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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(1): 233-236, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431628

RESUMO

As part of the 2019 American Society of Preventative Oncology (ASPO) annual meeting, the Early Career Investigator Special Interest Group organized a session entitled "Strategies for Success: Landing Your First Academic Position and Navigating the Early Years."* This session was designed to provide senior doctoral students and postdoctoral fellows with strategies for preparing successful faculty job applications. Furthermore, strategies and best practices to help guide early career faculty through the initial years of their academic positions were also discussed. This report summarizes the main themes of the session, including advice and recommendations from the panelists.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1817-1824, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomeres play an important role in colorectal cancer prognosis. Variation in telomere maintenance genes may be associated with survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, but evidence is limited. In addition, possible interactions between telomere maintenance genes and prognostic factors, such as smoking and sex, also remain to be investigated. METHODS: We conducted gene-wide analyses of colorectal cancer prognosis in 4,896 invasive colorectal cancer cases from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO); 1,871 common variants within 13 telomere maintenance genes were included. Cox models were fit to estimate associations of these variants individually with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for interaction by smoking and sex. P values were adjusted using Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: The association between minor allele of rs7200950 (ACD) with colorectal cancer-specific survival varied significantly by smoking pack-years (corrected P = 0.049), but no significant trend was observed. By sex, minor alleles for rs2975843 (TERF1), rs75676021 (POT1), and rs74429678 (POT1) were associated with decreased overall and/or colorectal cancer-specific survival in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported a gene-wide statistically significant interaction with sex (TERF1, POT1). Although significant interaction by smoking pack-years (ACD) was observed, there was no evidence of a dose response. Validation of these findings in other large studies and further functional annotation on these SNPs are warranted. IMPACT: Our study found a gene-smoking and gene-sex interaction on survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis, providing new insights into the role of genetic polymorphisms in telomere maintenance on colorectal cancer prognosis.

3.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 45(11): 1306-1309, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569481

RESUMO

To determine associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and oxidative stress in colorectal cancer patients, ColoCare Study participants in Germany wore an accelerometer 6 and/or 12 months after surgery. Spearman partial correlations were used to assess associations between PA and urinary concentrations of oxidized guanine, a validated marker of oxidative stress. There were no significant associations between PA or SB and oxidized guanine in n = 76 measurements (ng/mg creatinine; r = 0.03, p = 0.76 for PA, r = -0.05, p = 0.69 for SB). Novelty Objectively measured PA was not associated with a marker of oxidative stress in colorectal cancer patients.

4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(7): 631-640, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358694

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRAF mutation and DNA hypermethylation have linked sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) to serrated colorectal cancer (CRC) in cross-sectional studies, but they have not been evaluated in a longitudinal study. We aimed to evaluate the associations between molecular markers of serrated polyps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: Study subjects included Kaiser Permanente Washington members aged 20-75 years who received an index colonoscopy between 1/1/1998 and 12/31/2007 and had hyperplastic polyps (HPs) or SSA/Ps according to study pathology review. Polyps from index colonoscopies were removed and assayed for BRAF mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and MLH1 methylation. Pathology reports and biopsies from the subsequent lower gastrointestinal endoscopy through 1/1/2013 were reviewed for advanced colorectal neoplasia. We identified additional incident CRC cases through linkage to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry. We used generalized estimating equations to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia, comparing index serrated polyps with different molecular markers. RESULTS: We included 553 individuals with index serrated polyps (420 HPs and 133 SSA/Ps) and 795 subsequent endoscopies. The prevalence of BRAF-mutant, CIMP-high, and MLH1-methylated serrated polyps were 51%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. BRAF and CIMP were not associated with subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. MLH1-methylated SSP/As were significantly more likely to have subsequent advanced neoplasia (OR = 4.66, 95% CI 1.06-20.51). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that BRAF-mutant and CIMP-high serrated polyps are not associated with subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. Among SSA/Ps, MLH1 methylation may be an important marker to identify high-risk CRC precursors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Pólipos Intestinais/genética , Pólipos Intestinais/patologia , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Pólipos Intestinais/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Programa de SEER , Washington/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Metabolites ; 10(5)2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455751

RESUMO

Demographic, lifestyle and biospecimen-related factors at the time of blood collection can influence metabolite levels in epidemiological studies. Identifying the major influences on metabolite concentrations is critical to designing appropriate sample collection protocols and considering covariate adjustment in metabolomics analyses. We examined the association of age, sex, and other short-term pre-blood collection factors (time of day, season, fasting duration, physical activity, NSAID use, smoking and alcohol consumption in the days prior to collection) with 133 targeted plasma metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, and hexoses) among 108 individuals that reported exposures within 48 h before collection. The differences in mean metabolite concentrations were assessed between groups based on pre-collection factors using two-sided t-tests and ANOVA with FDR correction. Percent differences in metabolite concentrations were negligible across season, time of day of collection, fasting status or lifestyle behaviors at the time of collection, including physical activity or the use of tobacco, alcohol or NSAIDs. The metabolites differed in concentration between the age and sex categories for 21.8% and 14.3% metabolites, respectively. In conclusion, extrinsic factors in the short period prior to collection were not meaningfully associated with concentrations of selected endogenous metabolites in a cross-sectional sample, though metabolite concentrations differed by age and sex. Larger studies with more coverage of the human metabolome are warranted.

6.
Br J Nutr ; 123(10): 1187-1200, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019627

RESUMO

B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among CRC patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed CRC patients (n 238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg. We cross-sectionally analysed associations between twelve B vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and ten inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesised that pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers. We observed that PLP was inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r -0·33, Plinear < 0·0001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (r -0·23, Plinear = 0·003), IL-6 (r -0·39, Plinear < 0·0001), IL-8 (r -0·20, Plinear = 0·02) and TNFα (r -0·12, Plinear = 0·045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r -0·14), SAA (r -0·14) and TNFα (r -0·15) among CRC patients. Folate catabolite acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid (pABG) was positively correlated with IL-6 (r 0·27, Plinear < 0·0001), and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r 0·21, Plinear < 0·0001), indicating higher folate utilisation during inflammation. Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among CRC patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for CRC patients.

7.
Br J Cancer ; 121(10): 869-876, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and high total cholesterol and triglycerides are known to be associated with increased colorectal cancer risk for the general population. These associations are unknown for people with a germline DNA mismatch repair gene mutation (Lynch syndrome), who are at high risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study included 2023 (56.4% female) carriers with a mismatch repair gene mutation (737 in MLH1, 928 in MSH2, 230 in MSH6, 106 in PMS2, 22 in EPCAM) recruited by the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1998 and 2012. Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between self-reported type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, triglyceride and colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: Overall, 802 carriers were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a median age of 42 years. A higher risk of colorectal cancer was observed in those with self-reported type-2 diabetes (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.03-3.58) and high cholesterol (HR 1.76; CI 1.23-2.52) compared with those without these conditions. There was no evidence of high triglyceride being associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: For people with Lynch syndrome, self-reported type-2 diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colesterol/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
Metabolites ; 9(9)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500101

RESUMO

Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass in cancer patients. The biological pathways involved remain poorly characterized. Here, we compare urinary metabolic profiles in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients (stage I-IV) from the ColoCare Study in Heidelberg, Germany. Patients were classified as cachectic (n = 16), pre-cachectic (n = 13), or non-cachectic (n = 23) based on standard criteria on weight loss over time at two time points. Urine samples were collected pre-surgery, and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Fat and muscle mass area were assessed utilizing computed tomography scans at the time of surgery. N = 152 compounds were detected using untargeted metabolomics with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and n = 154 features with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Thirty-four metabolites were overlapping across platforms. We calculated differences across groups and performed discriminant and overrepresentation enrichment analysis. We observed a trend for 32 compounds that were nominally significantly different across groups, although not statistically significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Nineteen compounds could be identified, including acetone, hydroquinone, and glycine. Comparing cachectic to non-cachectic patients, higher levels of metabolites such as acetone (Fold change (FC) = 3.17; p = 0.02) and arginine (FC = 0.33; p = 0.04) were observed. The two top pathways identified were glycerol phosphate shuttle metabolism and glycine and serine metabolism pathways. Larger subsequent studies are needed to replicate and validate these results.

9.
Cancer ; 125(23): 4210-4223, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is positively associated with various cancers, but its relationship with tumors of the esophagus/esophagogastric junction remains unclear. METHODS: Data were harmonized across 13 studies in the International Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium, comprising 2309 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) cases, 1938 esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (EGJA) cases, 1728 Barrett's esophagus (BE) cases, and 16,354 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for self-reported diabetes in association with EA, EGJA, and BE. Adjusted ORs were then combined using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Diabetes was associated with a 34% increased risk of EA (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.00-1.80; I2  = 48.8% [where 0% indicates no heterogeneity, and larger values indicate increasing heterogeneity between studies]), 27% for EGJA (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.55; I2  = 0.0%), and 30% for EA/EGJA combined (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.58; I2  = 34.9%). Regurgitation symptoms modified the diabetes-EA/EGJA association (P for interaction = .04) with a 63% increased risk among participants with regurgitation (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.19-2.22), but not among those without regurgitation (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.74-1.43). No consistent association was found between diabetes and BE. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes was associated with increased EA and EGJA risk, which was confined to individuals with regurgitation symptoms. Lack of an association between diabetes and BE suggests that diabetes may influence progression of BE to cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Esôfago de Barrett/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 10(7): e00059, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite overall reductions in colorectal cancer burden, incidence rates continue to rise among younger patients, and causes remain unknown. We examined differences in clinicopathologic and racial/ethnic characteristics within the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the United States. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data, we identified individuals diagnosed with first primary colorectal cancer between ages 15 and 39 years from 2010 to 2015. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to quantify clinicopathologic and racial/ethnic differences across age at onset subgroups (15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35-39 years). RESULTS: We identified 5,350 AYA patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Of note, 28.6% of AYA cases were diagnosed with right-sided tumors (cecum to transverse colon). The proportion of right-sided colorectal cancers differed significantly by age group at diagnosis (38.3% vs 27.3% of AYAs aged 15-19 vs 35-39 years, respectively; P trend = 0.01). Proportions of cases with mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma histopathologic subtypes significantly increased with younger age at onset (P trends = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Differences in clinical stage were observed across AYA age groups, with stage II disease increasing with younger age (P trend = 0.01). The proportion of Hispanic AYAs was higher within younger patients, accounting for 21.0% of the AYA population aged 35-39 years up to 28.3% of 15-19-year-old individuals (P trend = 0.003). DISCUSSION: Within the AYA population, colorectal cancers differ by clinicopathologic and racial/ethnic characteristics. Further investigation of the clinical and biologic diversity of colorectal cancers that partially underlie age- and race-related differences in cancer susceptibility and outcomes is warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Programa de SEER , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Carcinoma de Células em Anel de Sinete/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(9): 979-987, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290073

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines recommend increased surveillance of individuals with sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), but there is uncertainty about the risk associated with SSA/Ps. We aimed to determine the association between SSA/Ps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: This case-control study included Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPWA) members who received an index colonoscopy between 1/1/1998 and 12/31/2007, and had hyperplastic polyps (HPs) or SSA/Ps but no conventional adenomas according to study pathologist histologic review. Subsequent pathology reports and biopsies through 1/1/2013 were reviewed for advanced colorectal neoplasia. We linked to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry to identify additional CRC cases. We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for advanced colorectal neoplasia, comparing those with SSA/Ps to those with HPs. RESULTS: There were 161 individuals with index SSA/Ps, 548 with HPs, and 918 subsequent endoscopies included in analyses. Of those with index SSA/Ps, 19 had subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia; 39 with HPs had subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia. Compared to those with HPs, those with SSA/Ps were not statistically significantly more likely to have subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia (adjusted OR 1.79; CI 0.98-3.28). Polyp size ≥ 10 mm, right colon location, and the presence of multiple serrated polyps were also not associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is not a strong association between SSA/Ps and subsequent advanced colorectal neoplasia during the 5 years following SSA/P removal.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 76-82, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity has been linked to both risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer; however, the impact of different fat areas [visceral (VFA) vs. subcutaneous fat area (SFA)] is unclear. We investigated associations between adiposity and biomarkers of inflammation and angiogenesis among patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Preoperative serum samples and computed tomography scans were obtained from 188 patients diagnosed with primary invasive stage I-IV colorectal cancer enrolled in the ColoCare Study. Adiposity was assessed by area-based quantification of VFA, SFA, and VFA:SFA ratio on spinal levels L3/L4 and L4/L5. Circulating levels of inflammation (CRP, SAA, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1) and angiogenesis (VEGF-A and VEGF-D) were assessed from patient sera on the Meso Scale Discovery platform. Partial correlations and regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and tumor stage, were performed. RESULTS: VFA was moderately correlated with CRP and SAA (CRP: L3/L4 and L4/L5:r = 0.21, P = 0.01; SAA: L3/L4:r = 0.17, P = 0.04). The correlation between SFA and the measured biomarkers were weak (r ≤ 0.13, not significant). The ratio of VFA:SFA at L3/L4 was moderately correlated with VEGF-A (r = 0.28, P = 0.0008) and SAA (r = 0.24, P = 0.006), and less so with CRP (r = 0.18, P = 0.04) and sICAM-1 (r = 0.18, P = 0.04). Similar correlations were found for the VFA:SFA ratio at L4/L5. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association between visceral adiposity and biomarkers of inflammation and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer. In particular, the VFA:SFA ratio was correlated with circulating levels of the proangiogenic biomarker VEGF-A. IMPACT: Our findings support a direct association of visceral adipose tissue with inflammatory and angiogenic processes, which play fundamental roles in the development and progression of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Inflamação/complicações , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/complicações , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206519, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of serum leptin and low levels of serum adiponectin are strongly correlated with obesity, a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin levels may play an etiological role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated 20 candidate variants in 4 genes previously shown to alter serum leptin and adiponectin levels for associations with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) and CRC risk. METHODS: We analyzed 6,246 CRC cases and 7,714 population-based controls from 11 studies within the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations of each variant with obesity or CRC were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for age, a study variable, and the first three principal components of genetic ancestry. Gene-specific False Discovery Rate (FDR)-adjusted p-values <0.05 denoted statistical significance. RESULTS: Two variants in the leptin gene showed statistically significant associations with CRC among women: LEP rs2167270 (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21) and LEP rs4731426 (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17). These associations remained significant after adjustment for obesity, suggesting that leptin SNPs may influence CRC risk independent of obesity. We observed statistically significant interactions of the leptin variants with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for CRC risk; these variant associations were strengthened when analyses were restricted to post-menopausal women with low estrogen exposure, as estimated by 'never use' of HRT and/or non-obese BMI. No variants were associated with CRC among men. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin gene variants may exhibit sex-specific associations with CRC risk. Endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure may modify the association between these variants, leptin levels, and CRC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leptina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Ann Epidemiol ; 28(10): 739-741, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150160

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Existing studies on laxatives, used by roughly 40% of the U.S. population experiencing constipation and colorectal cancer (CRC) have yielded inconsistent results, which may be due to a failure to account for differential risks by major laxative types: bulk (fiber-based), and nonbulk (or nonfiber-based). METHODS: We examined the association of nonfiber-based laxative use and fiber-based laxative use with the risk of CRC in a subset of the multisite, International Colon Cancer Family Registry cohort comprising 4930 primary invasive CRC cases and 4025 controls selected from the general population. Epidemiologic risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants at recruitment, and exposures were ascertained approximately 1 year before diagnosis for cases and at a comparable period for controls. We ascertained known and suspected CRC risk factors, including regular laxative use, which was defined as laxative intake at least twice a week for more than a month. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: Individuals who reported using nonfiber-based laxatives regularly were at a significantly increased risk for CRC compared with those who reported no laxative use (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19). No statistically significant associations were observed between fiber-based laxative use and CRC (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.80-1.22). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with nonusers, the risk of CRC increased with nonfiber-based laxative use, whereas CRC risk was not significantly associated with fiber-based laxative use.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Laxantes/efeitos adversos , Austrália , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Cancer ; 143(9): 2250-2260, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904935

RESUMO

Greater physical activity is associated with a decrease in risk of colorectal cancer for the general population; however, little is known about its relationship with colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome, carriers of inherited pathogenic mutations in genes affecting DNA mismatch repair (MMR). We studied a cohort of 2,042 MMR gene mutations carriers (n = 807, diagnosed with colorectal cancer), from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Self-reported physical activity in three age-periods (20-29, 30-49 and ≥50 years) was summarized as average metabolic equivalent of task hours per week (MET-hr/week) during the age-period of cancer diagnosis or censoring (near-term exposure) and across all age-periods preceding cancer diagnosis or censoring (long-term exposure). Weighted Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between physical activity and colorectal cancer risk. Near-term physical activity was associated with a small reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer (HR ≥35 vs. <3.5 MET-hr/week, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.53-0.96). The strength and direction of associations were similar for long-term physical activity, although the associations were not nominally significant. Our results suggest that physical activity is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer for people with Lynch syndrome; however, further confirmation is warranted. The potential modifying effect of physical activity on colorectal cancer risk in people with Lynch syndrome could be useful for risk prediction and support counseling advice for lifestyle modification to reduce cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/reabilitação , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 513, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short telomeres have been associated with increased risk of many cancers, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract including esophagus and stomach. However, the association between telomere length (TL) and colorectal cancer and its precursors, colorectal polyps, is not clear. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between TL and risk of colorectal polyp subtypes in a colonoscopy-based study in western Washington. Participants were 35-79 year-old enrollees at an integrated health care system, who underwent a colonoscopy between 1998 and 2007 (n = 190), completed a self-administered questionnaire, provided blood samples, and were distinguished as having adenomas, serrated polyps, or as polyp-free controls through a standardized pathology review. Telomere length (T) relative to a single copy gene (S) was measured in circulating leukocytes from stored buffy coat samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Multivariable polytomous logistic regression was used to compare case groups with polyp-free controls and other case groups; adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. RESULTS: TL in the shortest tertile (T/S ratio < 0.58) was associated with increased risk of adenomas and serrated polyps [OR (95%CI) were 1.77(0.81-3.88) and 2.98(1.15-7.77), respectively). When evaluated by lesion severity within each pathway, short TL was more strongly associated with advanced adenomas and sessile serrated polyps [OR (95% CI) = 1.90(0.76-4.73) and 3.82(0.86-16.86), respectively], although the associations were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that short TL may be associated with an increased risk of colorectal polyps in both the adenoma-carcinoma and serrated pathways. The risk was particularly notable for sessile serrated polyps, although the association was not statistically significant and sample size was limited.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Telômero/patologia , Adenoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colonoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(6): 696-703, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563133

RESUMO

Background: Prior studies have supported an inverse association between physical activity and colon cancer risk and suggest that higher physical activity may also improve cancer survival. Among participants in a phase III adjuvant trial for stage III colon cancer, we assessed the association of physical activity around the time of cancer diagnosis with subsequent outcomes.Methods: Before treatment arm randomization (FOLFOX or FOLFOX + cetuximab), study participants completed a questionnaire including items regarding usual daily activity level and frequency of participation in recreational physical activity (N = 1,992). Using multivariable Cox models, we calculated HRs for associations of aspects of physical activity with disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS).Results: Over follow-up, 505 participants died and 541 experienced a recurrence. Overall, 75% of participants reported recreational physical activity at least several times a month; for participants who reported physical activity at least that often (vs. once a month or less), the HRs for DFS and OS were 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-0.99] and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.63-0.93), respectively. There was no evidence of material effect modification in these associations by patient or tumor attributes, except that physical activity was more strongly inversely associated with OS in patients with stage T3 versus T4 tumors (Pinteraction = 0.03).Conclusions: These findings suggest that higher physical activity around the time of colon cancer diagnosis may be associated with more favorable colon cancer outcomes.Impact: Our findings support further research on whether colon cancer survival may be enhanced by physical activity. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(6); 696-703. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer ; 123(23): 4701-4708, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body weight is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and survival, but to the authors' knowledge, the impact of long-term postdiagnostic weight change is unclear. Herein, the authors investigated whether weight change over the 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC is associated with survival. METHODS: CRC cases diagnosed from 1997 to 2008 were identified through 4 population-based cancer registry sites. Participants enrolled within 2 years of diagnosis and reported their height and weight 2 years prior. Follow-up questionnaires were administered approximately 5 years after diagnosis. Associations between change in weight (in kg) or body mass index (BMI) with overall and CRC-specific survival were estimated using Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage of disease, baseline BMI, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, smoking, time between diagnosis and enrollment, and study site. RESULTS: At the 5-year postdiagnostic survey, 2049 participants reported higher (53%; median plus 5 kg), unchanged (12%), or lower (35%; median -4 kg) weight. Over a median of 5.1 years of subsequent follow-up (range, 0.3-9.9 years), 344 participants died (91 of CRC). Long-term weight loss (per 5 kg) was found to be associated with poorer overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.21) and CRC-specific survival (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.39). Significantly lower survival was similarly observed for relative weight loss (>5% vs ≤5% change), BMI reduction (per 1 unit), or BMI category change (overweight to normal vs remaining overweight). CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss 5 years after a diagnosis of CRC was found to be significantly associated with decreased long-term survival, suggesting the importance of avoiding weight loss in survivors of CRC. Future research should attempt to further evaluate this association, accounting for whether this weight change was intentional or represents a marker of declining health. Cancer 2017;123:4701-4708. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Perda de Peso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(24): 2806-2813, 2017 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617623

RESUMO

Purpose Regular use of aspirin is associated with improved survival for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the timing of and the subtype of CRC that would benefit the most from using aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to survival is unclear. Patients and Methods In all, 2,419 patients age 18 to 74 years with incident invasive CRC who were diagnosed from 1997 to 2008 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Detailed epidemiologic questionnaires were administered at study enrollment and at 5-year follow-up. Survival outcomes were completed through linkage to national death registries. BRAF- and KRAS-mutation status, microsatellite instability, and CpG island methylator phenotype were also evaluated. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for overall survival (OS) and CRC-specific survival. Results After a median of 10.8 years of follow-up since diagnosis, 381 deaths (100 as a result of CRC) were observed. Compared with nonusers, postdiagnostic aspirin-only users had more favorable OS (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.95) and CRC-specific survival (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.71), especially among those who initiated aspirin use (OS: HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.86; CRC-specific survival: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.80). The association between any NSAID use after diagnosis and OS differed significantly by KRAS-mutation status ( Pinteraction = .01). Use of any NSAID after diagnosis was associated with improved OS only among participants with KRAS wild-type tumors (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.80) but not among those with KRAS-mutant tumors (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.96). Conclusion Among long-term CRC survivors, regular use of NSAIDs after CRC diagnosis was significantly associated with improved survival in individuals with KRAS wild-type tumors.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 48: 92-95, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28437692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although colorectal cancer (CRC) usually metastasizes to the liver and/or lungs, factors influencing the anatomic pattern of metastases remain poorly understood. METHODS: We assessed the relationship between primary CRC site and pattern of synchronous metastasis among 1202 individuals diagnosed with incident metastatic CRC between 2010 and 2014 and identified through the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Polytomous logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between primary tumor site and synchronous metastatic pattern. RESULTS: Compared to patients with proximal colon primaries, patients with rectal primaries were more likely to present with lungs-only or liver and lungs metastases versus liver-only metastases (ORlungs-onlyvs.liver-only: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.35-4.24, ORliver+lungsvs.liver-only: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.46-3.32). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that patients with rectal primaries are more likely than patients with colon primaries to present with synchronous lung metastases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
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