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1.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 1, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402227

RESUMO

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although microglia in aging and neurodegenerative disease model mice show a loss of homeostatic phenotype and activation of disease-associated microglia (DAM), a correlation between those phenotypes and the degree of neuronal cell loss has not been clarified. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of microglia isolated from three representative neurodegenerative mouse models, AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F with amyloid pathology, rTg4510 with tauopathy, and SOD1G93A with motor neuron disease by magnetic activated cell sorting. In parallel, gene expression patterns of the human precuneus with early Alzheimer's change (n = 11) and control brain (n = 14) were also analyzed by RNA sequencing. We found that a substantial reduction of homeostatic microglial genes in rTg4510 and SOD1G93A microglia, whereas DAM genes were uniformly upregulated in all mouse models. The reduction of homeostatic microglial genes was correlated with the degree of neuronal cell loss. In human precuneus with early AD pathology, reduced expression of genes related to microglia- and oligodendrocyte-specific markers was observed, although the expression of DAM genes was not upregulated. Our results implicate a loss of homeostatic microglial function in the progression of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, analyses of human precuneus also suggest loss of microglia and oligodendrocyte functions induced by early amyloid pathology in human.

2.
Sci Adv ; 6(51)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355142

RESUMO

Rs671 in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2) is the cause of Asian alcohol flushing response after drinking. ALDH2 detoxifies endogenous aldehydes, which are the major source of DNA damage repaired by the Fanconi anemia pathway. Here, we show that the rs671 defective allele in combination with mutations in the alcohol dehydrogenase 5 gene, which encodes formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH5FDH ), causes a previously unidentified disorder, AMeD (aplastic anemia, mental retardation, and dwarfism) syndrome. Cellular studies revealed that a decrease in the formaldehyde tolerance underlies a loss of differentiation and proliferation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells. Moreover, Adh5-/-Aldh2 E506K/E506K double-deficient mice recapitulated key clinical features of AMeDS, showing short life span, dwarfism, and hematopoietic failure. Collectively, our results suggest that the combined deficiency of formaldehyde clearance mechanisms leads to the complex clinical features due to overload of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage, thereby saturation of DNA repair processes.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084202

RESUMO

The NSUN2 gene encodes a tRNA cytosine methyltransferase that functions in the maturation of leucyl tRNA (Leu) (CAA) precursors, which is crucial for the anticodon-codon pairing and correct translation of mRNA. Biallelic loss of function variants in NSUN2 are known to cause moderate to severe intellectual disability. Microcephaly, postnatal growth retardation, and dysmorphic facial features are common complications in this genetic disorder, and delayed puberty is occasionally observed. Here, we report four individuals, two sets of siblings, with biallelic loss-of-function variants in the NSUN2 gene. The first set of siblings have compound heterozygous frameshift variants: c.546_547insCT, p.Met183Leufs*13; c.1583del, p.Pro528Hisfs*19, and the other siblings carry a homozygous frameshift variant: c.1269dup, p.Val424Cysfs*14. In addition to previously reported clinical features, the first set of siblings showed novel complications of juvenile cataract and chronic nephritis. The other siblings showed hypomyelination and simplified gyral pattern in neuroimaging. NSUN2-related intellectual disability is a very rare condition, and less than 20 cases have been reported previously. Juvenile cataract, chronic nephritis, and brain anomaly shown in the present patients have not been previously described. Our report suggests clinical diversity of NSUN2-related intellectual disability.

4.
EMBO J ; 39(22): e104464, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959911

RESUMO

Microglia are the principal phagocytes that clear cell debris in the central nervous system (CNS). This raises the question, which cells remove cell debris when microglial phagocytic activity is impaired. We addressed this question using Siglechdtr mice, which enable highly specific ablation of microglia. Non-microglial mononuclear phagocytes, such as CNS-associated macrophages and circulating inflammatory monocytes, did not clear microglial debris. Instead, astrocytes were activated, exhibited a pro-inflammatory gene expression profile, and extended their processes to engulf microglial debris. This astrocytic phagocytosis was also observed in Irf8-deficient mice, in which microglia were present but dysfunctional. RNA-seq demonstrated that even in a healthy CNS, astrocytes express TAM phagocytic receptors, which were the main astrocytic phagocytic receptors for cell debris in the above experiments, indicating that astrocytes stand by in case of microglial impairment. This compensatory mechanism may be important for the maintenance or prolongation of a healthy CNS.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14629, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884037

RESUMO

The nuclear protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) contributes as an insulator to chromatin organization in diverse animals. The gene encoding this protein has a paralog which was first identified to be expressed exclusively in the testis in mammals and designated as CTCFL (also called BORIS). CTCFL orthologs were reported only among amniotes, and thus CTCFL was once thought to have arisen in the amniote lineage. In this study, we identified elasmobranch CTCFL orthologs, and investigated its origin with the aid of a shark genome assembly improved by proximity-guided scaffolding. Our analysis employing evolutionary interpretation of syntenic gene location suggested an earlier timing of the gene duplication between CTCF and CTCFL than previously thought, that is, around the common ancestor of extant vertebrates. Also, our transcriptomic sequencing revealed a biased expression of the catshark CTCFL in the testis, suggesting the origin of the tissue-specific localization in mammals more than 400 million years ago. To understand the historical process of the functional consolidation of the long-standing chromatin regulator CTCF, its additional paralogs remaining in some of the descendant lineages for spatially restricted transcript distribution should be taken into consideration.

6.
Cell ; 180(6): 1228-1244.e24, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142649

RESUMO

Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) is initiated by the stalling of elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPIIo) at DNA lesions. The ubiquitination of RNAPIIo in response to DNA damage is an evolutionarily conserved event, but its function in mammals is unknown. Here, we identified a single DNA damage-induced ubiquitination site in RNAPII at RPB1-K1268, which regulates transcription recovery and DNA damage resistance. Mechanistically, RPB1-K1268 ubiquitination stimulates the association of the core-TFIIH complex with stalled RNAPIIo through a transfer mechanism that also involves UVSSA-K414 ubiquitination. We developed a strand-specific ChIP-seq method, which revealed RPB1-K1268 ubiquitination is important for repair and the resolution of transcriptional bottlenecks at DNA lesions. Finally, RPB1-K1268R knockin mice displayed a short life-span, premature aging, and neurodegeneration. Our results reveal RNAPII ubiquitination provides a two-tier protection mechanism by activating TC-NER and, in parallel, the processing of DNA damage-stalled RNAPIIo, which together prevent prolonged transcription arrest and protect against neurodegeneration.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/fisiologia , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/fisiologia , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Ubiquitinação
7.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 4(2): 261-269, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907383

RESUMO

Unidirectional fluid flow generated by motile cilia at the left-right organizer (LRO) breaks left-right (L-R) symmetry during early embryogenesis in mouse, frog and zebrafish. The chick embryo, however, does not require motile cilia for L-R symmetry breaking. The diversity of mechanisms for L-R symmetry breaking among vertebrates and the trigger for such symmetry breaking in non-mammalian amniotes have remained unknown. Here we examined how L-R asymmetry is established in two reptiles, Madagascar ground gecko and Chinese softshell turtle. Both of these reptiles appear to lack motile cilia at the LRO. The expression of the Nodal gene at the LRO in the reptilian embryos was found to be asymmetric, in contrast to that in vertebrates such as mouse that are dependent on cilia for L-R patterning. Two paralogues of the Nodal gene derived from an ancient gene duplication are retained and expressed differentially in cilia-dependent and cilia-independent vertebrates. The expression of these two Nodal paralogues is similarly controlled in the lateral plate mesoderm but regulated differently at the LRO. Our in-depth analysis of reptilian embryos thus suggests that mammals and non-mammalian amniotes deploy distinct strategies dependent on different Nodal paralogues for rendering Nodal activity asymmetric at the LRO.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal , Cílios , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Madagáscar , Camundongos , Répteis , Peixe-Zebra
8.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 12)2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138636

RESUMO

Most cartilaginous fishes live principally in seawater (SW) environments, but a limited number of species including the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, inhabit both SW and freshwater (FW) environments during their life cycle. Euryhaline elasmobranchs maintain high internal urea and ion levels even in FW environments, but little is known about the osmoregulatory mechanisms that enable them to maintain internal homeostasis in hypoosmotic environments. In the present study, we focused on the kidney because this is the only organ that can excrete excess water from the body in a hypoosmotic environment. We conducted a transfer experiment of bull sharks from SW to FW and performed differential gene expression analysis between the two conditions using RNA-sequencing. A search for genes upregulated in the FW-acclimated bull shark kidney indicated that the expression of the Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC; Slc12a3) was 10 times higher in the FW-acclimated sharks compared with that in SW sharks. In the kidney, apically located NCC was observed in the late distal tubule and in the anterior half of the collecting tubule, where basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase was also expressed, implying that these segments contribute to NaCl reabsorption from the filtrate for diluting the urine. This expression pattern was not observed in the houndshark, Triakis scyllium, which had been transferred to 30% SW; this species cannot survive in FW environments. The salinity transfer experiment combined with a comprehensive gene screening approach demonstrates that NCC is a key renal protein that contributes to the remarkable euryhaline ability of the bull shark.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Salinidade , Tubarões/fisiologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Tubarões/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1962: 247-256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020565

RESUMO

In daily practice of de novo genome assembly and gene prediction, it would be a natural urge to evaluate their products. Different programs and parameter settings give rise to variable outputs, which leaves a decision of which output to adopt for downstream analysis for addressing biological questions. Instead of superficial assessment of length-based statistics of output sequences (e.g., N50 scaffold length), completeness assessment by means of scoring the coverage of reference orthologs has been increasingly utilized.We previously launched a web service, gVolante ( https://gvolante.riken.jp /), to provide a user-friendly interface and a uniform environment for completeness assessment with the pipelines CEGMA and BUSCO. Completeness assessments performed on gVolante report scores based on not just the coverage of reference genes but also on sequence lengths, allowing quality control in multiple aspects. This chapter focuses on the procedure for such assessment and provides technical tips for higher accuracy.


Assuntos
Genoma , Genômica/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Software , Animais , Elefantes/genética , Roedores/genética , Interface Usuário-Computador
10.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2(11): 1761-1771, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297745

RESUMO

Modern cartilaginous fishes are divided into elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates) and chimaeras, and the lack of established whole-genome sequences for the former has prevented our understanding of early vertebrate evolution and the unique phenotypes of elasmobranchs. Here we present de novo whole-genome assemblies of brownbanded bamboo shark and cloudy catshark and an improved assembly of the whale shark genome. These relatively large genomes (3.8-6.7 Gbp) contain sparse distributions of coding genes and regulatory elements and exhibit reduced molecular evolutionary rates. Our thorough genome annotation revealed Hox C genes previously hypothesized to have been lost, as well as distinct gene repertories of opsins and olfactory receptors that would be associated with adaptation to unique underwater niches. We also show the early establishment of the genetic machinery governing mammalian homoeostasis and reproduction at the jawed vertebrate ancestor. This study, supported by genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources, provides a foundation for the comprehensive, molecular exploration of phenotypes unique to sharks and insights into the evolutionary origins of vertebrates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genoma , Tubarões/genética , Animais , Elasmobrânquios/genética , Vertebrados/genética
11.
BMC Biol ; 16(1): 40, 2018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventionally, comparison among amniotes - birds, mammals, and reptiles - has often been approached through analyses of mammals and, for comparison, birds. However, birds are morphologically and physiologically derived and, moreover, some parts of their genomes are recognized as difficult to sequence and/or assemble and are thus missing in genome assemblies. Therefore, sequencing the genomes of reptiles would aid comparative studies on amniotes by providing more comprehensive coverage to help understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning evolutionary changes. RESULTS: Herein, we present the whole genome sequences of the Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta), a promising study system especially in developmental biology, and used it to identify changes in gene repertoire across amniotes. The genome-wide analysis of the Madagascar ground gecko allowed us to reconstruct a comprehensive set of gene phylogenies comprising 13,043 ortholog groups from diverse amniotes. Our study revealed 469 genes retained by some reptiles but absent from available genome-wide sequence data of both mammals and birds. Importantly, these genes, herein collectively designated as 'elusive' genes, exhibited high nucleotide substitution rates and uneven intra-genomic distribution. Furthermore, the genomic regions flanking these elusive genes exhibited distinct characteristics that tended to be associated with increased gene density, repeat element density, and GC content. CONCLUSION: This highly continuous and nearly complete genome assembly of the Madagascar ground gecko will facilitate the use of this species as an experimental animal in diverse fields of biology. Gene repertoire comparisons across amniotes further demonstrated that the fate of a duplicated gene can be affected by the intrinsic properties of its genomic location, which can persist for hundreds of millions of years.


Assuntos
Duplicação Gênica/genética , Genoma/genética , Lagartos/classificação , Lagartos/genética , Animais , Composição de Bases/genética , Evolução Biológica , Evolução Molecular , Madagáscar , Filogenia
12.
Bioinformatics ; 33(22): 3635-3637, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036533

RESUMO

Motivation: Along with the increasing accessibility to comprehensive sequence information, such as whole genomes and transcriptomes, the demand for assessing their quality has been multiplied. To this end, metrics based on sequence lengths, such as N50, have become a standard, but they only evaluate one aspect of assembly quality. Conversely, analyzing the coverage of pre-selected reference protein-coding genes provides essential content-based quality assessment, but the currently available pipelines for this purpose, CEGMA and BUSCO, do not have a user-friendly interface to serve as a uniform environment for assembly completeness assessment. Results: Here, we introduce a brand-new web server, gVolante, which provides an online tool for (i) on-demand completeness assessment of sequence sets by means of the previously developed pipelines CEGMA and BUSCO and (ii) browsing pre-computed completeness scores for publicly available data in its database section. Completeness assessments performed on gVolante report scores based on not just the coverage of reference genes but also on sequence lengths (e.g. N50 scaffold length), allowing quality control in multiple aspects. Using gVolante, one can compare the quality of original assemblies between their multiple versions (obtained through program choice and parameter tweaking, for example) and evaluate them in comparison to the scores of public resources found in the database section. Availability and implementation: gVoalte is freely available at https://gvolante.riken.jp/. Contact: shigehiro.kuraku@riken.jp.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Software , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Genômica/normas , Padrões de Referência
13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4957, 2017 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28694486

RESUMO

The nuclear protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) contributes as an insulator to chromatin organization in animal genomes. Currently, our knowledge of its binding property is confined mainly to mammals. In this study, we identified CTCF homologs in extant jawless fishes and performed ChIP-seq for the CTCF protein in the Arctic lamprey. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the lamprey lineage experienced gene duplication that gave rise to its unique paralog, designated CTCF2, which is independent from the previously recognized duplication between CTCF and CTCFL. The ChIP-seq analysis detected comparable numbers of CTCF binding sites between lamprey, chicken, and human, and revealed that the lamprey CTCF protein binds to the two-part motif, consisting of core and upstream motifs previously reported for mammals. These findings suggest that this mode of CTCF binding was established in the last common ancestor of extant vertebrates (more than 500 million years ago). We analyzed CTCF binding inside Hox clusters, which revealed a reinforcement of CTCF binding in the region spanning Hox1-4 genes that is unique to lamprey. Our study provides not only biological insights into the antiquity of CTCF-based epigenomic regulation known in mammals but also a technical basis for comparative epigenomic studies encompassing the whole taxon Vertebrata.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/metabolismo , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/química , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Lampreias/genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/química , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Ligação Proteica , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
J Comp Neurol ; 525(7): 1558-1585, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615194

RESUMO

The structure of the neural circuitry of the cerebellum, which functions in some types of motor learning and coordination, is generally conserved among vertebrates. However, some cerebellar features are species specific. It is not clear which genes are involved in forming these conserved and species-specific structures and functions. This study uses zebrafish transgenic larvae expressing fluorescent proteins in granule cells, Purkinje cells, or other cerebellar neurons and glial cells to isolate each type of cerebellar cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and to profile their gene expressions by RNA sequencing and in situ hybridization. We identify genes that are upregulated in granule cells or Purkinje cells, including many genes that are also expressed in mammalian cerebella. Comparison of the transcriptomes in granule cells and Purkinje cells in zebrafish larvae reveals that more developmental genes are expressed in granule cells, whereas more neuronal-function genes are expressed in Purkinje cells. We show that some genes that are upregulated in granule cells or Purkinje cells are also expressed in the cerebellum-like structures. Our data provide a platform for understanding the development and function of the cerebellar neural circuits in zebrafish and the evolution of cerebellar circuits in vertebrates. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1558-1585, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/citologia , Neurogênese/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Células de Purkinje/citologia , Transcriptoma , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Cerebelo/embriologia , Cerebelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Análise em Microsséries , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12808, 2016 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27649274

RESUMO

Tardigrades, also known as water bears, are small aquatic animals. Some tardigrade species tolerate almost complete dehydration and exhibit extraordinary tolerance to various physical extremes in the dehydrated state. Here we determine a high-quality genome sequence of Ramazzottius varieornatus, one of the most stress-tolerant tardigrade species. Precise gene repertoire analyses reveal the presence of a small proportion (1.2% or less) of putative foreign genes, loss of gene pathways that promote stress damage, expansion of gene families related to ameliorating damage, and evolution and high expression of novel tardigrade-unique proteins. Minor changes in the gene expression profiles during dehydration and rehydration suggest constitutive expression of tolerance-related genes. Using human cultured cells, we demonstrate that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein suppresses X-ray-induced DNA damage by ∼40% and improves radiotolerance. These findings indicate the relevance of tardigrade-unique proteins to tolerability and tardigrades could be a bountiful source of new protection genes and mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Genoma , Tardígrados/genética , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peroxissomos , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Raios X
16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 27767, 2016 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27291796

RESUMO

Selective deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles was demonstrated on a soda-lime glass surface with a periodic sodium deficient pattern formed using the electrical nanoimprint. Positively charged SiO2 particles generated using corona discharge in a cyclic siloxane vapor, were selectively deposited depending on the sodium pattern. For such phenomena to occur, the sodium ion migration to the cathode side was indispensable to the electrical charge compensation on the glass surface. Therefore, the deposition proceeded preferentially outside the alkali-deficient area. Periodic SiO2 structures with 424 nm and 180 nm heights were obtained using one-dimensional (6 µm period) and two-dimensional (500 nm period) imprinted patterns.

17.
Dev Growth Differ ; 58(1): 131-42, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818824

RESUMO

Phylogenetic approaches are indispensable in any comparative molecular study involving multiple species. These approaches are in increasing demand as the amount and availability of DNA sequence information continues to increase exponentially, even for organisms that were previously not extensively studied. Without the sound application of phylogenetic concepts and knowledge, one can be misled when attempting to infer ancestral character states as well as the timing and order of evolutionary events, both of which are frequently exerted in evolutionary developmental biology. The ignorance of phylogenetic approaches can also impact non-evolutionary studies and cause misidentification of the target gene or protein to be examined in functional characterization. This review aims to promote tree-thinking in evolutionary conjecture and stress the importance of a sense of time scale in cross-species comparisons, in order to enhance the understanding of phylogenetics in all biological fields including developmental biology. To this end, molecular phylogenies of several developmental regulatory genes, including those denoted as "cryptic pan-vertebrate genes", are introduced as examples.


Assuntos
Biologia do Desenvolvimento , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Animais , Humanos
18.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 977, 2015 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26581708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RNA-seq enables gene expression profiling in selected spatiotemporal windows and yields massive sequence information with relatively low cost and time investment, even for non-model species. However, there remains a large room for optimizing its workflow, in order to take full advantage of continuously developing sequencing capacity. METHOD: Transcriptome sequencing for three embryonic stages of Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta) was performed with the Illumina platform. The output reads were assembled de novo for reconstructing transcript sequences. In order to evaluate the completeness of transcriptome assemblies, we prepared a reference gene set consisting of vertebrate one-to-one orthologs. RESULT: To take advantage of increased read length of >150 nt, we demonstrated shortened RNA fragmentation time, which resulted in a dramatic shift of insert size distribution. To evaluate products of multiple de novo assembly runs incorporating reads with different RNA sources, read lengths, and insert sizes, we introduce a new reference gene set, core vertebrate genes (CVG), consisting of 233 genes that are shared as one-to-one orthologs by all vertebrate genomes examined (29 species)., The completeness assessment performed by the computational pipelines CEGMA and BUSCO referring to CVG, demonstrated higher accuracy and resolution than with the gene set previously established for this purpose. As a result of the assessment with CVG, we have derived the most comprehensive transcript sequence set of the Madagascar ground gecko by means of assembling individual libraries followed by clustering the assembled sequences based on their overall similarities. CONCLUSION: Our results provide several insights into optimizing de novo RNA-seq workflow, including the coordination between library insert size and read length, which manifested in improved connectivity of assemblies. The approach and assembly assessment with CVG demonstrated here would be applicable to transcriptome analysis of other species as well as whole genome analyses.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Animais , Benchmarking , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Especificidade de Órgãos , Padrões de Referência , Répteis/embriologia , Répteis/genética
19.
Genes Genet Syst ; 90(3): 123-31, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26510567

RESUMO

Mutations that have occurred in human genomes provide insight into various aspects of evolutionary history such as speciation events and degrees of natural selection. Comparing genome sequences between human and great apes or among humans is a feasible approach for inferring human evolutionary history. Recent advances in high-throughput or so-called 'next-generation' DNA sequencing technologies have enabled the sequencing of thousands of individual human genomes, as well as a variety of reference genomes of hominids, many of which are publicly available. These sequence data can help to unveil the detailed demographic history of the lineage leading to humans as well as the explosion of modern human population size in the last several thousand years. In addition, high-throughput sequencing illustrates the tempo and mode of de novo mutations, which are producing human genetic variation at this moment. Pedigree-based human genome sequencing has shown that mutation rates vary significantly across the human genome. These studies have also provided an improved timescale of human evolution, because the mutation rate estimated from pedigree analysis is half that estimated from traditional analyses based on molecular phylogeny. Because of the dramatic reduction in sequencing cost, sequencing on-demand samples designed for specific studies is now also becoming popular. To produce data of sufficient quality to meet the requirements of the study, it is necessary to set an explicit sequencing plan that includes the choice of sample collection methods, sequencing platforms, and number of sequence reads.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Taxa de Mutação , Adulto , Animais , Variação Genética , Genômica/tendências , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Pan troglodytes , Filogenia , Espermatogênese/genética
20.
BMC Biol ; 13: 73, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26370232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent genome projects of various animals have uncovered an unexpectedly large number of opsin genes, which encode protein moieties of photoreceptor molecules, in most animals. In visual systems, the biological meanings of this diversification are clear; multiple types of visual opsins with different spectral sensitivities are responsible for color vision. However, the significance of the diversification of non-visual opsins remains uncertain, in spite of the importance of understanding the molecular mechanism and evolution of varied non-visual photoreceptions. RESULTS: Here, we investigated the diversification of the pineal photopigment parapinopsin, which serves as the UV-sensitive photopigment for the pineal wavelength discrimination in the lamprey, linking it with other pineal photoreception. Spectroscopic analyses of the recombinant pigments of the two teleost parapinopsins PP1 and PP2 revealed that PP1 is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin, but PP2 is a blue-sensitive pigment, with an absorption maximum at 460-480 nm, showing the diversification of non-visual pigment with respect to spectral sensitivity. We also found that PP1 and PP2 exhibit mutually exclusive expressions in the pineal organs of three teleost species. By using transgenic zebrafish in which these parapinopsin-expressing cells are labeled, we found that PP1-expressing cells basically possess neuronal processes, which is consistent with their involvement in wavelength discrimination. Interestingly, however, PP2-expressing cells rarely possess neuronal processes, raising the possibility that PP2 could be involved in non-neural responses rather than neural responses. Furthermore, we found that PP2-expressing cells contain serotonin and aanat2, the key enzyme involved in melatonin synthesis from serotonin, whereas PP1-expressing cells do not contain either, suggesting that blue-sensitive PP2 is instead involved in light-regulation of melatonin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper, we have clearly shown the different molecular properties of duplicated non-visual opsins by demonstrating the diversification of parapinopsin with respect to spectral sensitivity. Moreover, we have shown a plausible link between the diversification and its physiological impact by discovering a strong candidate for the underlying pigment in light-regulated melatonin secretion in zebrafish; the diversification could generate a new contribution of parapinopsin to pineal photoreception. Current findings could also provide an opportunity to understand the "color" preference of non-visual photoreception.


Assuntos
Visão de Cores/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Glândula Pineal/metabolismo , Opsinas de Bastonetes/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Evolução Biológica , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Opsinas de Bastonetes/genética , Tetraodontiformes , Peixe-Zebra
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