Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 19 de 19
Filtrar
1.
Am Surg ; : 31348221087414, 2022 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35465697

RESUMO

As hospital systems plan for health care utilization surges and stress, understanding the necessary resources of a trauma system is essential for planning capacity. We aimed to describe trends in high-intensity resource utilization (operating room [OR] usage and intensive care unit [ICU] admissions) for trauma care during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trauma registry data (2019 pre-COVID-19 and 2020 COVID-19) were collected retrospectively from 4 level I trauma centers. Direct emergency department (ED) disposition to the OR or ICU was used as a proxy for high-intensity resource utilization. No change in the incidence of direct ED to ICU or ED to OR utilization was observed (2019: 24%, 2020 23%; P = .62 and 2019: 11%, 2020 10%; P = .71, respectively). These results suggest the need for continued access to ICU space and OR theaters for traumatic injury during national health emergencies, even when levels of trauma appear to be decreasing.

2.
Injury ; 2022 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from single-region studies suggest that stay at home orders (SAHOs) had unforeseen consequences on the volume and patterns of traumatic injury during the initial months of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe, using a multi-regional approach, the effects of COVID-19 SAHOs on trauma volume and patterns of traumatic injury in the US. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed at four verified Level I trauma centers spanning three geographical regions across the United States (US). The study period spanned from April 1, 2020 - July 31, 2020 including a month-matched 2019 cohort. Patients were categorized into pre-COVID-19 (PCOV19) and first COVID-19 surge (FCOV19S) cohorts. Patient demographic, injury, and outcome data were collected via Trauma Registry queries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total 5,616 patients presented to participating study centers during the PCOV19 (2,916) and FCOV19S (2,700) study periods.  Blunt injury volume decreased (p = 0.006) due to a significant reduction in the number of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) (p = 0.003). Penetrating trauma experienced a significant increase, 8% (246/2916) in 2019 to 11% (285/2,700) in 2020 (p = 0.007), which was associated with study site (p = 0.002), not SAHOs. Finally, study site was significantly associated with changes in nearly all injury mechanisms, whereas SAHOs accounted for observed decreases in calculated weekly averages of blunt injuries (p < 0.02) and MVCs (p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggest that COVID-19 and initial SAHOs had variable consequences on patterns of traumatic injury, and that region-specific shifts in traumatic injury ensued during initial SAHOs. These results suggest that other factors, potentially socioeconomic or cultural, confound trauma volumes and types arising from SAHOs. Future analyses must consider how regional changes may be obscured with pooled cohorts, and focus on characterizing community-level changes to aid municipal preparation for future similar events.

3.
Injury ; 2022 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aortic occlusion (AO) to facilitate the acute resuscitation of trauma and acute care surgery patients in shock remains a controversial topic. Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) is an increasingly deployed method of AO. We hypothesized that in patients with non-compressible hemorrhage below the aortic bifurcation, the use of REBOA instead of open AO may be associated with a survival benefit. METHODS: From the AAST Aortic Occlusion for Resuscitation in Trauma and Acute Care Surgery (AORTA) registry, we identified 1494 patients requiring AO from 45 Level I and 4 Level II trauma centers. Presentation, intervention, and outcome variables were analyzed to compare REBOA vs open AO in patients with non-compressible hemorrhage below the aortic bifurcation. RESULTS: From December 2014 to January 2019, 217 patients with Zone 3 REBOA or Open AO who required pelvic packing, pelvic fixation or pelvic angio-embolization were identified. Of these, 109 AO patients had injuries isolated to below the aortic bifurcation (REBOA, 84; open AO, 25). Patients with intra-abdominal or thoracic sources of bleeding, above deployment Zone 3 were excluded. Overall mortality was lower in the REBOA group (35.% vs 80%, p <.001). Excluding patients who arrived with CPR in progress, the REBOA group had lower mortality (33.33% vs. 68.75%, p = 0.012). Of the survivors, systemic complications were not significantly different between groups. In the REBOA group, 16 patients had complications secondary to vascular access. Intensive care lengths of stay and ventilator days were both significantly shorter in REBOA patients who survived to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: This study compared outcomes for patients with hemorrhage below the aortic bifurcation treated with REBOA to those treated with open AO. Survival was significantly higher in REBOA patients compared to open AO patients, while complications in survivors were not different. Given the higher survival in REBOA patients, we conclude that REBOA should be used for patients with hemorrhagic shock secondary to pelvic trauma instead of open AO. LEVEL III EVIDENCE: Therapeutic.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192003

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Literature on outcomes after SSRF, stratified for rib fracture pattern is scarce in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI; Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 12). We hypothesized that SSRF is associated with improved outcomes as compared to nonoperative management without hampering neurological recovery in these patients. METHODS: A post hoc subgroup analysis of the multicenter, retrospective CWIS-TBI study was performed in patients with TBI and stratified by having sustained a non-flail fracture pattern or flail chest between January 1, 2012 and July 31, 2019. The primary outcome was mechanical ventilation-free days and secondary outcomes were in-hospital outcomes. In multivariable analysis, outcomes were assessed, stratified for rib fracture pattern. RESULTS: In total, 449 patients were analyzed. In patients with a non-flail fracture pattern, 25 of 228 (11.0%) underwent SSRF and in patients with a flail chest, 86 of 221 (38.9%). In multivariable analysis, ventilator-free days were similar in both treatment groups. For patients with a non-flail fracture pattern, the odds of pneumonia were significantly lower after SSRF (odds ratio 0.29; 95% CI 0.11-0.77; p = 0.013). In patients with a flail chest, the ICU LOS was significantly shorter in the SSRF group (beta, - 2.96 days; 95% CI - 5.70 to - 0.23; p = 0.034). CONCLUSION: In patients with TBI and a non-flail fracture pattern, SSRF was associated with a reduced pneumonia risk. In patients with TBI and a flail chest, a shorter ICU LOS was observed in the SSRF group. In both groups, SSRF was safe and did not hamper neurological recovery.

5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 355-361, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital identification of the injured patient likely to require emergent care remains a challenge. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) has been used in the prehospital setting to monitor respiratory physiology and confirmation of endotracheal tube placement. Low levels of ETCO2 have been demonstrated to correlate with injury severity and mortality in a number of in-hospital studies. We hypothesized that prehospital ETCO2 values would be predictive of mortality and need for massive transfusion (MT) in intubated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter trial with 24 participating centers. Prehospital, emergency department, and hospital values were collected. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and compared. Massive transfusion defined as >10 U of blood in 6 hours or death in 6 hours with at least 1 U of blood transfused. RESULTS: A total of 1,324 patients were enrolled. ETCO2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.67; confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.71) was better in predicting mortality than shock index (SI) (AUROC, 0.55; CI, 0.50-0.60) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AUROC, 0.58; CI, 0.53-0.62) (p < 0.0005). Prehospital lowest ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.69; CI, 0.64-0.75), SBP (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.70-0.81), and SI (AUROC, 0.74; CI, 0.68-0.79) were all predictive of MT. Analysis of patients with normotension demonstrated lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.66; CI, 0.61-0.71), which was more predictive of mortality than SBP (AUROC, 0.52; CI, 0.47-0.58) or SI (AUROC, 0.56; CI, 0.50-0.62) (p < 0.001). Lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.65-0.84), SBP (AUROC, 0.63; CI, 0.54-0.74), and SI (AUROC, 0.64; CI, 0.54-0.75) were predictive of MT in normotensive patients. ETCO2 cutoff for MT was 26 mm Hg. The positive predictive value was 16.1%, and negative predictive value was high at 98.1%. CONCLUSION: Prehospital ETCO2 is predictive of mortality and MT. ETCO2 outperformed traditional measures such as SBP and SI in the prediction of mortality. ETCO2 may outperform traditional measures in predicting need for transfusion in occult shock. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic test, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Estados Unidos , Sinais Vitais
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 24-33, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread institution of modern massive transfusion protocols with balanced blood product ratios, survival for patients with traumatic hemorrhage receiving ultramassive transfusion (UMT) (defined as ≥20 U of packed red blood cells [RBCs]) in 24 hours) remains low and resource consumption remains high. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors associated with mortality in trauma patients receiving UMT in the modern resuscitation era. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter retrospective study of 461 trauma patients from 17 trauma centers who received ≥20 U of RBCs in 24 hours was performed (2014-2019). Multivariable logistic regression and Classification and Regression Tree analysis were used to identify clinical characteristics associated with mortality. RESULTS: The 461 patients were young (median age, 35 years), male (82%), severely injured (median Injury Severity Score, 33), in shock (median shock index, 1.2; base excess, -9), and transfused a median of 29 U of RBCs, 22 U of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and 24 U of platelets (PLT). Mortality was 46% at 24 hours and 65% at discharge. Transfusion of RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 or RBC/PLT ≥1.5:1 was significantly associated with mortality, most pronounced for the 18% of patients who received both RBC/PLT and RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 (odds ratios, 3.11 and 2.81 for mortality at 24 hours and discharge; both p < 0.01). Classification and Regression Tree identified that age older than 50 years, low initial Glasgow Coma Scale, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy were associated with low likelihood of survival (14-26%), while absence of these factors was associated with the highest survival (71%). CONCLUSION: Despite modern massive transfusion protocols, one half of trauma patients receiving UMT are transfused with either RBC/FFP or RBC/PLT in unbalanced ratios ≥1.5:1, with increased associated mortality. Maintaining focus on balanced ratios during UMT is critical, and consideration of advanced age, poor initial mental status, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy can aid in prognostication. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
7.
Am J Surg ; 222(2): 413-416, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In laparoscopic appendectomy (LA), closure of the appendiceal stump can be achieved using either an endostapler or endoloop. We compared outcome data from utilizing either technique. METHOD: Data was collected for all adult patients who underwent LA for appendicitis at a single institution over a 4-year period. Demographic data, complications, length of stay and hospital charges were compared between both groups. RESULTS: A total of 501 patients underwent LA in the 4-year period. There were no differences in age, gender or BMI. Additionally, there were no differences in procedure length, readmission rates, complication rates (including intra-abdominal abscess) or hospital charges. There was a slightly shorter length of stay in the endoloop closure group (1.22 days) vs endostapler (1.38 days), p = 0.002. CONCLUSION: Neither technique of appendiceal stump closure demonstrated a unique advantage. These findings may have relevance in low resource environments that may not have routine access to surgical staplers.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia , Apendicite/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Sutura , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
9.
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
10.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 492-500, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes after surgical stabilization of rib fractures (SSRF) have not been studied in patients with multiple rib fractures and traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that SSRF, as compared with nonoperative management, is associated with favorable outcomes in patients with TBI. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study was performed in patients with rib fractures and TBI between January 2012 and July 2019. Patients who underwent SSRF were compared to those managed nonoperatively. The primary outcome was mechanical ventilation-free days. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit length of stay and hospital length of stay, tracheostomy, occurrence of complications, neurologic outcome, and mortality. Patients were further stratified into moderate (GCS score, 9-12) and severe (GCS score, ≤8) TBI. RESULTS: The study cohort consisted of 456 patients of which 111 (24.3%) underwent SSRF. The SSRF was performed at a median of 3 days, and SSRF-related complication rate was 3.6%. In multivariable analyses, there was no difference in mechanical ventilation-free days between the SSRF and nonoperative groups. The odds of developing pneumonia (odds ratio [OR], 0.59; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.38-0.98; p = 0.043) and 30-day mortality (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.91; p = 0.032) were significantly lower in the SSRF group. Patients with moderate TBI had similar outcome in both groups. In patients with severe TBI, the odds of 30-day mortality was significantly lower after SSRF (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.88; p = 0.034). CONCLUSION: In patients with multiple rib fractures and TBI, the mechanical ventilation-free days did not differ between the two treatment groups. In addition, SSRF was associated with a significantly lower risk of pneumonia and 30-day mortality. In patients with moderate TBI, outcome was similar. In patients with severe TBI a lower 30-day mortality was observed. There was a low SSRF-related complication risk. These data suggest a potential role for SSRF in select patients with TBI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level IV.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Fixação de Fratura , Fraturas Múltiplas/complicações , Fraturas Múltiplas/cirurgia , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Fraturas Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(2): 102-106, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000020

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Geriatric patients (age >65) comprise a growing segment of the trauma population. New-onset atrial fibrillation may occur after injury, complicating clinical management and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation among geriatric trauma patients. METHODS: In this case control study, eligible participants included admitted trauma patients age 65 and older who developed new-onset atrial fibrillation during the hospitalization. Controls were admitted trauma patients who were matched for age and injury severity score, who did not develop atrial fibrillation. We evaluated the associations between new-onset atrial fibrillation and clinical characteristics, including patient demographics, health behaviors, chronic medical conditions, and course of care. RESULTS: Data were available for 63 cases and 25 controls. Patients who developed atrial fibrillation were more likely to be male, compared to controls (49% versus 24%; odds ratio 3.0[1.0, 8.9]). Other demographic and clinical factors were not associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation, including mechanism of injury, co-morbid medical conditions, drug or alcohol use, surgical procedures, and intravenous fluid administration. CONCLUSIONS: Male geriatric trauma patients were at higher risk for developing new-onset atrial fibrillation. Other demographic and clinical factors were not associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation.

12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(1): e001818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133167

RESUMO

Road traffic injuries are a neglected global public health problem. Over 1.25 million people are killed each year, and middle-income countries, which are motorising rapidly, are the hardest hit. Sri Lanka is dealing with an injury-related healthcare crisis, with a recent 85% increase in road traffic fatality rates. Road traffic crashes now account for 25 000 injuries annually and 10 deaths daily. Development of a trauma registry is the foundation for injury control, care and prevention. Five northern Sri Lankan provinces collaborated with Jaffna Teaching Hospital to develop a local electronic registry. The Centre for Clinical Excellence and Research was established to provide organisational leadership, hardware and software were purchased, and data collectors trained. Initial data collection was modified after implementation challenges were resolved. Between 1 June 2017 and 30 September 2017, 1708 injured patients were entered into the registry. Among these patients, 62% were male, 76% were aged 21-50, 71.3% were motorcyclists and 34% were in a collision with another motorcyclist. There were frequent collisions with uncontrolled livestock (12%) and with fixed objects (14%), and most patients were transported by private vehicles without prehospital care. Head (n=315) and lower extremity (n=497) injuries predominated. Establishment of a trauma registry in low-income and middle-income countries is a significant challenge and requires invested local leadership; the most challenging issue is ongoing funding. However, this pilot registry provides a valuable foundation, identifying unique injury mechanisms, establishing priorities for prevention and patient care, and introducing the concept of an organised system to this region.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Sistema de Registros , Lesões Acidentais/epidemiologia , Lesões Acidentais/etiologia , Lesões Acidentais/terapia , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sri Lanka , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(3): 610-612, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831351

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is a known complication following rib fractures. This study was undertaken to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with the development of pneumonia among trauma patients with rib fractures. METHODS: This retrospective study examined trauma patients with one or more rib fractures, who were admitted for inpatient management during the time period 2012 through 2017. Variables studied included age, gender, injury severity score (ISS), mechanism of injury, smoking status, alcohol use, administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccine, number and side of rib fracture(s), pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, flail chest, spirometer use, blood transfusion, and intravenous fluid administration. RESULTS: Among 78 cases and 74 controls (matched for age and ISS), patients who developed pneumonia were more likely to be male, have higher number of rib fractures, alcohol consumption of 1-5 drinks per day, and a higher initial volume of intravenous fluids during first 24 h. Patients with pneumonia were more likely to be treated with incentive spirometry. There were no difference in age, ISS, smoking status, side of rib fractures, pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, flail chest, influenza vaccination, pneumonia vaccination, or mechanism of injury between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for the development of pneumonia following rib fractures include male gender, higher number of rib fractures, alcohol consumption, and higher rates of intravenous fluid administration during the initial 24 h following trauma.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(6): 1069-1071, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Proper use of automobile seat belt in a motor vehicle crash is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality, shorter hospital stays, reduced resource utilization, and fewer missed work days. Seatbelt compliance nationwide is 86%. This study was undertaken to identify factors associated with noncompliance with seatbelt use among admitted patients following a motor vehicle crash. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of motor vehicle crashes at an Urban Level 1 Trauma Center. Eligible subjects included patients age 18 and over, who were admitted by the Trauma Service following a motor vehicle crash from January to December 2017. RESULTS: Among 766 participants, the overall rate of seatbelt noncompliance was 32% (N = 245). Some participants met the legal limit of intoxication (80 mg/dl) (N = 119 patients; 22%). Drug use was high among this population, including THC (30%), opiates (29%), benzodiazepines (24%), cocaine (10%), and methamphetamine (10%). Patients who did not wear seat belts were more likely to be male (62.4% no seat belt vs. 51.8% seat belt), intoxicated (30.5% vs. 17.0%), screen positive for cocaine (18.2% vs. 4.7%), THC (37.7% vs. 24.2%), and methamphetamine (15.6% vs. 5.9%). We did not detect significant differences by seat belt use with respect to ethnicity, mode of arrival, day of week, opiate use, or benzodiazepine use. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 32% of patients in motor vehicle crashes were not compliant with seat belt use. Noncompliance with seat belt use was higher among patients who were male, younger age, intoxicated, or who had positive screens for cocaine, THC, or methamphetamine.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/métodos , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Med Educ ; 49(8): 759-72, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26152488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This literature review was designed to examine the role of the arts in medical education. It is distinctive from previous literature reviews in that it focuses specifically on what medical education as a discipline can learn from the arts and does not seek to measure the effectiveness of arts-based educational interventions in students or clinicians. METHODS: A literature search using the terms 'educat*' or 'medic*' and phrases such as 'arts', 'therapy', 'medicine', 'arts therapy', 'professional artistry' and 'nursing/doctoral education' was conducted. The 60 items identified were filtered for relevance. Key data were extracted from the remaining items and subjected to a literature analysis to identify important or recurring themes. RESULTS: A total of 39 pieces of literature were included in the study. Collectively, these outlined four main areas in which the use of the arts impacts upon medical education. These refer to using the arts: (i) as a tool for professional development; (ii) to develop pedagogy; (iii) to critique the prevailing approach of medical education, and (iv) to view practice as a succession of performances. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of the arts cannot be measured by yardsticks that have been set for judging technical proficiency or short-term impact. The possible outcomes of embracing the arts in medical education include an enriched view of lifelong learning and professional development, the potential to critique prevailing approaches to medical practice, and the revisualisation of medicine as a succession of performances. These open up the broader social aspects of medical practice to scrutiny and offer new and distinctive ways of exploring professional knowledge and identity.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Educação Médica/métodos , Ciências Humanas/educação , Medicina nas Artes , Humanos , Ensino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...