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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 135, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420081

RESUMO

Since most variants that impact polygenic disease phenotypes localize to non-coding genomic regions, understanding the consequences of regulatory element variants will advance understanding of human disease mechanisms. Here, we report that the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk variant rs2431697 as likely causal for SLE through disruption of a regulatory element, modulating miR-146a expression. Using epigenomic analysis, genome-editing and 3D chromatin structure analysis, we show that rs2431697 tags a cell-type dependent distal enhancer specific for miR-146a that physically interacts with the miR-146a promoter. NF-kB binds the disease protective allele in a sequence-specific manner, increasing expression of this immunoregulatory microRNA. Finally, CRISPR activation-based modulation of this enhancer in the PBMCs of SLE patients attenuates type I interferon pathway activation by increasing miR-146a expression. Our work provides a strategy to define non-coding RNA functional regulatory elements using disease-associated variants and provides mechanistic links between autoimmune disease risk genetic variation and disease etiology.

2.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Specific risk alleles for childhood-onset SLE (cSLE) versus adult-onset SLE (aSLE) patients have not been identified. The aims of this study were to determine if: 1) There is an association between non-HLA-related genetic risk score (GRS) and age of SLE diagnosis; and if 2) There is an association between HLA-related genetic risk score and age of SLE diagnosis. METHODS: Genomic DNA was obtained from 2,001 multi-ethnic patients and genotyped using the Immunochip. Following quality control, genetic risk counting (GRCS), weighted (GRWS) and standardized counting (GRSCS) and standardized weighted (GRSWS) scores were calculated based on independent SNPs from validated SLE-loci. Scores were analyzed in a regression model and adjusted by sex and ancestral population. RESULTS: The analysed cohort consisted of 1,540 patients: 1,351 females and 189 males (675 cSLE and 865 aSLE). There were significant negative associations with age of SLE diagnosis p=0.011 and r2=0.175 for GRWS, p=0.008 and r2=0.178 for GRSCS, p=0.002 and r2=0.176 for GRSWS for all non-HLA genetic risk scores (higher GRS the lower the age of diagnosis.) All HLA genetic risk scores showed significant positive associations with age of diagnosis p=0.049 and r2=0.176 for GRCS, p=0.022 and r2=0.176 for GRWS, p=0.022 and r2=0.176 for GRSCS, p=0.011 and r2=0.177 for GRSWS: higher genetic scores correlated with higher age of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that there is a linear relationship between genetic risk and age of SLE diagnosis and that HLA and non-HLA genetic risk scores are associated with age of diagnosis in opposite directions.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays an essential role in food intake and energy homeostasis. More than 170 MC4R variants have been described over the past two decades, with conflicting reports regarding the prevalence and phenotypic effects of these variants in diverse cohorts. To determine the frequency of MC4R variants in large cohort of different ancestries, we evaluated the MC4R coding region for 20,537 eMERGE participants with sequencing data plus additional 77,454 independent individuals with genome-wide genotyping data at this locus. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The sequencing data were obtained from the eMERGE phase III study, in which multisample variant call format calls have been generated, curated, and annotated. In addition to penetrance estimation using body mass index (BMI) as a binary outcome, GWAS and PheWAS were performed using median BMI in linear regression analyses. All results were adjusted for principal components, age, sex, and sites of genotyping. RESULTS: Targeted sequencing data of MC4R revealed 125 coding variants in 1839 eMERGE participants including 30 unreported coding variants that were predicted to be functionally damaging. Highly penetrant unreported variants included (L325I, E308K, D298N, S270F, F261L, T248A, D111V, and Y80F) in which seven participants had obesity class III defined as BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. In GWAS analysis, in addition to known risk haplotype upstream of MC4R (best variant rs6567160 (P = 5.36 × 10-25, Beta = 0.37), a novel rare haplotype was detected which was protective against obesity and encompassed the V103I variant with known gain-of-function properties (P = 6.23 × 10-08, Beta = -0.62). PheWAS analyses extended this protective effect of V103I to type 2 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic renal failure independent of BMI. CONCLUSIONS: MC4R screening in a large eMERGE cohort confirmed many previous findings, extend the MC4R pleotropic effects, and discovered additional MC4R rare alleles that probably contribute to obesity.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 432-444, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758450

RESUMO

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
5.
Nature ; 582(7813): 577-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499649

RESUMO

Many common illnesses, for reasons that have not been identified, differentially affect men and women. For instance, the autoimmune diseases systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren's syndrome affect nine times more women than men1, whereas schizophrenia affects men with greater frequency and severity relative to women2. All three illnesses have their strongest common genetic associations in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, an association that in SLE and Sjögren's syndrome has long been thought to arise from alleles of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes at that locus3-6. Here we show that variation of the complement component 4 (C4) genes C4A and C4B, which are also at the MHC locus and have been linked to increased risk for schizophrenia7, generates 7-fold variation in risk for SLE and 16-fold variation in risk for Sjögren's syndrome among individuals with common C4 genotypes, with C4A protecting more strongly than C4B in both illnesses. The same alleles that increase risk for schizophrenia greatly reduce risk for SLE and Sjögren's syndrome. In all three illnesses, C4 alleles act more strongly in men than in women: common combinations of C4A and C4B generated 14-fold variation in risk for SLE, 31-fold variation in risk for Sjögren's syndrome, and 1.7-fold variation in schizophrenia risk among men (versus 6-fold, 15-fold and 1.26-fold variation in risk among women, respectively). At a protein level, both C4 and its effector C3 were present at higher levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma8,9 in men than in women among adults aged between 20 and 50 years, corresponding to the ages of differential disease vulnerability. Sex differences in complement protein levels may help to explain the more potent effects of C4 alleles in men, women's greater risk of SLE and Sjögren's syndrome and men's greater vulnerability to schizophrenia. These results implicate the complement system as a source of sexual dimorphism in vulnerability to diverse illnesses.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/genética , Complemento C4/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Complemento C3/análise , Complemento C3/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Complemento C4/análise , Complemento C4/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Sjogren/sangue , Síndrome de Sjogren/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(9): 1483-1492, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that a genetic predisposition toward rheumatoid arthritis (RA) increases the risk of 10 cardiometabolic and autoimmune disorders previously associated with RA in epidemiologic studies, and to define new genetic pleiotropy present in RA. METHODS: Two approaches were used to test our hypothesis. First, we constructed a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) and then examined its association with 10 prespecified disorders. Additionally, a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) was carried out to identify potential new associations. Second, inverse variance-weighted regression (IVWR) meta-analysis was used to characterize the association between genetic susceptibility to RA and the prespecified disorders, with the results expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: The wGRS for RA was significantly associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR 1.10 [95% CI 1.04-1.16]; P = 9.82 × 10-4 ) and multiple sclerosis (OR 0.82 [95% CI 0.77-0.88]; P = 1.73 × 10-8 ), but not with other cardiometabolic phenotypes. In the PheWAS, wGRS was also associated with an increased risk of several autoimmune phenotypes including RA, thyroiditis, and systemic sclerosis, and with a decreased risk of demyelinating disorders. In the IVWR meta-analyses, RA was significantly associated with an increased risk of type 1 DM (P = 1.15 × 10-14 ), with evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (Mendelian Randomization-Egger intercept estimate P = 0.001) likely driven by rs2476601, a PTPN22 variant. The association between type 1 DM and RA remained significant (P = 9.53 × 10-9 ) after excluding rs2476601, with no evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (intercept estimate P = 0.939). RA was also significantly associated with type 2 DM and C-reactive protein levels. These associations were driven by variation in the major histocompatibility complex region. CONCLUSION: This study presents evidence of pleiotropy between the genetic predisposition to RA and associated phenotypes found in other autoimmune and cardiometabolic disorders, including type 1 DM.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917831

RESUMO

CONTEXT: As many as 75% of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are estimated to be unidentified in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: Utilizing polygenic risk prediction, we aim to identify the phenome-wide comorbidity patterns characteristic of PCOS to improve accurate diagnosis and preventive treatment. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND METHODS: Leveraging the electronic health records (EHRs) of 124 852 individuals, we developed a PCOS risk prediction algorithm by combining polygenic risk scores (PRS) with PCOS component phenotypes into a polygenic and phenotypic risk score (PPRS). We evaluated its predictive capability across different ancestries and perform a PRS-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to assess the phenomic expression of the heightened risk of PCOS. RESULTS: The integrated polygenic prediction improved the average performance (pseudo-R2) for PCOS detection by 0.228 (61.5-fold), 0.224 (58.8-fold), 0.211 (57.0-fold) over the null model across European, African, and multi-ancestry participants respectively. The subsequent PRS-powered PheWAS identified a high level of shared biology between PCOS and a range of metabolic and endocrine outcomes, especially with obesity and diabetes: "morbid obesity", "type 2 diabetes", "hypercholesterolemia", "disorders of lipid metabolism", "hypertension", and "sleep apnea" reaching phenome-wide significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has expanded the methodological utility of PRS in patient stratification and risk prediction, especially in a multifactorial condition like PCOS, across different genetic origins. By utilizing the individual genome-phenome data available from the EHR, our approach also demonstrates that polygenic prediction by PRS can provide valuable opportunities to discover the pleiotropic phenomic network associated with PCOS pathogenesis.

8.
Cytokine ; 132: 154631, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: High serum interferon alpha (IFN-α) is an important heritable phenotype in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) which is involved in primary disease pathogenesis. High vs. low levels of IFN-α are associated with disease severity and account for some of the biological heterogeneity between SLE patients. The aim of the study was to replicate and fine-map previously detected genetic associations with serum IFN-α in SLE. METHODS: We previously undertook a case-case genome-wide association study of SLE patients stratified by ancestry and extremes of phenotype in serum IFN-α. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven loci identified in this screen were selected for follow up in a large independent cohort of 1370 SLE patients (703 European-ancestry, 432 African ancestry, and 235 Amerindian ancestry). Each ancestral background was analyzed separately, and ancestry-informative markers were used to control for ancestry and admixture. RESULTS: We find a rare haplotype spanning the promoter region of EFNA5 that is strongly associated with serum IFN-α in both African-American and European-American SLE patients (OR = 3.0, p = 3.7 × 10-6). We also find SNPs in the PPM1H, PTPRM, and NRGN regions associated with IFN-α levels in European-American, Amerindian, and African-American SLE patients respectively. Many of these associations are within regulatory regions of the gene, suggesting an impact on transcription. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the power of molecular sub-phenotypes to reveal genetic factors involved in complex autoimmune disease. The distinct associations observed in different ancestral backgrounds emphasize the heterogeneity of molecular pathogenesis in SLE.

9.
J Autoimmun ; 106: 102332, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515129

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease with progressive neurodegeneration and complex etiology likely involving genetic and environmental factors. MS has been associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection, with patients often showing enhanced responses to EBV antigens. To determine whether abnormal EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) humoral immunity can serve as an initiator of autoimmune responses in MS, we investigated the fine specificities of the humoral immune response against EBNA-1 in MS patients using solid phase epitope mapping. Antibodies from MS patients recognized an EBNA-1 epitope spanning amino acids 411-426, previously unknown to be recognized specifically by untreated MS patients. Antibodies against this epitope cross-reacted to myelin basic protein (MBP). Furthermore, animals immunized with this EBNA-1 polypeptide mounted a response against MBP and developed signs of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). These data support a link between MS and EBV through antibodies that cross-react between EBV proteins and the MBP autoantigen.

10.
Int J Cardiol ; 298: 107-113, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Consequently, individuals who are genetically predisposed for high risk of cardiovascular disease would benefit most from prevention and early intervention approaches. Among common health risk factors affecting adult populations, we evaluated 23 cardiovascular disease-related traits, including BMI, glucose levels and lipid profiling to determine their associations with low-frequency recurrent copy number variations (CNV) (population frequency < 5%). RESULTS: We examined 10,619 unrelated subjects of European ancestry from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network who were genotyped with 657,366 markers genome-wide on the Illumina Infinium Quad 660 array. We performed CNV calling based on array marker intensity and evaluated data quality, ancestry stratification, and relatedness to ensure unbiased association discovery. Using a segment-based scoring approach, we assessed the association of all CNVs with each trait. In this large genome-wide analysis of low-frequency CNVs, we observed 11 novel genome-wide significant associations of low-frequency CNVs with major cardiovascular disease traits. CONCLUSION: In one of the largest genome-wide studies for low-frequency recurrent CNVs, we identified 11 loci associated with cardiovascular disease and related traits at the genome-wide significance level that may serve as biomarkers for prevention and early intervention studies in subjects who are at elevated risk. Our study further supports the role of low-frequency recurrent CNVs in the pathogenesis of common complex disease traits.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Fenótipo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695690

RESUMO

Background: Ninety percent of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are women. X chromosome-dosage increases susceptibility to SLE and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Chromosome X open reading frame 21 (CXorf21) escapes X-inactivation and is an SLE risk gene of previously unknown function. We undertook the present study to delineate the function of CXorf21 in the immune system as well as investigate a potential role in the sex bias of SLE and pSS. Methods: Western blot protein analysis, qPCR, BioPlex cytokine immunoassay, pHrodo™ assays, as well as in vitro CRISPR-Cas9 knockdown experiments were employed to delineate the role of CXorf21 in relevant immunocytes. Results: Expressed in monocytes and B cells, CXorf21 basal Mrna, and protein expression levels are elevated in female primary monocytes, B cells, and EBV-transformed B cells compared to male cells. We also found CXorf21 mRNA and protein expression is higher in both male and female cells from SLE patients compared to control subjects. TLR7 ligation increased CXorf21 protein expression and CXorf21 knockdown abrogated TLR7-driven increased IFNA1 mRNA expression, and reduced secretion of both TNF-alpha and IL-6 in healthy female monocytes. Similarly, we found increased pH in the lysosomes of CXorf21-deficient female monocytes. Conclusion: CXorf21 is more highly expressed in female compared to male cells and is involved in a sexually dimorphic response to TLR7 activation. In addition, CXorf21 expression regulates lysosomal pH in a sexually dimorphic manner. Thus, sexually dimorphic expression of CXorf21 skews cellular immune responses in manner consistent with expected properties of a mediator of the X chromosome dose risk in SLE and pSS.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Caracteres Sexuais , Inativação do Cromossomo X/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Lisossomos/genética , Lisossomos/imunologia , Lisossomos/patologia , Masculino , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/patologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/patologia , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/imunologia
12.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 135, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver illness with a genetically heterogeneous background that can be accompanied by considerable morbidity and attendant health care costs. The pathogenesis and progression of NAFLD is complex with many unanswered questions. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) using both adult and pediatric participants from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network to identify novel genetic contributors to this condition. METHODS: First, a natural language processing (NLP) algorithm was developed, tested, and deployed at each site to identify 1106 NAFLD cases and 8571 controls and histological data from liver tissue in 235 available participants. These include 1242 pediatric participants (396 cases, 846 controls). The algorithm included billing codes, text queries, laboratory values, and medication records. Next, GWASs were performed on NAFLD cases and controls and case-only analyses using histologic scores and liver function tests adjusting for age, sex, site, ancestry, PC, and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Consistent with previous results, a robust association was detected for the PNPLA3 gene cluster in participants with European ancestry. At the PNPLA3-SAMM50 region, three SNPs, rs738409, rs738408, and rs3747207, showed strongest association (best SNP rs738409 p = 1.70 × 10- 20). This effect was consistent in both pediatric (p = 9.92 × 10- 6) and adult (p = 9.73 × 10- 15) cohorts. Additionally, this variant was also associated with disease severity and NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) (p = 3.94 × 10- 8, beta = 0.85). PheWAS analysis link this locus to a spectrum of liver diseases beyond NAFLD with a novel negative correlation with gout (p = 1.09 × 10- 4). We also identified novel loci for NAFLD disease severity, including one novel locus for NAS score near IL17RA (rs5748926, p = 3.80 × 10- 8), and another near ZFP90-CDH1 for fibrosis (rs698718, p = 2.74 × 10- 11). Post-GWAS and gene-based analyses identified more than 300 genes that were used for functional and pathway enrichment analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this study demonstrates clear confirmation of a previously described NAFLD risk locus and several novel associations. Further collaborative studies including an ethnically diverse population with well-characterized liver histologic features of NAFLD are needed to further validate the novel findings.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Redes Comunitárias/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/organização & administração , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/organização & administração , Genômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(10): 1267-1281, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215789

RESUMO

Rationale: Complete tracheal ring deformity (CTRD) is a rare congenital abnormality of unknown etiology characterized by circumferentially continuous or nearly continuous cartilaginous tracheal rings, variable degrees of tracheal stenosis and/or shortening, and/or pulmonary arterial sling anomaly.Objectives: To test the hypothesis that CTRD is caused by inherited or de novo mutations in genes required for normal tracheal development.Methods: CTRD and normal tracheal tissues were examined microscopically to define the tracheal abnormalities present in CTRD. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in children with CTRD and their biological parents ("trio analysis") to identify gene variants in patients with CTRD. Mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, and their potential impact on structure and/or function of encoded proteins was examined using human gene mutation databases. Relevance was further examined by comparison with the effects of targeted deletion of murine homologs important to tracheal development in mice.Measurements and Main Results: The trachealis muscle was absent in all of five patients with CTRD. Exome analysis identified six de novo, three recessive, and multiple compound-heterozygous or rare hemizygous variants in children with CTRD. De novo variants were identified in SHH (Sonic Hedgehog), and inherited variants were identified in HSPG2 (perlecan), ROR2 (receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2), and WLS (Wntless), genes involved in morphogenetic pathways known to mediate tracheoesophageal development in mice.Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that absence of the trachealis muscle is associated with CTRD. Variants predicted to cause disease were identified in genes encoding Hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathway molecules, which are critical to cartilage formation and normal upper airway development in mice.


Assuntos
Mutação/genética , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/genética , Traqueia/anormalidades , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/cirurgia
14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1235-1241, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown aetiology. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an environmental factor associated with SLE. EBV maintains latency in B cells with frequent reactivation measured by antibodies against viral capsid antigen (VCA) and early antigen (EA). In this study, we determined whether EBV reactivation and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EBV-associated host genes are associated with SLE transition. METHODS: SLE patient relatives (n=436) who did not have SLE at baseline were recontacted after 6.3 (±3.9) years and evaluated for interim transitioning to SLE (≥4 cumulative American College of Rheumatology criteria); 56 (13%) transitioned to SLE prior to the follow-up visit. At both visits, detailed demographic, environmental, clinical information and blood samples were obtained. Antibodies against viral antigens were measured by ELISA. SNPs in IL10, CR2, TNFAIP3 and CD40 genes were typed by ImmunoChip. Generalised estimating equations were used to test associations between viral antibody levels and transitioning to SLE. RESULTS: Mean baseline VCA IgG (4.879±1.797 vs 3.866±1.795, p=0.0003) and EA IgG (1.192±1.113 vs 0.7774±0.8484, p=0.0236) levels were higher in transitioned compared with autoantibody negative non-transitioned relatives. Increased VCA IgG and EA IgG were associated with transitioning to SLE (OR 1.28 95% CI 1.07 to 1.53, p=0.007, OR 1.43 95% CI 1.06 to 1.93, p=0.02, respectively). Significant interactions were observed between CD40 variant rs48100485 and VCA IgG levels and IL10 variant rs3024493 and VCA IgA levels in transitioning to SLE. CONCLUSION: Heightened serologic reactivation of EBV increases the probability of transitioning to SLE in unaffected SLE relatives.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Autoimunidade , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008092, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022184

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a key genetic factor conferring risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but precise independent localization of HLA effects is extremely challenging. As a result, the contribution of specific HLA alleles and amino-acid residues to the overall risk of SLE and to risk of specific autoantibodies are far from completely understood. Here, we dissected (a) overall SLE association signals across HLA, (b) HLA-peptide interaction, and (c) residue-autoantibody association. Classical alleles, SNPs, and amino-acid residues of eight HLA genes were imputed across 4,915 SLE cases and 13,513 controls from Eastern Asia. We performed association followed by conditional analysis across HLA, assessing both overall SLE risk and risk of autoantibody production. DR15 alleles HLA-DRB1*15:01 (P = 1.4x10-27, odds ratio (OR) = 1.57) and HLA-DQB1*06:02 (P = 7.4x10-23, OR = 1.55) formed the most significant haplotype (OR = 2.33). Conditioned protein-residue signals were stronger than allele signals and mapped predominantly to HLA-DRB1 residue 13 (P = 2.2x10-75) and its proxy position 11 (P = 1.1x10-67), followed by HLA-DRB1-37 (P = 4.5x10-24). After conditioning on HLA-DRB1, novel associations at HLA-A-70 (P = 1.4x10-8), HLA-DPB1-35 (P = 9.0x10-16), HLA-DQB1-37 (P = 2.7x10-14), and HLA-B-9 (P = 6.5x10-15) emerged. Together, these seven residues increased the proportion of explained heritability due to HLA to 2.6%. Risk residues for both overall disease and hallmark autoantibodies (i.e., nRNP: DRB1-11, P = 2.0x10-14; DRB1-13, P = 2.9x10-13; DRB1-30, P = 3.9x10-14) localized to the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DRB1. Enrichment for specific amino-acid characteristics in the peptide-binding groove correlated with overall SLE risk and with autoantibody presence. Risk residues were in primarily negatively charged side-chains, in contrast with rheumatoid arthritis. We identified novel SLE signals in HLA Class I loci (HLA-A, HLA-B), and localized primary Class II signals to five residues in HLA-DRB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DQB1. These findings provide insights about the mechanisms by which the risk residues interact with each other to produce autoantibodies and are involved in SLE pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Sequência de Aminoácidos , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
EBioMedicine ; 42: 76-85, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune disease prevention requires tools to assess an individual's risk of developing a specific disease. One tool is disease-associated autoantibodies, which accumulate in an asymptomatic preclinical period. However, patients sometimes exhibit autoantibodies associated with a different disease classification. When and how these alternative autoantibodies first appear remain unknown. This cross-sectional study characterizes alternative autoimmunity, and associated genetic and environmental factors, in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients, who exhibit increased future risk for the same disease. METHODS: Samples (n = 1321) from disease-specific autoantibody-positive (aAb+) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients; and unaffected aAb+ and autoantibody-negative (aAb-) SLE and RA FDRs were tested for SLE, RA, and T1D aAbs, as well as anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-cardiolipin and anti-thyroperoxidase. FDR SLE and RA genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated. FINDINGS: Alternative autoimmunity occurred in SLE patients (56%) and FDRs (57·4%), RA patients (32·6%) and FDRs (34·8%), and T1D patients (43%). Expanded autoimmunity, defined as autoantibodies spanning at least two other diseases, occurred in 18·5% of SLE patients, 16·4% of SLE FDRs, 7·8% of RA patients, 5·3% of RA FDRs, and 10·8% of T1D patients. SLE FDRs were more likely to have alternative (odds ratio [OR] 2·44) and expanded (OR 3·27) autoimmunity than RA FDRs. Alternative and expanded autoimmunity were associated with several environmental exposures. Alternative autoimmunity was associated with a higher RA GRS in RA FDRs (OR 1·41), and a higher SLE GRS in aAb+ RA FDRs (OR 1·87), but not in SLE FDRs. INTERPRETATION: Autoimmunity commonly crosses disease-specific boundaries in systemic (RA, SLE) and organ-specific (T1D) autoimmune diseases. Alternative autoimmunity is more common in SLE FDRs than RA FDRs, and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. These findings have substantial implications for preclinical disease pathogenesis and autoimmune disease prevention studies. FUND: NIH U01AI101981, R01AR051394, U19AI082714, P30AR053483, P30GM103510, U54GM104938, U01AI101934, R01AI024717, U01AI130830, I01BX001834, & U01HG008666.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/etiologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etiologia , Núcleo Familiar , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
17.
Genes Immun ; 20(4): 281-292, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904099

RESUMO

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by immune hypersensitivity to food. Herein, we tested whether genetic risk factors for known, non-allergic, immune-mediated diseases, particularly those involving autoimmunity, were associated with EoE risk. We used the high-density Immunochip platform, encoding 200,000 genetic variants for major auto-immune disease. Accordingly, 1214 subjects with EoE of European ancestry and 3734 population controls were genotyped and assessed using data directly generated or imputed from the previously published GWAS. We found lack of association of EoE with the genetic variants in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, II, and III genes and nearly all other loci using a highly powered study design with dense genotyping throughout the locus. Importantly, we identified an EoE risk locus at 16p13 with genome-wide significance (Pcombined=2.05 × 10-9, odds ratio = 0.76-0.81). This region is known to encode for the genes CLEC16A, DEXI, and CIITI, which are expressed in immune cells and esophageal epithelial cells. Suggestive EoE risk were also seen 5q23 (intergenic) and 7p15 (JAZF1). Overall, we have identified an additional EoE risk locus at 16p13 and highlight a shared and unique genetic etiology of EoE with a spectrum of immune-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Esofagite Eosinofílica/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Transativadores/genética
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(5): 858-874, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423114

RESUMO

Large meta-analyses of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility in European (EUR) and East Asian (EAS) populations have identified >100 RA risk loci, but genome-wide studies of RA in African-Americans (AAs) are absent. To address this disparity, we performed an analysis of 916 AA RA patients and 1392 controls and aggregated our data with genotyping data from >100 000 EUR and Asian RA patients and controls. We identified two novel risk loci that appear to be specific to AAs: GPC5 and RBFOX1 (PAA < 5 × 10-9). Most RA risk loci are shared across different ethnicities, but among discordant loci, we observed strong enrichment of variants having large effect sizes. We found strong evidence of effect concordance for only 3 of the 21 largest effect index variants in EURs. We used the trans-ethnic fine-mapping algorithm PAINTOR3 to prioritize risk variants in >90 RA risk loci. Addition of AA data to those of EUR and EAS descent enabled identification of seven novel high-confidence candidate pathogenic variants (defined by posterior probability > 0.8). In summary, our trans-ethnic analyses are the first to include AAs, identified several new RA risk loci and point to candidate pathogenic variants that may underlie this common autoimmune disease. These findings may lead to better ways to diagnose or stratify treatment approaches in RA.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idoso , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(21): 3813-3824, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085094

RESUMO

Genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contributes substantial risk for systemic lupus erythematosus, but high gene density, extreme polymorphism and extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) have made fine mapping challenging. To address the problem, we compared two association techniques in two ancestrally diverse populations, African Americans (AAs) and Europeans (EURs). We observed a greater number of Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles in AA consistent with the elevated level of recombination in this population. In EUR we observed 50 different A-C-B-DRB1-DQA-DQB multilocus haplotype sequences per hundred individuals; in the AA sample, these multilocus haplotypes were twice as common compared to Europeans. We also observed a strong narrow class II signal in AA as opposed to the long-range LD observed in EUR that includes class I alleles. We performed a Bayesian model choice of the classical HLA alleles and a frequentist analysis that combined both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and classical HLA alleles. Both analyses converged on a similar subset of risk HLA alleles: in EUR HLA- B*08:01 + B*18:01 + (DRB1*15:01 frequentist only) + DQA*01:02 + DQB*02:01 + DRB3*02 and in AA HLA-C*17:01 + B*08:01 + DRB1*15:03 + (DQA*01:02 frequentist only) + DQA*02:01 + DQA*05:01+ DQA*05:05 + DQB*03:19 + DQB*02:02. We observed two additional independent SNP associations in both populations: EUR rs146903072 and rs501480; AA rs389883 and rs114118665. The DR2 serotype was best explained by DRB1*15:03 + DQA*01:02 in AA and by DRB1*15:01 + DQA*01:02 in EUR. The DR3 serotype was best explained by DQA*05:01 in AA and by DQB*02:01 in EUR. Despite some differences in underlying HLA allele risk models in EUR and AA, SNP signals across the extended MHC showed remarkable similarity and significant concordance in direction of effect for risk-associated variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Afro-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096841

RESUMO

BANK1 is a susceptibility gene for several systemic autoimmune diseases in several populations. Using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from Europeans (EUR) and African Americans (AA), we performed an extensive fine mapping of ankyrin repeats 1 (BANK1). To increase the SNP density, we used imputation followed by univariate and conditional analysis, combined with a haplotypic and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. The data from Europeans showed that the associated region was restricted to a minimal and dependent set of SNPs covering introns two and three, and exon two. In AA, the signal found in the Europeans was split into two independent effects. All of the major risk associated SNPs were eQTLs, and the risks were associated with an increased BANK1 gene expression. Functional annotation analysis revealed the enrichment of repressive B cell epigenomic marks (EZH2 and H3K27me3) and a strong enrichment of splice junctions. Furthermore, one eQTL located in intron two, rs13106926, was found within the binding site for RUNX3, a transcriptional activator. These results connect the local genome topography, chromatin structure, and the regulatory landscape of BANK1 with co-transcriptional splicing of exon two. Our data defines a minimal set of risk associated eQTLs predicted to be involved in the expression of BANK1 modulated through epigenetic regulation and splicing. These findings allow us to suggest that the increased expression of BANK1 will have an impact on B-cell mediated disease pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Sítios de Ligação , Subunidade alfa 3 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Ligação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Risco
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