight GA2oxs genes work in the later steps. These genes were characterized through phylogenetic, motif, gene structure, and promoter region analysis along with chromosomal localization. Spatial gene expression analysis revealed that 11 GA oxidases were actively related to jute GA production and four of them were marked as key regulators based on their expression level. All the biosynthesis genes both early and later steps showed tissue specificity. GA oxidase genes were under feedback regulation whereas early steps genes were not subject to such regulation. CONCLUSION: Enriched knowledge about jute GA biosynthesis pathway and genes will help to increase endogenous GA production in jute by changing the expression level of key regulator genes. CoGA20ox7, CoGA3ox2, CoGA2ox3, and CoGA2ox5 may be the most important genes for GA production.

5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 105: 286-296, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702481

RESUMO

Hypoxia is an increasing threat to aquatic ecosystems and its impact on economically and ecologically important marine fish species needs to be studied. Especially, the consequences of hypoxia when occurring along with harmful algal blooms (HABs) are currently not well documented. In this study, we investigated the effect of constant and intermittent (daily and weekly) hypoxia on respiration, immunity, hematological parameters, and oxidative status of red seabream for 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Under constant and daily intermittent hypoxia, respiration rate significantly increased in 2 weeks compared to the control. Constant and daily intermittent hypoxia caused significant decreases in the activity of alternative complement pathway, lysozyme, and the level of total immunoglobulin (Ig), as well as significant increases in the concentrations of cortisol, hemoglobin, red blood cells, and white blood cells. A significantly higher level of malondialdehyde was measured for all hypoxia-exposed groups, indicating lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. At 4 and 6 week, the level of glutathione and enzymatic activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly decreased after constant and daily intermittent hypoxia challenge. The enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased at 2 and 4 weeks, but they were decreased after 6 weeks by constant and daily intermittent hypoxia. Constant and daily intermittent hypoxia with subsequent non-toxin producing dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides treatment significantly reduced the respiration rate in 3 and 24 h exposure and survival rate of red seabream. Taken together, the red seabream can be vulnerable to HABs under hypoxia condition through inhibition of immunity and antioxidant defense ability. Our findings are helpful in better understanding of molecular and physiological effects of hypoxia, which can be used in aquaculture and fisheries management.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712940

RESUMO

The Ganges River is one of the biggest transboundary streams in the Indian sub-continent. The significant part of this waterway channel drains one of the most densely populated areas on the planet so it is unequivocally influenced by human activities. Unprecedented high-temporal-resolution samples were collected for investigating the seasonal variability of water quality. Water quality index (WQI) reveals large seasonal variation among three major seasons and also indicates that the river water is not suitable for drinking and other household uses. The dominant water facies is bicarbonate (HCO3-). The water quality indices, %Na, Kelley's ratio (KR), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), reveal that the water is appropriate for irrigation. The permeability index (PI) indicated that the water is moderate to poorly useable for agricultural purposes. Heavy metals concentrations demonstrated significant seasonal variations with high concentrations during the monsoon due to flushing of pollutants from catchment areas by intense monsoonal precipitations. In addition, local activities such as oil spills from the boat, vehicle washing water, and agricultural runoff may also added pollutants. The single-factor pollution index (Ii) and Nemerow pollution index (Ni) exhibits minor pollution. The values of heavy metal pollution index (HPI) are far below than the critical limit (100) for the studied month, although relatively higher HPI values found for April, August, and November than other months might come from domestic wastes and agricultural activities. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) values of all the months indicated a low degree of pollution. Even though the river water pollution level is low, the authority should take proper management and monitoring strategy for sustainable use.

7.
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol ; 237: 108831, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585368

RESUMO

Metals are of serious concern due to their toxicity, persistency, and accumulation potential in aquatic animals. However, limited information is available on the combined effects of metal with temperature elevation, which is one of the future climate changes suggested for the oceans. In this study, the effect of temperature elevation was investigated by analyzing toxicity, bioconcentration, and antioxidant response in juvenile and adult marine mysids upon exposure to 20 °C and 25 °C for 48 h and 96 h. Based on LC50 values, toxicity of metals was highly reliant on temperature, exposure period, and age. Elevation in temperature significantly increased the whole metal toxicity in juveniles. Bioconcentration was elevated by increasing exposure period and metal concentration. Significant elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and depletion of glutathione (GSH) was measured in juveniles, while significant elevation of both MDA and GSH was detected in adults. Subsequently, enzymatic activities of antioxidant enzymes in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in adults at 48 h and 96 h, whereas most activities were significantly lowered in juveniles at 96 h. These results suggest that the early life stage of marine mysids is more sensitive to the combined effect of metal and temperature than adult stage due to an impairment in the induction of the antioxidant defense system.

8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 104: 237-244, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497726

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of ammonia derived from different stocking densities on immunological, hematological, and oxidative stress parameters was analyzed in the blood or liver of red seabream. Density- and time-dependent increases in inorganic nitrogen compounds were measured for 20 days by analyzing the three major inorganic nitrogen compounds, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. Three immunity parameters, alternative complement activity, lysozyme activity, and total immunoglobulin content were significantly decreased in the blood at the highest stocking density (10 kg m-3). The concentrations of hemoglobin and white blood cells were significantly decreased at 10 kg m-3, while there was no significant change in red blood cells. The significant increases in cortisol level and the enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase at 10 kg m-3 clearly supported inorganic nitrogen compounds-triggered stress. A significant elevation of lipid peroxidation value and depletion of intracellular glutathione were observed at 5 and/or 10 kg m-3 in the liver tissue. The hepatic enzymatic activities of antioxidant defense enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase were also significantly increased. When a protein skimmer removes the inorganic nitrogen compounds at the highest density, most parameters showed no significant change. Taken together, these results suggest that accumulated inorganic nitrogen compounds at the highest stocking density inhibit innate immunity and induce oxidative stress in red seabream. This information will be helpful to maintain homeostasis of red seabream by controlling immunity and oxidative status through inorganic nitrogen compounds removal in intensive culture condition.

9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111276, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510415

RESUMO

Effects of zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and inorganic Zn (ZnCl2) were evaluated on a marine polychaete at sublethal concentrations for 14 days. ZnPT decreased the burrowing activity and AChE activity with higher acute toxicities, implying its cholinergic effect. Both ZnPT and ZnCl2 increased MDA levels at higher concentrations, suggesting lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. In the ZnPT-treated polychaete, enzymatic activities of CAT and SOD were elevated with an increase in DNA damage, whereas the levels of GSH, GPx, GR, and GST were decreased. However, in the ZnCl2-treated polychaete, the level of GSH and enzymatic activities of CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GST were significantly elevated to resist cellular damage. During 97 days depuration experiment, significant mortality and growth retardation were observed in the ZnPT-exposed polychaete. Overall, ZnPT was found to be more toxic than ZnCl2 with the harmful impact on antioxidant defense system and DNA stability in marine polychaete.


Assuntos
Compostos Organometálicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Antioxidantes , Dano ao DNA , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Piridinas
10.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105615, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534289

RESUMO

Both crash count and severity are thought to quantify crash risk at defined transport network locations (e.g. intersections, a particulate section of highway, etc.). Crash count is a measure of the likelihood of occurring a potential harmful event, whereas crash severity is a measure of the societal impact and harm to the society. As the majority of safety improvement programs are focused on preventing fatal and serious injury crashes, identification of high-risk sites-or blackspots-should ideally account for both severity and frequency of crashes. Past research efforts to incorporate crash severity into the identification of high-risk sites include multivariate crash count models, equivalent property damage only models and two-stage mixed models. These models, however, often require suitable distributional assumptions for computational efficiency, neglect the ordinal nature of crash severity, and are inadequate for capturing unobserved heterogeneity arising from possible correlations between crash counts of different severity levels. These limitations can ultimately lead to inefficient allocation of resources and misidentification of sites with high risk of fatal and serious injury crashes. Moreover, the implication of these models in blackspot identification is an important, unanswered question. While a joint econometric model of crash count and crash severity has the flexibility to account for the limitations mentioned previously, its ability to identify high-risk sites also needs to be examined. This study aims to fill this research gap by employing the joint model for blackspot identification. Using data from state-controlled roads in Queensland, Australia, a new risk score is developed based on predicted crash counts by severity, weighted by the cost ratio of severity levels. This weighted risk score is then used for identifying road segments with high risk of fatal and injury crashes. Results show that the joint model of crash count and crash severity has substantially improved prediction accuracy compared to the traditional count models. The correlation between crash counts of different severity levels captures the unobserved heterogeneity caused by the extra-variation in total crash counts and moderates the parameters in the joint model. In comparison with the traditional approaches, the proposed weighted risk score approach with the joint model of crash count and crash severity leads to the identification of a higher number of fatal and serious injury crashes in the top ranked sites flagged for safety improvements.

11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105643, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593781

RESUMO

The connected environment provides surrounding traffic information to drivers via different driving aids that are expected to improve driving behavior and assist in avoiding safety-critical events. These driving aids include speed advisory, car-following assistance, lane-changing support, and advanced information about possible unseen hazards, among many others. While various studies have attempted to examine the effectiveness of different driving aids discretely, it is still vague how drivers perform when they are exposed to a connected environment with vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication capabilities. As such, the objective of this study is to examine the effects of the connected environment on driving behavior and safety. To achieve this aim, an innovative driving simulator experiment was designed to mimic a connected environment using the CARRS-Q Advanced Driving Simulator. Two types of driving aids were disseminated in the connected environment: continuous and event-based information. Seventy-eight participants with diverse backgrounds drove the simulator in four driving conditions: baseline (without driving aids), perfect communication (uninterrupted supply of driving aids), communication delay (driving aids are delayed), and communication loss (intermittent loss of driving aids). Various key driving behavior indicators were analyzed and compared across various routine driving tasks such as car-following, lane-changing, interactions with traffic lights, and giving way to pedestrians at pedestrian crossings. Results suggest that drivers in the perfect communication scenario maintain a longer time-to-collision during car-following, a longer time-to-collision to pedestrian, a lower deceleration to avoid a crash during lane-changing, and a lower propensity of yellow light running. Overall, drivers in the connected environment are found to make informed (thus better) decisions towards safe driving.

12.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(8): 976-984, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise childhood mouthing and handling behaviours and to assess the association between hand-to-object and object-to-mouth contacts and diarrhoea prevalence in young children in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 494 children under 5 years of age in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study was nested within the randomised controlled trial of the Cholera Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days (CHoBI7) mobile health (mHealth) program. The CHoBI7 mHealth program focuses on promoting handwashing with soap and water treatment to diarrhoea patients and their household members through mobile messages and a single in person visit. Mouthing and handling of faeces and fomites among young children was measured by five-hour structured observation and caregiver reports. Diarrhoea surveillance data was collected monthly for 12 months. RESULTS: Fifty five percent of caregivers reported that their child put a visibly dirty fomite (object or soil) in their mouth in the past week. Caregivers reported that 50% of children had mouthed visibly dirty objects, 26% had mouthed dirt, and 2% had mouthed faeces. Forty five percent of children were observed mouthing a visibly dirty fomite during structured observation, 40% of children were observed mouthing a visibly dirty object, 10% were observed mouthing soil, and one child (0.2%) was observed mouthing faeces. Mouthing of visibly dirty fomites was highest for children 12-18 months of age with 69% of these children having caregiver reports and 54% having observed events. Children with caregiver reports of mouthing faeces had a significantly higher odds of diarrhoea over the subsequent month (Odds Ratio: 4.54; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.06, 19.48). CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that mouthing of contaminated fomites among young children is frequent in urban environments in Bangladesh, and that mouthing faeces is associated with a significantly higher odds of diarrhoea. Interventions are urgently needed to protect young children from faecal pathogens in their play spaces.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the best nutrition for the neonate. Still, it remains a big challenge to establish EBF not only in Bangladesh but also in any developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and practices on EBF and its relationship between different socioeconomic and demographic factors among mothers having at least one child of aged 6-12 months in the rural area of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh. METHODOLOGY: A community clinic (CC) based study has been conducted by using semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 513 mothers having at least one child aged 6-12 months from 32 different CC in the rural area of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh during September to December 2015. A composite index, chi-square test, and logistic regression model were utilized in this study. RESULTS: The prevalence of knowledge and practices on EBF were 34.5% and 27.9% among mothers having at least one child aged 6-12 months. From the analyses, mothers age of ≥21 years were (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 13.840, 95% CI: 7.394-25.904; p<0.001) times more likely to have knowledge on EBF and (AOR = 0.084, 95% CI: 0.050-0.143; p<0.05) times less likely to have practices of EBF compared to mother's age ≤20 years. Service holders mothers were (AOR = 9.992, 95% CI: 4.485-22.260, p<0.05) times more likely to have practices than that of house wife. Home delivery mothers was (AOR = 0.208, 95% CI: 0.111-0.389; p<0.05) times less likely to have practices of EBF than that of the hospital delivery mothers. Those mothers monthly family income ≥10,000 Bangladeshi taka (BDT) currency was (AOR = 0.092, 95% CI: 0.050-0.168, p<0.05) times less likely to have practices of EBF compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: This study was found poor knowledge and practices on EBF. This study suggested that education and EBF related intervention could play an important role to increase good knowledge and practices on EBF among mothers. Malnutrition will be decreased if EBF was widely established in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
JMIR Form Res ; 4(5): e15083, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Employees in an office setting are more likely to remain physically inactive. Physical inactivity has become one of the major barriers to overcoming the risk factors for anxiety, depression, coronary heart disease, certain cancers, and type 2 diabetes. Currently, there is a gap in mobile health (mHealth) apps to promote physical activity (PA) for workers in the workplace. Studies on behavior change theories have concluded that health apps generally lack the use of theoretical constructs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to study the feasibility of a persuasive app aimed at encouraging PA among employees and to understand the motivational aspects behind the implementation of mHealth apps among office workers. METHODS: A 4-week study using a mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) design was conducted with office-based employees in cities in 4 countries: Oulu, Finland; Carlow, Ireland; London, United Kingdom; and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Of the 220 invited participants (experimental group, n=115; control group, n=105), 84 participated (experimental group, n=56; control group, n=28), consisting of working-age volunteers working in an office setting. Participants used 2 different interventions: The experimental group used an mHealth app for PA motivation, and the control group used a paper diary. The purpose was to motivate employees to engage in healthier behavior regarding the promotion of PA in the workplace. A user-centered design process was followed to design, develop, and evaluate the mHealth app, incorporating self-determination theory (SDT) and using game elements. The paper diary had no specific theory-driven approach, design technique, nor game elements. RESULTS: Compliance with app usage remained relatively low, with 27 participants (experimental group, n=20; control group, n=7) completing the study. The results support the original hypothesis that the mHealth app would help increase PA (ie, promoting daily walking in the workplace) in comparison to a paper diary (P=.033). The mHealth app supported 2 of the basic SDT psychological needs, namely autonomy (P=.004) and competence (P=.014), but not the needs of relatedness (P=.535). CONCLUSIONS: The SDT-based mHealth application motivated employees to increase their PA in the workplace. However, compliance with app usage remained low. Future research should further develop the app based on user feedback and test it in a larger sample.

15.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520922353, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460668

RESUMO

Women's experience of domestic violence has adverse consequences on women's health globally and is itself affected by several factors. This study aims to determine the factors that are associated with experience of any form of domestic violence in rural Bangladesh. Data were derived from the baseline survey database of Suchana, a large-scale nutrition program in Bangladesh. Data of 5,440 women from poor households in rural areas were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the factors that were significantly associated with experiencing any form of domestic violence. The prevalence of women experiencing domestic violence was found to be 35% and household food insecurity was 86%. Of the women's characteristic domain, age at marriage, lack of any support from household members, visit from non-governmental organizations (NGO) health professionals, number of children, and decision-making power of women at the household level were significantly associated with reporting of domestic violence. Of the household characteristic domain, the associated factors were having a male household head, increased household size, low socio-economic status, having a loan, experience of at least one crisis event, and household food insecurity. The strength of association between household food insecurity and domestic violence was higher among poor families. Experience of domestic violence is inevitably associated with women's decision-making power and household food insecurity. Behavioral change communication interventions may help to positively affect decision-making power but a holistic approach needs to be undertaken to reduce food insecurity, for which the underlying mechanism of food insecurity in Bangladesh needs to be explored further.

16.
Acta Paediatr ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368813

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of child psychological abuse and neglect in a rural area of Bangladesh. METHODS: Data were obtained from interviewing 1416 children aged 11-17 years administering the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool for Children between March and April 2017. Linear regression analysis was used to estimate the risks of child psychological abuse and neglect. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of at least one form of psychological abuse both in the past year and lifetime were more than 97 per cent. Moreover, the rates of at least one form of neglect were about 58 per cent during the past year and 78 per cent over lifetime. Living separately from parents posed children to significant risks of neglect and psychological abuse. Working children and greater number of siblings in a family were risk factors for neglect, whereas witnessing family violence and being bullied were risk factors for psychological abuse. Children with more years of schooling experienced less neglect and psychological abuse. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of child psychological abuse and neglect in this study shows child maltreatment as an ignored issue in Bangladesh.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138013, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361103

RESUMO

High-time-resolution (3-hour) PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously from the rural and urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta region during winter. The aerosol samples were analyzed for carbonaceous components, organic tracers, water-soluble inorganic ions and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic compositions of total carbon and total nitrogen. The values of PM2.5 and secondary organic carbon (SOC) for both sampling sites were observed 2 times higher in haze events compare to those in clear days, implying severe pollution occurred by photochemical oxidation during haze periods. The PM mass of rural samples showed similar temporal trend and significant correlation with the urban PM, reflecting pollution sources or their formation process are most likely identical. Diurnal variations of PM2.5 and carbonaceous components revealed that pollution levels increased at daytime due to the photochemical oxidation. In addition, SOC and OC were influenced by the relative humidity (RH%) and temperature (T °C), indicating that such meteorological factors play important roles in the occurrence of regional air pollution. The concentrations of levoglucosan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes, and n-alkanes were 625 ± 456 and 519 ± 301 ng m-3, 32.6 ± 24.7 and 28.7 ± 20.1 ng m-3, 1.83 ± 1.51 and 1.26 ± 1.34 ng m-3, and 302 ± 206 and 169 ± 131 ng m-3 for rural and urban samples, respectively. Levoglucosan is the most abundant organic compounds, exhibited 2-3 times higher in haze than clear days, suggesting biomass burning (BB) emission substantially affects the haze pollution in winter. Furthermore, NO3- was the dominant ionic species followed by SO42-, NH4+, Cl- and other minor species for both sites. The δ13C and δ15N values demonstrate that anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel combustion and BB are the major sources for carbonaceous and nitrogenous aerosols. This study implies that both the regional anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions influenced the regional haze formation, leading enhancement of pollution levels in eastern China during winter.

18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 159: 1073-1083, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417543

RESUMO

Drug repurposing is an efficient alternative approach to counter the increasing drug-resistant pathogens to treat infectious diseases. FtsZ is an essential bacterial cytokinesis protein involved in the formation of cell-division complex and targeting FtsZ using FDA approved drugs is a promising strategy to identify and develop a new antibacterial drug. Using in silico pharmacophore-based screening of drug bank, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we identified six drugs inhibiting the function of stFtsZ from Salmonella Typhi. The selected drugs target stFtsZ at the hydrophobic cleft formed between the C-terminal domain and helix α7 with binding energy better than -8 kcal/mol. Out of these six drugs, benzethonium chloride showed promising results at 8 µM concentration where it inhibits stFtsZ GTPase activity by 80% and prevents polymerization. Benzethonium chloride also possesses an excellent antibacterial activity against the bacterial culture of Salmonella Typhi (ATCC 19430), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) with the MIC values of 8 µg/mL, 1 µg/mL and 12 µg/mL, respectively. Based on our current study, the scaffold of benzethonium chloride can be used for the development of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents against drug-resistant pathogens.

19.
Phytomedicine ; 69: 153201, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marine algae are rich in some unique biologically active secondary metabolites having diverse pharmacological benefits. Of these, sterols comprise a group of functional lipid compounds that have attracted much attention to natural product scientists. PURPOSE: This review was aimed to update information on the health effects of algae-derived phytosterols and their molecular interactions in various aspects of human health and diseases and to address some future perspectives that may open up a new dimension of pharmacological potentials of algal sterols. METHODS: A literature-based search was carried out to retrieve published research information on the potential health effects of algal phytosterols with their pharmacological mechanisms from accessible online databases, such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus, using the key search terms of 'marine algae sterol' and 'health potentials such as antioxidant or anti-inflammatory or anti-Alzheimer's or anti-obesity or cholesterol homeostasis or hepatoprotective, antiproliferative, etc.' RESULTS: Phytosterols of marine algae, particularly fucosterol, have been investigated for a plethora of health benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, anti-Alzheimer's, antiaging, anticancer, and hepatoprotection, among many others, which are attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cholesterol-lowering properties, indicating their potentiality as therapeutic leads. These sterols interact with enzymes and various other proteins that are actively participating in different cellular pathways, including antioxidant defense system, apoptosis and cell survival, metabolism, and homeostasis. CONCLUSION: In this review, we briefly overview the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and distribution of algal sterols, and provide critical insights into their potential health effects and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms, beyond the well-known cholesterol-lowering paradigm.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Alga Marinha/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Feófitas/química , Fitosteróis/análise , Fitosteróis/farmacocinética , Rodófitas/química , Estigmasterol/análogos & derivados , Estigmasterol/farmacologia , Distribuição Tecidual
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210443

RESUMO

This study advances current knowledge on contraceptive use in Bangladesh by providing new insights into the extent of regional variations in contraceptive use across rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. We examined the regional variations in contraceptive use among 15,699 currently married women ages 15-49 years using data from the 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). Multivariate logistic regression models of contraceptive use were calibrated with sociodemographic attributes and cultural factors. Based on the aggregate sample (i.e., rural and urban combined), we found significant regional variations in contraceptive use across the administrative divisions in Bangladesh. Based on a disaggregate sample (i.e., rural and urban separately), we found that there were significant differences in divisional variations in contraceptive use in rural areas. In contrast, no significant variation in contraceptive use across divisions in urban areas of Bangladesh was found. More specifically, among women living in rural areas, the Rajshahi and Rangpur divisions had higher odds of contraceptive use than the Barisal division, whereas the Chittagong and Sylhet divisions had much lower odds of contraceptive use even after adjusting for selected sociodemographic attributes and cultural factors. A separate analysis of the divisional variations in usage of modern methods of contraception also revealed similar findings with only one exception. Findings of this study provide an evidence-based direction for adapting a pragmatic approach to reducing the divisional disparity of contraceptive use in rural areas of Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Anticoncepcionais , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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