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1.
Health Place ; 62: 102280, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479358

RESUMO

Depression and loneliness act in a synergistic way among older adults. We tested two indicators of the perceived neighborhood built environment (BE) as moderators of the association between these conditions in older European adults. Positive perceptions of neighborhood BE were related to lower levels of loneliness but not to major depressive disorder (MDD). Reporting low BE usability was significantly related to a higher likelihood of feeling lonely except for those suffering from MDD, whereas reporting low BE walkability was significantly related with a high likelihood of loneliness particularly among those with MDD. Therefore, improving neighborhood BE and, specifically, its walkability, might result in a reduction in the prevalence of loneliness.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501615

RESUMO

Ageing well involves individuals continuing participating in personal, social and civic affairs even in older age. From this standpoint, limitations in individual's functioning (beyond the mere absence of disease) may drastically impact on how well people becoming older. This study aimed to identify functional status profiles in a nationally representative sample of older adults, using latent class analysis methods. Moreover, it intended to study the how identified classes would be related to health-related outcomes later in life, as a way to provide some evidence on predictive validity. Data from a nationally representative sample of Spanish older adults (N = 2,118; 56.18% women; M = 71.50 years, SD = 7.76), were used. Profiles were identified according to a large set of functioning indicators from multiple domains using latent class analysis. Outcomes were studied over a 3-year follow-up, considering both the individual (quality of life, well-being and mortality) and institutional level (health service utilisation). As a result, seven profiles were identified: normative profile (showed by most participants), limited cognitive functioning class, limited global functioning class, limited mental and mobility functioning class, poor self-reported health class, limited sensory functioning class and limited objective functioning class. All the profiles with limitations across domains showed poor outcomes. Multidimensional limitations were related to the worst outcomes, especially when psychosomatic complaints and high feelings of loneliness were reported. To sum up, latent class analysis constitutes a suitable alternative to study population heterogeneity, providing relevant evidence to help making decision in public and community health.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 258: 113087, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the association between loneliness and all-cause mortality over a six-year follow-up period using the overall sample and by age groups (18-59 years and 60+ years). METHOD: Data from a longitudinal, prospective study of a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish non-institutionalized adult population were analysed (n = 4467). Mortality was ascertained via linkage to the National Death Index or obtained during the household visits. The UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to measure loneliness. Sex, age, education, physical activity, tobacco consumption, body mass index, disability, depression, living situation, and social participation were also considered as covariates. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were carried out. RESULTS: A higher level of loneliness was not associated with mortality risk in fully covariate-adjusted models over the entire population (HR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.94, 1.12). The interaction term between loneliness and age groups was significant, indicating that the rate for survival of loneliness varied by age (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.63 for young- and middle-aged individuals; HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.89, 1.04 for older adults). CONCLUSIONS: The development of interventions aimed at tackling loneliness among young- and middle-aged adults might contribute to a mortality risk reduction. Future research is warranted to test whether our results can be replicated.

4.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545243

RESUMO

We investigated the relation between alcohol drinking and healthy ageing by means of a validated health status metric, using individual data from the Ageing Trajectories of Health: Longitudinal Opportunities and Synergies (ATHLOS) project. For the purposes of this study, the ATHLOS harmonised dataset, which includes information from individuals aged 65+ in 38 countries, was analysed (n = 135,440). Alcohol drinking was reflected by means of three harmonised variables: alcohol drinking frequency, current and past alcohol drinker. A set of 41 self-reported health items and measured tests were used to generate a specific health metric. In the harmonised dataset, the prevalence of current drinking was 47.5% while of past drinking was 26.5%. In the pooled sample, current alcohol drinking was positively associated with better health status among older adults ((b-coef (95% CI): 1.32(0.45 to 2.19)) and past alcohol drinking was inversely related (b-coef (95% CI): -0.83 (-1.51 to -0.16)) with health status. Often alcohol consumption appeared to be beneficial only for females in all super-regions except Africa, both age group categories (65-80 years old and 80+), both age group categories, as well as among all the financial status categories (all p < 0.05). Regional analysis pictured diverse patterns in the association for current and past alcohol drinkers. Our results report the need for specific alcohol intake recommendations among older adults that will help them maintain a better health status throughout the ageing process.

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 329, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) refers to the capacity system for temporary storage and processing of information, which is known to depend on the integrity of the prefrontal cortex. Impairment in working memory is a core cognitive deficit among individuals with psychotic disorders. The Corsi block-tapping test is a widely-used instrument to assess visuospatial working memory. The traditional version is composed of 9 square blocks positioned on a physical board. In recent years, the number of digital instruments has increased significantly; several advantages might derive from the use of a digital version of the Corsi test. METHODS: This study aimed to compare the digital and traditional versions of the Corsi test in 45 patients with psychotic disorders and 45 healthy controls. Both groups completed a neuropsychological assessment involving attention and working memory divided into the two conditions. RESULTS: Results were consistent between the traditional and digital versions of the Corsi test. The digital version, as well as the traditional version, can discriminate between patients with psychosis and healthy controls. Overall, patients performed worse with respect to the healthy comparison group. The traditional Corsi test was positively related to intelligence and verbal working memory, probably due to a more significant effort to execute the test. CONCLUSIONS: The digital Corsi might be used to enhance clinical practice diagnosis and treatment.The digital version can be administered in a natural environment in real-time. Further, it is easy to administer while ensuring a standard procedure.

6.
Eye (Lond) ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between cataract and multimorbidity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between cataract and chronic conditions and multimorbidity in a large representative sample of Spanish adults. METHODS: This study used data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017, a cross-sectional sample of 23,089 adults aged ≥15 years from Spain [54.1% female; mean (standard deviation) age 53.4 (18.9) years]. Cataract and 30 other physical and mental chronic conditions were self-reported. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of at least two physical and/or mental chronic conditions (excluding cataract). Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression analyzes were conducted to assess associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of cataract and multimorbidity was 12.5% and 56.5%, respectively. All chronic conditions were significantly more frequent in individuals with than in those without cataract. Overall, there was a positive relationship between cataract and multimorbidity [odds ratio (OR) = 2.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.39-3.21]. In addition, cataract was significantly associated with the number of chronic conditions in the whole population [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.29-1.38]. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract is positively associated with chronic conditions and multimorbidity in adults. Interventions specifically designed for those with cataract to reduce or manage co-occurring chronic conditions and multimorbidity are urgently required.

7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between physical activity (PA) and subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs), and the influential factors in this association. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-based data of the World Health Survey, which included 248,504 individuals from 47 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), were analyzed [mean age = 38.6 (standard deviation 16.1) years; 50.7% female]. METHODS: PA was assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were grouped into those who meet (high PA) the 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA per week recommendation, and those who do not (low PA). Two questions on subjective memory and learning complaints in the past 30 days were used (scales ranged from 1 to 5, with higher scores representing more severe SCC). Multivariable ordinal logistic regression and mediation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Overall, after adjusting for sociodemographic and a wide range of behavioral, psychological, and physical factors, low PA was associated with a higher risk for having more severe subjective memory complaints [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.23] and learning complaints (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.12-1.26). Significant associations were only observed among the middle-aged (45-64 years; learning complaints OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.06-1.33) and older populations (≥65 years; memory complaints OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.15-1.49, and learning complaints OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.24-1.60). Chronic physical conditions, sleep problems, depression, and anxiety explained between 7.7% and 29.4% of the PA-SCC association among those aged ≥45 years. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Low PA was associated with increased odds for more severe SCCs in middle-aged and older adults in LMICs. Given the particularly rapid increase in dementia in LMICs, more longitudinal research is warranted from this setting to understand the utility of PA promotion in the prevention of cognitive impairment.

8.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 33(3): 365-384, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to examine the relationship between health and an early exit from paid employment in the Finnish, Polish, and Spanish populations. The authors have addressed the following 3 issues: who chooses not to work according to gender patterns, whether the health status is a determinant of being non-employed, and what diseases are associated with being non-employed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studied material consists of data from the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe (COURAGE in Europe) project. The analysis was based on a sample of 5868 individuals, including 1214 from Finland, 2152 from Poland and 2532 from Spain. In the paper, these data were complemented with the results of the PArticipation To Healthy Workplaces And inclusive Strategies in the Work Sector (PATHWAYS) project. RESULTS: The results of the study revealed that self-rated health was a strong predictor of being non-employed for different reasons. Chronic diseases, such as arthritis, angina, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression and hypertension, were typically associated with an increased risk of being non-employed due to health problems and early retirement. Women more frequently reported arthritis and depression, while a higher proportion of men suffered from angina and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained by the authors highlight the importance of evaluating gender patterns in work cessation and, at the same time, the importance of gender-focused actions in terms of preventing withdrawal from the labor market. In principle, all chronic diseases have some impact on participation in the labor market. It is worth noting, however, that each of them affects workforce participation in a different manner, depending on the specific disease, country and gender. For this reason, tailored support to every individual's needs is highly recommended. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2020;33(3):365-84.

9.
Brain Sci ; 10(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331406

RESUMO

(1) Cognitive decline differs among individuals and cognition function domains. We sought to identify distinct groups of immediate and delayed verbal memory in two age subsamples (50-64, 65+ years), and to analyze associated factors. (2) Latent class mixed models were used to identify verbal memory trajectories in a sample of Spanish community-dwelling individuals over 8 years' follow up. Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess differences among trajectories. (3) Different trajectories were identified. In the case of immediate verbal memory, these were: very low/decline (6.3%), low/stable (38.2%), medium/slow decline (43.4%), and high/slow decline (12.2%) in the middle-aged group, and low/decline (20.4%), medium/slow decline (60.4%), and high/slow decline (19.2%) in the older subsample. In delayed verbal memory, more distinct patterns were found: very low/decline (12.4%), low/stable (51.4%), medium/accelerated decline (24.7%), and high/slow increase (11.4%) in the younger group, and low/slow decline (34.4%), medium/decline (52.7%), and high/slow decline (12.9%) in the older group. (4) Overall, low initial performance and decline were associated with older age, lower education, and higher diabetes/stroke prevalence. Differences found suggests heterogeneity in cognitive ageing. The high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in those with worse cognition suggests that early interventions to prevent those conditions should be targeted in midlife to delay cognitive decline.

11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211794

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Second-hand smoking (SHS) may be a risk factor for obesity in adolescence but data on the association between SHS and obesity are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between SHS and obesity among adolescents aged 12-15 years from 38 LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 38 LMICs that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) were analyzed. Body mass index was calculated based on measured weight and height. The 2007 WHO Child Growth reference was used to define obesity. SHS was categorized as no exposure, non-daily exposure (i.e., 1-6 days), and daily exposure (i.e., 7 days) based on the number of days exposed to second-hand smoke in the past 7 days. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analyses were conducted to assess the associations. RESULTS: The analyzed sample consisted of 88,209 adolescents aged 12-15 years who never smoked. The overall prevalence of non-daily and daily SHS was 34.2% and 15.7%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with no SHS, there was no significant association between non-daily SHS and obesity (OR=0.94; 95%CI=0.86-1.02) but adolescents who reported daily SHS were significantly more likely to have obesity (OR=1.19; 95%CI=1.06-1.34). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SHS was high among adolescents in LMICs and daily SHS was associated with a significant increase in odds of obesity. Future studies with longitudinal designs are warranted to assess causality and whether prevention of SHS can reduce risk of obesity in adolescence.

12.
Inj Prev ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Falls in older aged adults are an important public health problem. Insight into differences in fall-related injury rates between countries can serve as important input for identifying and evaluating prevention strategies. The objectives of this study were to compare Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates on incidence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to fall-related injury in older adults across 22 countries in the Western European region and to examine changes over a 28-year period. METHODS: We performed a secondary database descriptive study using the GBD 2017 results on age-standardised fall-related injury in older adults aged 70 years and older in 22 countries from 1990 to 2017. RESULTS: In 2017, in the Western European region, 13 840 per 100 000 (uncertainty interval (UI) 11 837-16 113) older adults sought medical treatment for fall-related injury, ranging from 7594 per 100 000 (UI 6326-9032) in Greece to 19 796 per 100 000 (UI 15 536-24 233) in Norway. Since 1990, fall-related injury DALY rates showed little change for the whole region, but patterns varied widely between countries. Some countries (eg, Belgium and Netherlands) have lost their favourable positions due to an increasing fall-related injury burden of disease since 1990. CONCLUSIONS: From 1990 to 2017, there was considerable variation in fall-related injury incidence, mortality, DALY rates and its composites in the 22 countries in the Western European region. It may be useful to assess which fall prevention measures have been taken in countries that showed continuous low or decreasing incidence, death and DALY rates despite ageing of the population.

13.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155879

RESUMO

Fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against sarcopenia but there are no studies on this topic from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we assessed this association among older adults from six LMICs. Community-based cross-sectional data of the Study on Global Aging and Adult Health were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of low skeletal muscle mass based on indirect population formula, and either slow gait or low handgrip strength. Quintiles of vegetable and fruit consumption were created based on the number of servings consumed on a typical day. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The sample consisted of 14,585 individuals aged ≥65 years (mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.4) years; 55% females). Adjusted analyses showed that overall, compared to the lowest quintile (Q1), the highest quintile (Q5) of fruit consumption was associated with a 40% lower odds for sarcopenia (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.42-0.84) but this association was largely driven by the strong association among females (e.g., Q5 vs. Q1 OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.24-0.73), with no significant associations found among males. Vegetable consumption was not significantly associated with sarcopenia. Future studies of longitudinal design may shed light on whether increasing fruit consumption among older females in LMICs may reduce risk for sarcopenia.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 311-318, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent suicide is a global public health concern. Given that physical activity has a positive effect in the prevention and treatment of common psychiatric disorders, it may also protect against suicides. However, global data examining associations between physical activity and suicide attempts among adolescents are lacking, and sex-specific associations remain poorly understood. Thus, we assessed the association between physical activity and suicide attempts among adolescents aged 12-15 year from 48 countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, which included 136,857 adolescents [mean age (SD) 13.8 (1.0) years; 48.9% girls] were analyzed. Suicide attempt was defined as at least one suicide attempt in the past 12 months. Physical activity was assessed by the PACE+ Adolescent Physical Activity Measure and participants were dichotomized into those who do and do not comply with the World Health Organization physical activity recommendations (60 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity daily). Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to assess the associations. RESULTS: Meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with lower odds for suicide attempts in boys (OR=0.78; 95%CI=0.70-0.86), but higher odds for suicide attempts in girls (OR=1.22; 95%CI=1.10-1.35). The associations for boys and girls were relatively consistent across countries. LIMITATIONS: Causality or temporal associations cannot be established due to the cross-sectional nature of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Engagement in physical activity may be an effective strategy for prevention of suicide attempts for boys but not for girls. Future studies should investigate the factors that lead to this sex difference.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 424-428, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Literature has shown that the effect of depression on all-cause mortality is stronger in men. However, it is less clear whether depression affects older and younger people equally. The present study is aimed to analyze whether depression is associated to all-cause mortality in different age and gender groups. METHODS: We analyzed a nationally representative sample of the Spanish adult population that was followed-up on for a period of 6 years (n = 4583). Unadjusted and adjusted cox proportional hazard regression models were conducted to test whether baseline depression was associated to all-cause mortality in the total sample and in the different gender and age specific groups, separately. RESULTS: Unadjusted analyses revealed that depression was associated with higher likelihood of having a shorter survival and dying, in the total sample and in both groups of men (18-64 and 65+ years). However, adjusted analyses stratified by age groups and gender revealed that depression was only a significant factor for all-cause mortality in 18-64 aged men (HR: 6.11; 95%CI= 2.16,17.23). LIMITATIONS: Cause-specific mortality was not examined. Young adults and middle-aged participants were not analyzed separately. CONCLUSIONS: The depression and all-cause mortality relationship was only found among young and middle-aged men. Further studies should consider whether the significant association between depression and all-cause mortality in young and middle-aged men is due to a behavior of seeking help less, the way depression is shaped in adult men, or to other clinical or health-system related factors.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 266: 63-70, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the fast food consumption-suicide attempt relationship among 105,061 adolescents aged 12-15 years from 32 countries. METHODS: This study was based on cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), and included 4 low-income, 13 lower middle-income, 9 upper middle-income, and 6 high-income countries. Data on past 7-day fast food consumption and 12-month suicide attempts were collected. The association between fast food consumption and suicide attempts was investigated with multivariable logistic regression and meta-analysis while adjusting for sex, age, food insecurity (proxy of socioeconomic status), alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, obesity, carbonated soft drink consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of fast food consumption was high (53.5%) and the proportion of suicide attempts was higher among consumers of fast food compared to non-consumers (11.8% vs. 8.3%). Of the 32 countries included in the study, a positive association between fast food consumption and suicide attempts was found in 26 countries although this was not statistically significant in all countries. The pooled OR (95% CI) based on a meta-analysis was 1.31 (1.17-1.46). LIMITATIONS: Since this was a cross-sectional study, it is not possible to draw any conclusions about causality or temporality in the associations assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Fast food consumption is positively associated with suicide attempts in adolescents. Further research of longitudinal design is needed to confirm/refute our findings and explore the potential underlying mechanisms.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 264: 172-180, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between physical injury and depression in youths from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between serious physical injury and depressive symptoms among adolescents in 21 LMICs. METHODS: Data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2003-2008) were analyzed. Serious physical injury and depressive symptoms in the past 12 months were assessed with self-report measures. The association between serious physical injury and depressive symptoms was examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 44,333 adolescents aged 12-15 years. After adjustment for sex, age, food insecurity, alcohol consumption, and country, an increasing number of serious physical injuries in the past 12 months was associated with increments in the odds for depressive symptoms in a dose-dependent fashion. Those who had ≥6 serious injuries (vs. no injuries) were 2.79 (95%CI=2.23-3.48) times more likely to have depressive symptoms. The pooled odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) for the association between at least one serious physical injury and depressive symptoms obtained by meta-analysis based on country-wise estimates was 1.83 (1.67-2.01) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2=56.0%). LIMITATIONS: This was a cross-sectional study and causality of the association cannot be deduced. CONCLUSIONS: Serious physical injury may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among adolescents in LMICs. Efforts to prevent physical injury and the provision of adequate health care for those who are injured may improve mental wellbeing among adolescents in this setting.

18.
Prev Med ; 132: 106007, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001307

RESUMO

Data on the association between informal caregiving and physical activity (PA) levels are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Furthermore, previous research has yielded conflicting results. Thus, we investigated this association in adults from 38 LMICs. Data from the World Health Survey (WHS), a cross-sectional, predominantly nationally representative survey conducted in 2002-2004, were analyzed. PA was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and participants were dichotomized into those who do (≥150 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA per week) and do not (<150 min = low PA) comply with the World Health Organization PA recommendations. Those who provided help to a relative or friend (adult or child), because this person has a long-term physical or mental illness or disability, or is getting old and weak in the past year were considered to be informal caregivers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations. There were 204,315 adults aged ≥18 years from 38 LMICs included in this study [mean (standard deviation) age 38.6 (16.1) years; 50.7% female]. Overall, the prevalence of caregiving and low PA was 19.5% and 29.9%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, caregivers were at a lower risk for low PA compared to non-caregivers (OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.72-0.86). Engagement in greater number of caregiving activities was associated with lower odds for low PA dose-dependently. Informal caregiving was associated with higher levels of PA in adults in LMICs. Future studies of longitudinal design are warranted to understand causality and the underlying mechanisms of this association.

19.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(5): 613-621, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking has been linked with depressive symptoms in adolescents, but data on secondhand smoking and depressive symptoms in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. Thus, this study analyzes the association between secondhand smoking and depressive symptoms among in-school adolescents from 22 low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data from the 2003-2008 Global School-Based Student Health Survey were analyzed in June 2019. Data on past-week exposure to secondhand smoke and past-year depressive symptoms were collected. The association between secondhand smoke and depressive symptoms was studied using multivariable logistic regressions and meta-analyses. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 37,505 adolescents aged 12-15 years who never smoked. The prevalence of depressive symptoms increased from 23.0% in adolescents with no secondhand smoking to 28.9% in those with secondhand smoking every day in the past week. After adjusting for sex, age, food insecurity, and country, there was a dose-response relationship between secondhand smoking and depressive symptoms in the overall sample (0 days: reference; 1-2 days: OR=1.06, 95% CI=0.95, 1.18; 3-6 days: OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.20, 1.58; 7 days: OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.44, 1.86). The country-wise analysis showed that secondhand smoking on at least 3 days (versus <3 days) in the past week was associated with a 1.48-fold increase in the odds of depressive symptoms (95% CI=1.39, 1.59), with a low level of between-country heterogeneity (I2=4.2%). CONCLUSIONS: There was a positive association between secondhand smoking and depressive symptoms among in-school adolescents from low- and middle-income countries. Further research should investigate causality and assess whether prevention of exposure to secondhand smoke can have a positive effect on the mental well-being of adolescents.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health of the caregivers is crucial to sustain informal care provision, while multimorbidity is an important health risk concept. However, studies on the association between informal caregiving and physical multimorbidity are currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated this association in adults from 48 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 242,952 adults (mean age 38.4 years) participating in the World Health Survey 2002-2004 were analyzed. Informal caregivers were considered those who provided help in the past year to a relative or friend (adult or child) who has a long-term physical or mental illness or disability, or is getting old and weak. Nine physical conditions were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between informal caregiving and physical multimorbidity, while the between-country heterogeneity in this relationship was studied with country-wise analyses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of informal caregiving and physical multimorbidity (i.e, ≥2 physical conditions) was 19.2% and 13.2%, respectively. Overall, caregivers had 1.40 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.29-1.52] times higher odds for physical multimorbidity. This association was particularly pronounced in younger caregivers [e.g., 18-44 years: odds ratio (OR)=1.54; 95%CI=1.37-1.72], while this association was not statistically significant among those aged ≥65 years (OR=1.19; 95%CI=0.98-1.44). Country-wise analyses corroborated these findings and there was a negligible level of between-country heterogeneity (I2=24.0%). CONCLUSIONS: In LMICs, informal caregivers (especially young caregivers) were more likely to have physical multimorbidity. This should be taken into account in policies that address the health and wellbeing of informal caregivers.

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