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1.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 82, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence implicates dysfunctional proteostasis and the involvement of the autophagic and endo-lysosomal system and the ubiquitin-proteasome system in neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is an accumulation of autophagic vacuoles within the neurons. In Parkinson's disease (PD), susceptibility has been linked to genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy and lysosomal function, as well as mutations causing lysosomal disorders. Furthermore, both diseases are characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates. METHODS: Proteins associated with endocytosis, lysosomal function, and the ubiquitin-proteasome system were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and targeted by combining solid-phase extraction and parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. In total, 50 peptides from 18 proteins were quantified in three cross-sectional cohorts including AD (N = 61), PD (N = 21), prodromal AD (N = 10), stable mild cognitive impairment (N = 15), and controls (N = 68). RESULTS: A pilot study, including subjects selected based on their AD CSF core biomarker concentrations, showed increased concentrations of several targeted proteins in subjects with core biomarker levels indicating AD pathology compared to controls. Next, in a clinically characterized cohort, lower concentrations in CSF of proteins in PD were found compared to subjects with prodromal AD. Further investigation in an additional clinical study again revealed lower concentrations in CSF of proteins in PD compared to controls and AD. CONCLUSION: In summary, significantly different peptide CSF concentrations were identified from proteins AP2B1, C9, CTSB, CTSF, GM2A, LAMP1, LAMP2, TCN2, and ubiquitin. Proteins found to have altered concentrations in more than one study were AP2B1, CTSB, CTSF, GM2A, LAMP2, and ubiquitin. Interestingly, given the genetic implication of lysosomal function in PD, we did identify the CSF concentrations of CTSB, CTSF, GM2A, and LAMP2 to be altered. However, we also found differences in proteins associated with endocytosis (AP2B1) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (ubiquitin). No difference in any peptide CSF concentration was found in clinically characterized subjects with AD compared to controls. In conclusion, CSF analyses of subjects with PD suggest a general lysosomal dysfunction, which resonates well with recent genetic findings, while such changes are minor or absent in AD.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518392

RESUMO

The pace of genetic discovery in complex disease has accelerated exponentially over the last decade. Our fund of knowledge of the foundational genetics in disease has never been as great. There is a clear path forward to the resolution of the genetic architecture toward a point at which we will saturate the biological understanding of disease through genetics. This understanding continues to provide fundamental insights into disease biology and, with the advent of new data and methodologies, the path from gene to function is becoming clearer and cleaner. In this opinion piece, we discuss progress in the genetics of Parkinson disease. We explore what genetics has revealed thus far in the context of disease biology. We highlight mitophagy/autophagy, dopamine metabolism, and the adaptive immune system. We try and link these findings together to give a holistic view of pathogenesis with the underlying theme that disease pathogenesis relates to a failure of damage response pathways. In the 1990s, Parkinson's disease was regarded a non-genetic disorder. Since that time, however, a huge number of mendelian loci and risk loci have been identified by positional cloning and by genome wide association studies. In this review, it is not our intent to list each gene and locus and review their identification (see (1)) but rather to outline the pathogenetic mechanisms that these analyses are revealing and then, given the large number of loci already identified, to lay out what we hope future analyses may help us understand, both in terms of disease mechanisms and for risk prediction for the syndrome.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9640, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270419

RESUMO

It was recently suggested that beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 2 (BACE2) functions as an amyloid beta (Aß)-degrading enzyme; in addition to its better understood role as an APP secretase. Due to this finding we sought to understand the possible genetic risk contributed by the BACE2 locus to the development of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we report that common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in BACE2 is associated with altered AD risk in apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) epsilon 4 variant (ε4) non-carriers. In addition, in ε4 non-carriers diagnosed with AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), SNPs within the BACE2 locus are associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aß1-42. Further, SNP variants in BACE2 are also associated with BACE2 RNA expression levels suggesting a potential mechanism for the CSF Aß1-42 findings. Lastly, overexpression of BACE2 in vitro resulted in decreased Aß1-40 and Aß1-42 fragments in a cell line model of Aß production. These findings suggest that genetic variation at the BACE2 locus modifies AD risk for those individuals who don't carry the ε4 variant of APOE. Further, our data indicate that the biological mechanism associated with this altered risk is linked to amyloid generation or clearance possibly through BACE2 expression changes.

5.
Brain ; 142(9): 2828-2844, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324919

RESUMO

Our objective was to define the prevalence and clinical features of genetic Parkinson's disease in a large UK population-based cohort, the largest multicentre prospective clinico-genetic incident study in the world. We collected demographic data, Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. We analysed mutations in PRKN (parkin), PINK1, LRRK2 and SNCA in relation to age at symptom onset, family history and clinical features. Of the 2262 participants recruited to the Tracking Parkinson's study, 424 had young-onset Parkinson's disease (age at onset ≤ 50) and 1799 had late onset Parkinson's disease. A range of methods were used to genotype 2005 patients: 302 young-onset patients were fully genotyped with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and either Sanger and/or exome sequencing; and 1701 late-onset patients were genotyped with the LRRK2 'Kompetitive' allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay and/or exome sequencing (two patients had missing age at onset). We identified 29 (1.4%) patients carrying pathogenic mutations. Eighteen patients carried the G2019S or R1441C mutations in LRRK2, and one patient carried a heterozygous duplication in SNCA. In PRKN, we identified patients carrying deletions of exons 1, 4 and 5, and P113Xfs, R275W, G430D and R33X. In PINK1, two patients carried deletions in exon 1 and 5, and the W90Xfs point mutation. Eighteen per cent of patients with age at onset ≤30 and 7.4% of patients from large dominant families carried pathogenic Mendelian gene mutations. Of all young-onset patients, 10 (3.3%) carried biallelic mutations in PRKN or PINK1. Across the whole cohort, 18 patients (0.9%) carried pathogenic LRRK2 mutations and one (0.05%) carried an SNCA duplication. There is a significant burden of LRRK2 G2019S in patients with both apparently sporadic and familial disease. In young-onset patients, dominant and recessive mutations were equally common. There were no differences in clinical features between LRRK2 carriers and non-carriers. However, we did find that PRKN and PINK1 mutation carriers have distinctive clinical features compared to young-onset non-carriers, with more postural symptoms at diagnosis and less cognitive impairment, after adjusting for age and disease duration. This supports the idea that there is a distinct clinical profile of PRKN and PINK1-related Parkinson's disease. We estimate that there are approaching 1000 patients with a known genetic aetiology in the UK Parkinson's disease population. A small but significant number of patients carry causal variants in LRRK2, SNCA, PRKN and PINK1 that could potentially be targeted by new therapies, such as LRRK2 inhibitors.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10854, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350420

RESUMO

The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by neurodegeneration and progressive loss of semantic knowledge. Unlike many other forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), svPPA has a highly consistent underlying pathology composed of TDP-43 (a regulator of RNA and DNA transcription metabolism). Previous genetic studies of svPPA are limited by small sample sizes and a paucity of common risk variants. Despite this, svPPA's relatively homogenous clinicopathologic phenotype makes it an ideal investigative model to examine genetic processes that may drive neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we used GWAS metadata, tissue samples from pathologically confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and in silico techniques to identify and characterize protein interaction networks associated with svPPA risk. We identified 64 svPPA risk genes that interact at the protein level. The protein pathways represented in this svPPA gene network are critical regulators of RNA metabolism and cell death, such as SMAD proteins and NOTCH1. Many of the genes in this network are involved in TDP-43 metabolism. Contrary to the conventional notion that svPPA is a clinical syndrome with few genetic risk factors, our analyses show that svPPA risk is complex and polygenic in nature. Risk for svPPA is likely driven by multiple common variants in genes interacting with TDP-43, along with cell death,x` working in combination to promote neurodegeneration.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3310, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346172

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of mortality in the elderly. While the coding change of APOE-ε4 is a key risk factor for late-onset AD and has been believed to be the only risk factor in the APOE locus, it does not fully explain the risk effect conferred by the locus. Here, we report the identification of AD causal variants in PVRL2 and APOC1 regions in proximity to APOE and define common risk haplotypes independent of APOE-ε4 coding change. These risk haplotypes are associated with changes of AD-related endophenotypes including cognitive performance, and altered expression of APOE and its nearby genes in the human brain and blood. High-throughput genome-wide chromosome conformation capture analysis further supports the roles of these risk haplotypes in modulating chromatin states and gene expression in the brain. Our findings provide compelling evidence for additional risk factors in the APOE locus that contribute to AD pathogenesis.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283791

RESUMO

Late onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia for which about 30 susceptibility loci have been reported. The aim of the current study is to identify novel genes associated with Alzheimer's disease using the largest up-to-date reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, the most accurate imputation software and a novel gene-based analysis approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 million genotypes from 17,008 Alzheimer's cases and 37,154 controls. In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected three novel gene-wide significant loci PPARGC1A (p = 2.2 × 10-6), RORA (p = 7.4 × 10-7) and ZNF423 (p = 2.1 × 10-6). PPARGC1A and RORA are involved in circadian rhythm; circadian disturbances are one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. PPARGC1A is additionally linked to energy metabolism and the generation of amyloid beta plaques. RORA is involved in a variety of functions apart from circadian rhythm, such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. The ZNF423 gene resides in an Alzheimer's disease-specific protein network and is likely involved with centrosomes and DNA damage repair.

11.
Ann Neurol ; 86(3): 427-435, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is responsible for a huge and growing health care burden in the developed and developing world. The polygenic risk score (PRS) approach has shown 75 to 84% prediction accuracy of identifying individuals with AD risk. METHODS: In this study, we tested the prediction accuracy of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and amyloid deposition risks with PRS, including and excluding APOE genotypes in a large publicly available dataset with extensive phenotypic data, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort. Among MCI individuals with amyloid-positive status, we examined PRS prediction accuracy in those who converted to AD. In addition, we divided polygenic risk score by biological pathways and tested them independently for distinguishing between AD, MCI, and amyloid deposition. RESULTS: We found that AD and MCI are predicted by both APOE genotype and PRS (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82% and 68%, respectively). Amyloid deposition is predicted by APOE only (AUC = 79%). Further progression to AD of individuals with MCI and amyloid-positive status is predicted by PRS over and above APOE (AUC = 67%). In pathway-specific PRS analyses, the protein-lipid complex has the strongest association with AD and amyloid deposition even when genes in the APOE region were removed (p = 0.0055 and p = 0.0079, respectively). INTERPRETATION: The results showed different pattern of APOE contribution in PRS risk predictions of AD/MCI and amyloid deposition. Our study suggests that APOE mostly contributes to amyloid accumulation and the PRS affects risk of further conversion to AD. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:427-435.

12.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 65: 55-61, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: L-dopa responsiveness in Parkinson's disease (PD) varies, but the clinical correlates and significance of this are ill-defined. METHODS: Patients were assessed before and after their usual morning L-dopa dose, using the MDS Unified PD Rating Scale Part 3 (MDS UPDRS 3), and rated as definite responders (≥24.5% improvement) or limited responders (<24.5%). RESULTS: 1007 cases, mean age 66.1 years (SD 9.1) at diagnosis, were assessed 3.4 (SD 0.9) years after diagnosis. The L-dopa response was definite in 614 cases (61.0%), median reduction in MDS UPDRS 3 scores was 42.0%, (IQR 33.3, 53.1), and was limited in 393 cases (39.0%), median reduction in MDS UPDRS 3 scores 11.5% (IQR 4.3, 18.2). Definite responders were younger (66.3 years at study entry, SD 9.3) than limited responders (69.2 years, SD 8.4, p < 0.001). The MDS UPDRS 3 score at study entry in definite responders (21.0, SD 10.5) was significantly lower than in limited responders (24.7, SD 13.4, p < 0.001). The MDS UPDRS 3 increase over 18 months was less in definite responders at 3.0 (SD 10.4), compared to limited responders (6.4, SD 11.0, p < 0.001). The levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) was not significantly different at study entry (definite responders 317 mg, SD 199, vs limited responders 305 mg, SD 191, p = 0.53). However, LEDD was significantly higher at the time of the L-dopa challenge test in definite responders (541 mg, SD 293) compared to limited responders (485 mg, SD 215, p = 0.01). Responsiveness to L-dopa was unaffected by the challenge test dose (p = 0.54). CONCLUSIONS: The main determinants of variation in the L-dopa response in early PD are age and motor severity. A limited L-dopa response is associated with faster motor progression.

13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 154, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127079

RESUMO

Mild-cognitive impairment (MCI) occurs in up to one-fifth of individuals over the age of 65, with approximately a third of MCI individuals converting to dementia in later life. There is a growing necessity for early identification for those at risk of dementia as pathological processes begin decades before onset of symptoms. A cohort of 122 individuals diagnosed with MCI and followed up for a 36-month period for conversion to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) were genotyped on the NeuroChip array along with pathologically confirmed cases of LOAD and cognitively normal controls. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for each individual were generated using PRSice-2, derived from summary statistics produced from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Disease Project (IGAP) genome-wide association study. Predictability models for LOAD were developed incorporating the PRS with APOE SNPs (rs7412 and rs429358), age and gender. This model was subsequently applied to the MCI cohort to determine whether it could be used to predict conversion from MCI to LOAD. The PRS model for LOAD using area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC) calculated a predictability for LOAD of 82.5%. When applied to the MCI cohort predictability for conversion from MCI to LOAD was 61.0%. Increases in average PRS scores across diagnosis group were observed with one-way ANOVA suggesting significant differences in PRS between the groups (p < 0.0001). This analysis suggests that the PRS model for LOAD can be used to identify individuals with MCI at risk of conversion to LOAD.

14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980041

RESUMO

Familial Alzheimer's disease (fAD) mutations alter amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by γ-secretase, increasing the proportion of longer amyloidogenic amyloid-ß (Aß) peptides. Using five control induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines and seven iPSC lines generated from fAD patients, we investigated the effects of mutations on the Aß secretome in human neurons generated in 2D and 3D. We also analysed matched CSF, post-mortem brain tissue, and iPSCs from the same participant with the APP V717I mutation. All fAD mutation lines demonstrated an increased Aß42:40 ratio relative to controls, yet displayed varied signatures for Aß43, Aß38, and short Aß fragments. We propose four qualitatively distinct mechanisms behind raised Aß42:40. (1) APP V717I mutations alter γ-secretase cleavage site preference. Whereas, distinct presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations lead to either (2) reduced γ-secretase activity, (3) altered protein stability or (4) reduced PSEN1 maturation, all culminating in reduced γ-secretase carboxypeptidase-like activity. These data support Aß mechanistic tenets in a human physiological model and substantiate iPSC-neurons for modelling fAD.

15.
Brain ; 142(6): 1616-1630, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932156

RESUMO

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis represents the most common epilepsy syndrome in adult patients with medically intractable partial epilepsy. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is usually regarded as a polygenic and complex disorder, still poorly understood but probably caused and perpetuated by dysregulation of numerous biological networks and cellular functions. The study of gene expression changes by single nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory elements (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs) has been shown to be a powerful complementary approach to the detection and understanding of risk loci by genome-wide association studies. We performed a whole (gene and exon-level) transcriptome analysis on cortical tissue samples (Brodmann areas 20 and 21) from 86 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and 75 neurologically healthy controls. Genome-wide genotyping data from the same individuals (patients and controls) were analysed and paired with the transcriptome data. We report potential epilepsy-risk eQTLs, some of which are specific to tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. We also found large transcriptional and splicing deregulation in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis tissue as well as gene networks involving neuronal and glial mechanisms that provide new insights into the cause and maintenance of the seizures. These data (available via the 'Seizubraineac' web-tool resource, www.seizubraineac.org) will facilitate the identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers as well as genetic risk variants that could influence epilepsy and pharmacoresistance.

16.
Mov Disord ; 34(6): 866-875, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports an extensive and complex genetic contribution to PD. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shed light on the genetic basis of risk for this disease. However, the genetic determinants of PD age at onset are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic determinants of PD age at onset. METHODS: Using genetic data of 28,568 PD cases, we performed a genome-wide association study based on PD age at onset. RESULTS: We estimated that the heritability of PD age at onset attributed to common genetic variation was ∼0.11, lower than the overall heritability of risk for PD (∼0.27), likely, in part, because of the subjective nature of this measure. We found two genome-wide significant association signals, one at SNCA and the other a protein-coding variant in TMEM175, both of which are known PD risk loci and a Bonferroni-corrected significant effect at other known PD risk loci, GBA, INPP5F/BAG3, FAM47E/SCARB2, and MCCC1. Notably, SNCA, TMEM175, SCARB2, BAG3, and GBA have all been shown to be implicated in α-synuclein aggregation pathways. Remarkably, other well-established PD risk loci, such as GCH1 and MAPT, did not show a significant effect on age at onset of PD. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we have performed the largest age at onset of PD genome-wide association studies to date, and our results show that not all PD risk loci influence age at onset with significant differences between risk alleles for age at onset. This provides a compelling picture, both within the context of functional characterization of disease-linked genetic variability and in defining differences between risk alleles for age at onset, or frank risk for disease. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

17.
Neurobiol Aging ; 78: 98-110, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925302

RESUMO

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. The study and the dissection of FTLD is complex due to its clinical, pathological, and genetic heterogeneity. In this review, we survey the state-of-the-art genetics of familial FTLD and recapitulate our current understanding of the genetic architecture of sporadic FTLD by summarizing results of genome-wide association studies performed in FTLD to date. We then discuss the challenges of translating these heterogeneous genetic features into the understanding of the molecular underpinnings of FTLD pathogenesis. We particularly highlight a number of susceptibility processes that appear to be conserved across familial and sporadic cases (e.g., and the cellular waste disposal pathways, and immune system signaling) and finally describe cutting-edge approaches, based on mathematical prediction tools, highlighting novel intriguing risk pathways such as DNA damage response as an emerging theme in FTLD.


Assuntos
Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/etiologia , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Idoso , Dano ao DNA , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Progranulinas , Proteínas tau
18.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(3): 456-465, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911569

RESUMO

Objective: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 30 susceptibility loci associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using AD GWAS data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP), Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) was successfully applied to predict life time risk of AD development. A recently introduced Polygenic Hazard Score (PHS) is able to quantify individuals with age-specific genetic risk for AD. The aim of this study was to quantify the age-specific genetic risk for AD with PRS and compare the results generated by PRS with those from PHS. Methods: Quantification of individual differences in age-specific genetic risk for AD identified by the PRS, was performed with Cox Regression on 9903 (2626 cases and 7277 controls) individuals from the Genetic and Environmental Risk in Alzheimer's Disease consortium (GERAD). Polygenic Hazard Scores were generated for the same individuals. The age-specific genetic risk for AD identified by the PRS was compared with that generated by the PHS. This was repeated using varying SNPs P-value thresholds for disease association. Results: Polygenic Risk Score significantly predicted the risk associated with age at AD onset when SNPs were preselected for association to AD at P ≤ 0.001. The strongest effect (B = 0.28, SE = 0.04, P = 2.5 × 10-12) was observed for PRS based upon genome-wide significant SNPs (P ≤ 5 × 10-8). The strength of association was weaker with less stringent SNP selection thresholds. Interpretation: Both PRS and PHS can be used to predict an age-specific risk for developing AD. The PHS approach uses SNP effect sizes derived with the Cox Proportional Hazard Regression model. When SNPs were selected based upon AD GWAS case/control P ≤ 10-3, we found no advantage of using SNP effects sizes calculated with the Cox Proportional Hazard Regression model in our study. When SNPs are selected for association with AD risk at P > 10-3, the age-specific risk prediction results are not significant for either PRS or PHS. However PHS could be more advantageous than PRS of age specific AD risk predictions when SNPs are prioritized for association with AD age at onset (i.e., powerful Cox Regression GWAS study).

19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1121-1133, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886340

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated genetic differences between monozygotic (MZ) twins. To test the hypothesis that early post-twinning mutational events associate with phenotypic discordance, we investigated a cohort of 13 twin pairs (n = 26) discordant for various clinical phenotypes using whole-exome sequencing and screened for copy number variation (CNV). We identified a de novo variant in PLCB1, a gene involved in the hydrolysis of lipid phosphorus in milk from dairy cows, associated with lactase non-persistence, and a variant in the mitochondrial complex I gene MT-ND5 associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We also found somatic variants in multiple genes (TMEM225B, KBTBD3, TUBGCP4, TFIP11) in another MZ twin pair discordant for ALS. Based on the assumption that discordance between twins could be explained by a common variant with variable penetrance or expressivity, we screened the twin samples for known pathogenic variants that are shared and identified a rare deletion overlapping ARHGAP11B, in the twin pair manifesting with either schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia. Parent-offspring trio analysis was implemented for two twin pairs to assess potential association of variants of parental origin with susceptibility to disease. We identified a de novo variant in RASD2 shared by 8-year-old male twins with a suspected diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifesting as different traits. A de novo CNV duplication was also identified in these twins overlapping CD38, a gene previously implicated in ASD. In twins discordant for Tourette's syndrome, a paternally inherited stop loss variant was detected in AADAC, a known candidate gene for the disorder.

20.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 26, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS), caused by chromosome 21 trisomy, is associated with an ultra-high risk of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD), driven by amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene triplication. Understanding relevant molecular differences between those with DS, those with sporadic AD (sAD) without DS, and controls will aid in understanding AD development in DS. We explored group differences in plasma concentrations of amyloid-ß peptides and tau (as their accumulation is a characteristic feature of AD) and cytokines (as the inflammatory response has been implicated in AD development, and immune dysfunction is common in DS). METHODS: We used ultrasensitive assays to compare plasma concentrations of the amyloid-ß peptides Aß40 and Aß42, total tau (t-tau), and the cytokines IL1ß, IL10, IL6, and TNFα between adults with DS (n = 31), adults with sAD (n = 27), and controls age-matched to the group with DS (n = 27), and explored relationships between molecular concentrations and with age within each group. In the group with DS, we also explored relationships with neurofilament light (NfL) concentration, due to its potential use as a biomarker for AD in DS. RESULTS: Aß40, Aß42, and IL1ß concentrations were higher in DS, with a higher Aß42/Aß40 ratio in controls. The group with DS showed moderate positive associations between concentrations of t-tau and both Aß42 and IL1ß. Only NfL concentration in the group with DS showed a significant positive association with age. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of Aß40 and Aß42 were much higher in adults with DS than in other groups, reflecting APP gene triplication, while no difference in the Aß42/Aß40 ratio between those with DS and sAD may indicate similar processing and deposition of Aß40 and Aß42 in these groups. Higher concentrations of IL1ß in DS may reflect an increased vulnerability to infections and/or an increased prevalence of autoimmune disorders, while the positive association between IL1ß and t-tau in DS may indicate IL1ß is associated with neurodegeneration. Finally, NfL concentration may be the most suitable biomarker for dementia progression in DS. The identification of such a biomarker is important to improve the detection of dementia and monitor its progression, and for designing clinical intervention studies.

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