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1.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695690

RESUMO

Background: Ninety percent of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are women. X chromosome-dosage increases susceptibility to SLE and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Chromosome X open reading frame 21 (CXorf21) escapes X-inactivation and is an SLE risk gene of previously unknown function. We undertook the present study to delineate the function of CXorf21 in the immune system as well as investigate a potential role in the sex bias of SLE and pSS. Methods: Western blot protein analysis, qPCR, BioPlex cytokine immunoassay, pHrodo™ assays, as well as in vitro CRISPR-Cas9 knockdown experiments were employed to delineate the role of CXorf21 in relevant immunocytes. Results: Expressed in monocytes and B cells, CXorf21 basal Mrna, and protein expression levels are elevated in female primary monocytes, B cells, and EBV-transformed B cells compared to male cells. We also found CXorf21 mRNA and protein expression is higher in both male and female cells from SLE patients compared to control subjects. TLR7 ligation increased CXorf21 protein expression and CXorf21 knockdown abrogated TLR7-driven increased IFNA1 mRNA expression, and reduced secretion of both TNF-alpha and IL-6 in healthy female monocytes. Similarly, we found increased pH in the lysosomes of CXorf21-deficient female monocytes. Conclusion: CXorf21 is more highly expressed in female compared to male cells and is involved in a sexually dimorphic response to TLR7 activation. In addition, CXorf21 expression regulates lysosomal pH in a sexually dimorphic manner. Thus, sexually dimorphic expression of CXorf21 skews cellular immune responses in manner consistent with expected properties of a mediator of the X chromosome dose risk in SLE and pSS.

2.
J Autoimmun ; : 102332, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515129

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease with progressive neurodegeneration and complex etiology likely involving genetic and environmental factors. MS has been associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection, with patients often showing enhanced responses to EBV antigens. To determine whether abnormal EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) humoral immunity can serve as an initiator of autoimmune responses in MS, we investigated the fine specificities of the humoral immune response against EBNA-1 in MS patients using solid phase epitope mapping. Antibodies from MS patients recognized an EBNA-1 epitope spanning amino acids 411-426, previously unknown to be recognized specifically by untreated MS patients. Antibodies against this epitope cross-reacted to myelin basic protein (MBP). Furthermore, animals immunized with this EBNA-1 polypeptide mounted a response against MBP and developed signs of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). These data support a link between MS and EBV through antibodies that cross-react between EBV proteins and the MBP autoantigen.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Consequently, individuals who are genetically predisposed for high risk of cardiovascular disease would benefit most from prevention and early intervention approaches. Among common health risk factors affecting adult populations, we evaluated 23 cardiovascular disease-related traits, including BMI, glucose levels and lipid profiling to determine their associations with low-frequency recurrent copy number variations (CNV) (population frequency < 5%). RESULTS: We examined 10,619 unrelated subjects of European ancestry from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network who were genotyped with 657,366 markers genome-wide on the Illumina Infinium Quad 660 array. We performed CNV calling based on array marker intensity and evaluated data quality, ancestry stratification, and relatedness to ensure unbiased association discovery. Using a segment-based scoring approach, we assessed the association of all CNVs with each trait. In this large genome-wide analysis of low-frequency CNVs, we observed 11 novel genome-wide significant associations of low-frequency CNVs with major cardiovascular disease traits. CONCLUSION: In one of the largest genome-wide studies for low-frequency recurrent CNVs, we identified 11 loci associated with cardiovascular disease and related traits at the genome-wide significance level that may serve as biomarkers for prevention and early intervention studies in subjects who are at elevated risk. Our study further supports the role of low-frequency recurrent CNVs in the pathogenesis of common complex disease traits.

4.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 135, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver illness with a genetically heterogeneous background that can be accompanied by considerable morbidity and attendant health care costs. The pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD is complex with many unanswered questions. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using both adult and pediatric participants from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network to identify novel genetic contributors to this condition. METHODS: First, a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm was developed, tested, and deployed at each site to identify 1106 NAFLD cases and 8571 controls and histological data from liver tissue in 235 available participants. These include 1242 pediatric participants (396 cases, 846 controls). The algorithm included billing codes, text queries, laboratory values, and medication records. Next, GWASs were performed on NAFLD cases and controls and case-only analyses using histologic scores and liver function tests adjusting for age, sex, site, ancestry, PC, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Consistent with previous results, a robust association was detected for the PNPLA3 gene cluster in participants with European ancestry. At the PNPLA3-SAMM50 region, three SNPs, rs738409, rs738408, and rs3747207, showed strongest association (best SNP rs738409 p = 1.70 × 10- 20). This effect was consistent in both pediatric (p = 9.92 × 10- 6) and adult (p = 9.73 × 10- 15) cohorts. Additionally, this variant was also associated with disease severity and NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) (p = 3.94 × 10- 8, beta = 0.85). PheWAS analysis link this locus to a spectrum of liver diseases beyond NAFLD with a novel negative correlation with gout (p = 1.09 × 10- 4). We also identified novel loci for NAFLD disease severity, including one novel locus for NAS score near IL17RA (rs5748926, p = 3.80 × 10- 8), and another near ZFP90-CDH1 for fibrosis (rs698718, p = 2.74 × 10- 11). Post-GWAS and gene-based analyses identified more than 300 genes that were used for functional and pathway enrichment analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study demonstrates clear confirmation of a previously described NAFLD risk locus and several novel associations. Further collaborative studies including an ethnically diverse population with well-characterized liver histologic features of NAFLD are needed to further validate the novel findings.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/organização & administração , Genômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais/genética
5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1235-1241, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an environmental factor associated with SLE. EBV maintains latency in B cells with frequent reactivation measured by antibodies against viral capsid antigen (VCA) and early antigen (EA). In this study, we determined whether EBV reactivation and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EBV-associated host genes are associated with SLE transition. METHODS: SLE patient relatives (n=436) who did not have SLE at baseline were recontacted after 6.3 (±3.9) years and evaluated for interim transitioning to SLE (≥4 cumulative American College of Rheumatology criteria); 56 (13%) transitioned to SLE prior to the follow-up visit. At both visits, detailed demographic, environmental, clinical information and blood samples were obtained. Antibodies against viral antigens were measured by ELISA. SNPs in IL10, CR2, TNFAIP3 and CD40 genes were typed by ImmunoChip. Generalised estimating equations were used to test associations between viral antibody levels and transitioning to SLE. RESULTS: Mean baseline VCA IgG (4.879±1.797 vs 3.866±1.795, p=0.0003) and EA IgG (1.192±1.113 vs 0.7774±0.8484, p=0.0236) levels were higher in transitioned compared with autoantibody negative non-transitioned relatives. Increased VCA IgG and EA IgG were associated with transitioning to SLE (OR 1.28 95% CI 1.07 to 1.53, p=0.007, OR 1.43 95% CI 1.06 to 1.93, p=0.02, respectively). Significant interactions were observed between CD40 variant rs48100485 and VCA IgG levels and IL10 variant rs3024493 and VCA IgA levels in transitioning to SLE. CONCLUSION: Heightened serologic reactivation of EBV increases the probability of transitioning to SLE in unaffected SLE relatives.

6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(10): 1267-1281, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215789

RESUMO

Rationale: Complete tracheal ring deformity (CTRD) is a rare congenital abnormality of unknown etiology characterized by circumferentially continuous or nearly continuous cartilaginous tracheal rings, variable degrees of tracheal stenosis and/or shortening, and/or pulmonary arterial sling anomaly.Objectives: To test the hypothesis that CTRD is caused by inherited or de novo mutations in genes required for normal tracheal development.Methods: CTRD and normal tracheal tissues were examined microscopically to define the tracheal abnormalities present in CTRD. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in children with CTRD and their biological parents ("trio analysis") to identify gene variants in patients with CTRD. Mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, and their potential impact on structure and/or function of encoded proteins was examined using human gene mutation databases. Relevance was further examined by comparison with the effects of targeted deletion of murine homologs important to tracheal development in mice.Measurements and Main Results: The trachealis muscle was absent in all of five patients with CTRD. Exome analysis identified six de novo, three recessive, and multiple compound-heterozygous or rare hemizygous variants in children with CTRD. De novo variants were identified in SHH (Sonic Hedgehog), and inherited variants were identified in HSPG2 (perlecan), ROR2 (receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2), and WLS (Wntless), genes involved in morphogenetic pathways known to mediate tracheoesophageal development in mice.Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that absence of the trachealis muscle is associated with CTRD. Variants predicted to cause disease were identified in genes encoding Hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathway molecules, which are critical to cartilage formation and normal upper airway development in mice.

7.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008092, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022184

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a key genetic factor conferring risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but precise independent localization of HLA effects is extremely challenging. As a result, the contribution of specific HLA alleles and amino-acid residues to the overall risk of SLE and to risk of specific autoantibodies are far from completely understood. Here, we dissected (a) overall SLE association signals across HLA, (b) HLA-peptide interaction, and (c) residue-autoantibody association. Classical alleles, SNPs, and amino-acid residues of eight HLA genes were imputed across 4,915 SLE cases and 13,513 controls from Eastern Asia. We performed association followed by conditional analysis across HLA, assessing both overall SLE risk and risk of autoantibody production. DR15 alleles HLA-DRB1*15:01 (P = 1.4x10-27, odds ratio (OR) = 1.57) and HLA-DQB1*06:02 (P = 7.4x10-23, OR = 1.55) formed the most significant haplotype (OR = 2.33). Conditioned protein-residue signals were stronger than allele signals and mapped predominantly to HLA-DRB1 residue 13 (P = 2.2x10-75) and its proxy position 11 (P = 1.1x10-67), followed by HLA-DRB1-37 (P = 4.5x10-24). After conditioning on HLA-DRB1, novel associations at HLA-A-70 (P = 1.4x10-8), HLA-DPB1-35 (P = 9.0x10-16), HLA-DQB1-37 (P = 2.7x10-14), and HLA-B-9 (P = 6.5x10-15) emerged. Together, these seven residues increased the proportion of explained heritability due to HLA to 2.6%. Risk residues for both overall disease and hallmark autoantibodies (i.e., nRNP: DRB1-11, P = 2.0x10-14; DRB1-13, P = 2.9x10-13; DRB1-30, P = 3.9x10-14) localized to the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DRB1. Enrichment for specific amino-acid characteristics in the peptide-binding groove correlated with overall SLE risk and with autoantibody presence. Risk residues were in primarily negatively charged side-chains, in contrast with rheumatoid arthritis. We identified novel SLE signals in HLA Class I loci (HLA-A, HLA-B), and localized primary Class II signals to five residues in HLA-DRB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DQB1. These findings provide insights about the mechanisms by which the risk residues interact with each other to produce autoantibodies and are involved in SLE pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Sequência de Aminoácidos , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
EBioMedicine ; 42: 76-85, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune disease prevention requires tools to assess an individual's risk of developing a specific disease. One tool is disease-associated autoantibodies, which accumulate in an asymptomatic preclinical period. However, patients sometimes exhibit autoantibodies associated with a different disease classification. When and how these alternative autoantibodies first appear remain unknown. This cross-sectional study characterizes alternative autoimmunity, and associated genetic and environmental factors, in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients, who exhibit increased future risk for the same disease. METHODS: Samples (n = 1321) from disease-specific autoantibody-positive (aAb+) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients; and unaffected aAb+ and autoantibody-negative (aAb-) SLE and RA FDRs were tested for SLE, RA, and T1D aAbs, as well as anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-cardiolipin and anti-thyroperoxidase. FDR SLE and RA genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated. FINDINGS: Alternative autoimmunity occurred in SLE patients (56%) and FDRs (57·4%), RA patients (32·6%) and FDRs (34·8%), and T1D patients (43%). Expanded autoimmunity, defined as autoantibodies spanning at least two other diseases, occurred in 18·5% of SLE patients, 16·4% of SLE FDRs, 7·8% of RA patients, 5·3% of RA FDRs, and 10·8% of T1D patients. SLE FDRs were more likely to have alternative (odds ratio [OR] 2·44) and expanded (OR 3·27) autoimmunity than RA FDRs. Alternative and expanded autoimmunity were associated with several environmental exposures. Alternative autoimmunity was associated with a higher RA GRS in RA FDRs (OR 1·41), and a higher SLE GRS in aAb+ RA FDRs (OR 1·87), but not in SLE FDRs. INTERPRETATION: Autoimmunity commonly crosses disease-specific boundaries in systemic (RA, SLE) and organ-specific (T1D) autoimmune diseases. Alternative autoimmunity is more common in SLE FDRs than RA FDRs, and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. These findings have substantial implications for preclinical disease pathogenesis and autoimmune disease prevention studies. FUND: NIH U01AI101981, R01AR051394, U19AI082714, P30AR053483, P30GM103510, U54GM104938, U01AI101934, R01AI024717, U01AI130830, I01BX001834, & U01HG008666.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Núcleo Familiar , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
9.
Cytokine ; 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: High serum interferon alpha (IFN-α) is an important heritable phenotype in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) which is involved in primary disease pathogenesis. High vs. low levels of IFN-α are associated with disease severity and account for some of the biological heterogeneity between SLE patients. The aim of the study was to replicate and fine-map previously detected genetic associations with serum IFN-α in SLE. METHODS: We previously undertook a case-case genome-wide association study of SLE patients stratified by ancestry and extremes of phenotype in serum IFN-α. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven loci identified in this screen were selected for follow up in a large independent cohort of 1370 SLE patients (703 European-ancestry, 432 African ancestry, and 235 Amerindian ancestry). Each ancestral background was analyzed separately, and ancestry-informative markers were used to control for ancestry and admixture. RESULTS: We find a rare haplotype spanning the promoter region of EFNA5 that is strongly associated with serum IFN-α in both African-American and European-American SLE patients (OR = 3.0, p = 3.7 × 10-6). We also find SNPs in the PPM1H, PTPRM, and NRGN regions associated with IFN-α levels in European-American, Amerindian, and African-American SLE patients respectively. Many of these associations are within regulatory regions of the gene, suggesting an impact on transcription. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the power of molecular sub-phenotypes to reveal genetic factors involved in complex autoimmune disease. The distinct associations observed in different ancestral backgrounds emphasize the heterogeneity of molecular pathogenesis in SLE.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423114

RESUMO

Large meta-analyses of RA susceptibility in European and East Asian populations have identified >100 RA risk loci, but genome-wide studies of RA in African-Americans are absent. To address this disparity, we performed an analysis of 916 African-American RA patients and 1392 controls, and aggregated our data with genotyping data from >100,000 European and Asian RA patients and controls. We identified two novel risk loci that appear to be specific to African-Americans: GPC5 and RBFOX1 (pAA < 5 x 10-9). Most RA risk loci are shared across different ethnicities, but among discordant loci, we observed strong enrichment of variants having large effect sizes. We found strong evidence of effect concordance for only 3 of the 21 largest effect index variants in Europeans. We used the trans-ethnic fine-mapping algorithm PAINTOR3 to prioritize risk variants in >90 RA risk loci. Addition of African-American data to those of European and East Asian descent enabled identification of 7 novel high confidence candidate pathogenic variants (defined by posterior probability > 0.8). In summary, our trans-ethnic analyses are the first to include African-Americans, identified several new RA risk loci, and point to candidate pathogenic variants that may underlie this common autoimmune disease. These findings may lead to better ways to diagnose or stratify treatment approaches in RA.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(21): 3813-3824, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085094

RESUMO

Genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contributes substantial risk for systemic lupus erythematosus, but high gene density, extreme polymorphism and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) have made fine mapping challenging. To address the problem, we compared two association techniques in two ancestrally diverse populations, African Americans (AAs) and Europeans (EURs). We observed a greater number of Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles in AA consistent with the elevated level of recombination in this population. In EUR we observed 50 different A-C-B-DRB1-DQA-DQB multilocus haplotype sequences per hundred individuals; in the AA sample, these multilocus haplotypes were twice as common compared to Europeans. We also observed a strong narrow class II signal in AA as opposed to the long-range LD observed in EUR that includes class I alleles. We performed a Bayesian model choice of the classical HLA alleles and a frequentist analysis that combined both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and classical HLA alleles. Both analyses converged on a similar subset of risk HLA alleles: in EUR HLA- B*08:01 + B*18:01 + (DRB1*15:01 frequentist only) + DQA*01:02 + DQB*02:01 + DRB3*02 and in AA HLA-C*17:01 + B*08:01 + DRB1*15:03 + (DQA*01:02 frequentist only) + DQA*02:01 + DQA*05:01+ DQA*05:05 + DQB*03:19 + DQB*02:02. We observed two additional independent SNP associations in both populations: EUR rs146903072 and rs501480; AA rs389883 and rs114118665. The DR2 serotype was best explained by DRB1*15:03 + DQA*01:02 in AA and by DRB1*15:01 + DQA*01:02 in EUR. The DR3 serotype was best explained by DQA*05:01 in AA and by DQB*02:01 in EUR. Despite some differences in underlying HLA allele risk models in EUR and AA, SNP signals across the extended MHC showed remarkable similarity and significant concordance in direction of effect for risk-associated variants.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096841

RESUMO

BANK1 is a susceptibility gene for several systemic autoimmune diseases in several populations. Using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from Europeans (EUR) and African Americans (AA), we performed an extensive fine mapping of ankyrin repeats 1 (BANK1). To increase the SNP density, we used imputation followed by univariate and conditional analysis, combined with a haplotypic and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. The data from Europeans showed that the associated region was restricted to a minimal and dependent set of SNPs covering introns two and three, and exon two. In AA, the signal found in the Europeans was split into two independent effects. All of the major risk associated SNPs were eQTLs, and the risks were associated with an increased BANK1 gene expression. Functional annotation analysis revealed the enrichment of repressive B cell epigenomic marks (EZH2 and H3K27me3) and a strong enrichment of splice junctions. Furthermore, one eQTL located in intron two, rs13106926, was found within the binding site for RUNX3, a transcriptional activator. These results connect the local genome topography, chromatin structure, and the regulatory landscape of BANK1 with co-transcriptional splicing of exon two. Our data defines a minimal set of risk associated eQTLs predicted to be involved in the expression of BANK1 modulated through epigenetic regulation and splicing. These findings allow us to suggest that the increased expression of BANK1 will have an impact on B-cell mediated disease pathways.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2905, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046115

RESUMO

Genetic variants can confer risk to complex genetic diseases by modulating gene expression through changes to the epigenome. To assess the degree to which genetic variants influence epigenome activity, we integrate epigenetic and genotypic data from lupus patient lymphoblastoid cell lines to identify variants that induce allelic imbalance in the magnitude of histone post-translational modifications, referred to herein as histone quantitative trait loci (hQTLs). We demonstrate that enhancer hQTLs are enriched on autoimmune disease risk haplotypes and disproportionately influence gene expression variability compared with non-hQTL variants in strong linkage disequilibrium. We show that the epigenome regulates HLA class II genes differently in individuals who carry HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR15 haplotypes, resulting in differential 3D chromatin conformation and gene expression. Finally, we identify significant expression QTL (eQTL) x hQTL interactions that reveal substructure within eQTL gene expression, suggesting potential implications for functional genomic studies that leverage eQTL data for subject selection and stratification.

14.
Genes Immun ; 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904099

RESUMO

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by immune hypersensitivity to food. Herein, we tested whether genetic risk factors for known, non-allergic, immune-mediated diseases, particularly those involving autoimmunity, were associated with EoE risk. We used the high-density Immunochip platform, encoding 200,000 genetic variants for major auto-immune disease. Accordingly, 1214 subjects with EoE of European ancestry and 3734 population controls were genotyped and assessed using data directly generated or imputed from the previously published GWAS. We found lack of association of EoE with the genetic variants in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, II, and III genes and nearly all other loci using a highly powered study design with dense genotyping throughout the locus. Importantly, we identified an EoE risk locus at 16p13 with genome-wide significance (Pcombined=2.05 × 10-9, odds ratio = 0.76-0.81). This region is known to encode for the genes CLEC16A, DEXI, and CIITI, which are expressed in immune cells and esophageal epithelial cells. Suggestive EoE risk were also seen 5q23 (intergenic) and 7p15 (JAZF1). Overall, we have identified an additional EoE risk locus at 16p13 and highlight a shared and unique genetic etiology of EoE with a spectrum of immune-associated diseases.

15.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 699-707, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662164

RESUMO

Explaining the genetics of many diseases is challenging because most associations localize to incompletely characterized regulatory regions. Using new computational methods, we show that transcription factors (TFs) occupy multiple loci associated with individual complex genetic disorders. Application to 213 phenotypes and 1,544 TF binding datasets identified 2,264 relationships between hundreds of TFs and 94 phenotypes, including androgen receptor in prostate cancer and GATA3 in breast cancer. Strikingly, nearly half of systemic lupus erythematosus risk loci are occupied by the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2 protein and many coclustering human TFs, showing gene-environment interaction. Similar EBNA2-anchored associations exist in multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and celiac disease. Instances of allele-dependent DNA binding and downstream effects on gene expression at plausibly causal variants support genetic mechanisms dependent on EBNA2. Our results nominate mechanisms that operate across risk loci within disease phenotypes, suggesting new models for disease origins.

16.
JCI Insight ; 3(8)2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669943

RESUMO

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory esophageal disorder with a complex underlying genetic etiology often associated with other comorbidities. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 63 patients with EoE and 60 unaffected family members and family-based trio analysis, we sought to uncover rare coding variants. WES analysis identified 5 rare, damaging variants in dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain-containing 1 (DHTKD1). Rare variant burden analysis revealed an overabundance of putative, potentially damaging DHTKD1 mutations in EoE (P = 0.01). Interestingly, we also identified 7 variants in the DHTKD1 homolog oxoglutarate dehydrogenase-like (OGDHL). Using shRNA-transduced esophageal epithelial cells and/or patient fibroblasts, we further showed that disruption of normal DHTKD1 or OGDHL expression blunts mitochondrial function. Finally, we demonstrated that the loss of DHTKD1 expression increased ROS production and induced the expression of viperin, a gene previously shown to be involved in production of Th2 cytokines in T cells. Viperin had increased expression in esophageal biopsies of EoE patients compared with control individuals and was upregulated by IL-13 in esophageal epithelial cells. These data identify a series of rare genetic variants implicating DHTKD1 and OGDHL in the genetic etiology of EoE and underscore a potential pathogenic role for mitochondrial dysfunction in EoE.

17.
Lupus Sci Med ; 5(1): e000247, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531773

RESUMO

Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with varied morbidity and mortality. We assessed clinical presentations, autoantibody specificities and therapeutic interventions in Native American (NA) patients with SLE. Methods: Patients with SLE meeting 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria (n=3148) were enrolled between 1992 and 2010 in the multiethnic, cross-sectional Lupus Family Registry and Repository. Clinical, demographic and therapeutic information were extracted from medical records using a standardised form and formalised training. Autoantibodies were assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and antidouble-stranded DNA), precipitin (ENA) and ELISA (IgG and IgM anticardiolipins). Results: NA patients met SLE classification at a younger age (29.89±12.3 years) than European Americans (EA; 32.02±12.87, P=0.0157) and a similar age to African-Americans (AAs) and Hispanics (HIS). More NA patients had concurrent rheumatic diseases or symptoms, such as Raynaud's phenomenon, interstitial lung disease, SjÓ§gren's syndrome and systemic sclerosis. Compared with EAs, NAs were more likely to have high-titre ANA (≥1:3240; P<0.0001) and had more SLE-associated autoantibodies. Autoantibodies with unknown specificities were more common in NAs (41%) compared with other racial/ethnic groups in this collection (AA: 24%, P=0.0006; EA: 17%, P<0.0001; HIS: 23%, P=0.0050). Fewer NA patients used hydroxychloroquine (68%) compared with others (AA: 74%, P=0.0308; EA: 79%, P=0.0001, HIS: 77%, P=0.0173); this was influenced by lower hydroxychloroquine use in NA patients from Latin America (32%). NA patients had higher rates of methotrexate use (28%) compared with AA (18%, P=0.0006) and HIS patients (14%, P=0.0003), higher azathioprine use (38%) compared with EA patients (30%, P=0.0105) and higher mycophenolate mofetil use (26%) compared with EA (17%, P=0.0012) and HIS patients (11%, P<0.0001). Conclusions: NA patients are diagnosed with SLE earlier in life and present worse concurrent rheumatic disease symptoms than EA patients. NA patients also are more likely to have expanded autoantibody profiles and precipitins of unknown specificities.

19.
Lupus Sci Med ; 4(1): e000214, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214036

RESUMO

Objectives: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is considered an important environmental factor in SLE aetiology, but the relationship between SLE and EBV in the Filipino population is unknown. We tested associations between SLE, lupus-associated autoantibodies and seropositivity for EBV and other herpes viruses in the Filipino population. Methods: Sera from Filipino patients with SLE (n=233), unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs, n=543) and unrelated controls (n=221) were tested for antibodies against EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) by standardised ELISAs. Humoral specificity against EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1 was compared by solid-phase epitope mapping. Autoantibodies were detected by a bead-based multiplex assay. Results were analysed by Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, χ2 test and one-way analysis of variance, as appropriate for the question. Results: Filipino patients with SLE had increased seroprevalence and elevated antibody concentrations against EBV viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA), CMV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 compared with unrelated controls (p<0.05). Seropositivity for anti-EBV early antigen (EA), a marker of EBV reactivation, was dramatically increased in patients with SLE compared with unrelated controls (92.3% vs 40.4%; OR 17.15(95% CI 10.10, 30.66), p<0.0001) or unaffected FDRs (49.4%; OR 12.04(7.42, 20.74), p<0.0001), despite similar seroprevalence of EBV-VCA in patients and FDRs. In patients with SLE, EBV-EA seropositivity correlated with lupus-associated autoantibodies (p<0.001), most notably with autoantibodies against dsDNA, chromatin, Sm, SmRNP and RNP A (p<0.01). Patient and unrelated control sera reacted to the highly repetitive glycine and alanine domain of EBNA-1. An epitope spanning EBNA-1410-420 was identified in sera of patients with SLE and showed limited binding by FDR and control sera. Conclusions: Filipino patients with SLE have elevated prevalence and concentrations of antibodies against EBV, CMV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 antigens, along with altered anti-EBNA-1 specificities. EBV reactivation is more common among Filipino patients with SLE compared with healthy Filipinos and may contribute to SLE pathogenesis in this population.

20.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0186398, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149219

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Plasma thermograms (thermal stability profiles of blood plasma) are being utilized as a new diagnostic approach for clinical assessment. In this study, we investigated the ability of plasma thermograms to classify systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients versus non SLE controls using a sample of 300 SLE and 300 control subjects from the Lupus Family Registry and Repository. Additionally, we evaluated the heterogeneity of thermograms along age, sex, ethnicity, concurrent health conditions and SLE diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Thermograms were visualized graphically for important differences between covariates and summarized using various measures. A modified linear discriminant analysis was used to segregate SLE versus control subjects on the basis of the thermograms. Classification accuracy was measured based on multiple training/test splits of the data and compared to classification based on SLE serological markers. RESULTS: Median sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy based on classification using plasma thermograms was 86%, 83%, and 84% compared to 78%, 95%, and 86% based on a combination of five antibody tests. Combining thermogram and serology information together improved sensitivity from 78% to 86% and overall accuracy from 86% to 89% relative to serology alone. Predictive accuracy of thermograms for distinguishing SLE and osteoarthritis / rheumatoid arthritis patients was comparable. Both gender and anemia significantly interacted with disease status for plasma thermograms (p<0.001), with greater separation between SLE and control thermograms for females relative to males and for patients with anemia relative to patients without anemia. CONCLUSION: Plasma thermograms constitute an additional biomarker which may help improve diagnosis of SLE patients, particularly when coupled with standard diagnostic testing. Differences in thermograms according to patient sex, ethnicity, clinical and environmental factors are important considerations for application of thermograms in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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