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5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(3): 339-346, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy to prevent flares of maintenance versus withdrawal of 5 mg/day prednisone in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with clinically quiescent disease. METHODS: A monocentric, 12-month, superiority, open-label, randomised (1:1) controlled trial was conducted with 61 patients continuing 5 mg/day prednisone and 63 stopping it. Eligibility criteria were SLE patients who, during the year preceding the inclusion, had a clinically inactive disease and a stable SLE treatment including 5 mg/day prednisone. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patient experiencing a flare defined with the SELENA-SLEDAI flare index (SFI) at 52 weeks. Secondary endpoints included time to flare, flare severity according to SFI and British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index and increase in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) damage index (SDI). RESULTS: Proportion of patients experiencing a flare was significantly lower in the maintenance group as compared with the withdrawal group (4 patients vs 17; RR 0.2 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.7), p=0.003). Maintenance of 5 mg prednisone was superior with respect to time to first flare (HR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.6, p=0.002), occurrence of mild/moderate flares using the SFI (3 patients vs 12; RR 0.2 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.8), p=0.012) and occurrence of moderate/severe flares using the BILAG index (1 patient vs 8; RR 0.1 (95% CI 0.1 to 0.9), p=0.013). SDI increase and adverse events were similar in the two treatment groups. Subgroup analyses of the primary endpoint by predefined baseline characteristics did not show evidence of a different clinical response. CONCLUSION: Maintenance of long term 5 mg prednisone in SLE patients with inactive disease prevents relapse. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02558517; Results.

6.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 21(12): 66, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807955

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This report provides an overview of the current knowledge of molecular characterization, clinical description, and treatment of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), a multi-systemic adult histiocytosis of the L group. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent identification of several MAPK mutations in histiocytes of ECD lesions. Leading to targeted therapies. The discovery of the BRAFV600E mutation in ECD lesions followed by several other kinase mutations in the MAPK pathway has revolutionized our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and led to trials with targeted therapies that demonstrated robust efficacy.

7.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1839-1842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768065

RESUMO

Histiocytoses are clonal hematopoietic disorders frequently driven by mutations mapping to the BRAF and MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Currently, however, the developmental origins of histiocytoses in patients are not well understood, and clinically meaningful therapeutic targets outside of BRAF and MEK are undefined. In this study, we uncovered activating mutations in CSF1R and rearrangements in RET and ALK that conferred dramatic responses to selective inhibition of RET (selpercatinib) and crizotinib, respectively, in patients with histiocytosis.


Assuntos
Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Histiocitose/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Receptores de Fator Estimulador das Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Histiocitose/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-3, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679396

RESUMO

Neurosarcoidosis is a rare inflammatory neurological condition. We describe a challenging radiological presentation of neurosarcoidosis. The eclipse sign refers to hypo T1-weighted parenchymal or leptomeningeal images surrounded by circular gadolinium enhancement. The eclipse sign was identified in 3 out of 46 patients with histologically-proven neurosarcoidosis. The eclipse sign may correspond to necrotizing parenchymal or leptomeningeal granuloma. This sign expands the spectrum of radiological presentations of neurosarcoidosis.

9.
Chest ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare multisystemic histiocytosis. Pulmonary involvement during RDD has been poorly described. The goal of this study was to examine the clinical presentations, radiological features, and outcomes of 15 patients with RDD and lung involvement. METHODS: The cases of RDD with lung involvement were extracted from the French National Histiocytosis registry. Efficacy of the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib in treating lung disease was evaluated with an 18fluorodeoxyglucose PET scanner and chest CT scans. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (six women; median age, 40 years at RDD diagnosis) were included. All patients had evidence of systemic disease with extrapulmonary localizations of the disease (lymphadenopathy [n = 12], skin [n = 9], bones [n = 6], retroperitoneal involvement [n = 3], sinuses [n = 3], parotid gland [n = 2], submandibular gland [n = 1], and breast [n = 1]). Presenting symptoms were dominated by dyspnea and dry cough in seven patients. Restrictive physiology was observed in two of five patients. BAL showed lymphocytosis in one of five cases. Eight patients received corticosteroids, all but one with variable immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies. Two patients received cobimetinib for severe lung disease, with dramatic pulmonary metabolic and tumoral responses. Two patients died during follow-up: one of hemoptysis, and the other of an unrelated cerebral tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary involvement in RDD is rare, proteiform, and sometimes severe. The MEK inhibitor cobimetinib can lead to dramatic responses.

10.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(12): 1669-1676, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Maintenance of remission has become central in the management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The importance of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in the pathogenesis of SLE notwithstanding, its expression in remission has been poorly studied as yet. To study its expression in remission and its prognostic value in the prediction of a disease relapse, serum IFN-α levels were determined using an ultrasensitive single-molecule array digital immunoassay which enables the measurement of cytokines at physiological concentrations. METHODS: A total of 254 SLE patients in remission, according to the Definition of Remission in SLE classification, were included in the study. Serum IFN-α concentrations were determined at baseline and patients were followed up for 1 year. Lupus flares were defined according to the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index Flare Index, whereas the Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were used to estimate the time to relapse and to identify baseline factors associated with time to relapse, respectively. RESULTS: Of all patients in remission, 26% displayed abnormally high IFN-α serum levels that were associated with the presence of antibodies specific for ribonucleoprotein (RNP), double stranded (ds)DNA and Ro/SSA60, as well as young age. Importantly, elevated-baseline IFN-α serum levels and remission duration were associated in an independent fashion, with shorter time to relapse, while low serum levels of complement component 3 and anti-dsDNA Abs were not. CONCLUSION: Direct serum IFN-α assessment with highly sensitive digital immunoassay permits clinicians to identify a subgroup of SLE patients, clinically in remission, but at higher risk of relapse.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(31): 2857-2865, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Off-label use of vemurafenib (VMF) to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive, refractory, childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients from 12 countries took VMF 20 mg/kg/d. They were classified according to risk organ involvement: liver, spleen, and/or blood cytopenia. The main evaluation criteria were adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.3]) and therapeutic responses according to Disease Activity Score. RESULTS: LCH extent was distributed as follows: 44 with positive and 10 with negative risk organ involvement. Median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years (range, 0.1 to 6.5 years). Median age at VMF initiation was 1.8 years (range, 0.18 to 14 years), with a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 4.3 to 57 months), whereas median treatment duration was 13.9 months (for 855 patient-months). At 8 weeks, 38 complete responses and 16 partial responses had been achieved, with the median Disease Activity Score decreasing from 7 at diagnosis to 0 (P < .001). Skin rash, the most frequent adverse event, affected 74% of patients. No secondary skin cancer was observed. Therapeutic plasma VMF concentrations (range, 10 to 20 mg/L) seemed to be safe and effective. VMF discontinuation for 30 patients led to 24 LCH reactivations. The blood BRAFV600E allele load, assessed as circulating cell-free DNA, decreased after starting VMF but remained positive (median, 3.6% at diagnosis, and 1.6% during VMF treatment; P < .001) and was associated with a higher risk of reactivation at VMF discontinuation. None of the various empirical therapies (hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, cladribine and cytarabine, anti-MEK agent, vinblastine, etc) used for maintenance could eradicate the BRAFV600E clone. CONCLUSION: VMF seemed safe and effective in children with refractory BRAFV600E-positive LCH. Additional studies are needed to find effective maintenance therapy approaches.

12.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common feature of mixed connective tissue disease. However, many patients do not meet the criteria for mixed connective tissue disease and thus may be diagnosed as interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features. The aim of this study was to characterize ILD associated with anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibodies. METHODS: Chest computed tomography scans of patients with anti-RNP antibody who were seen between January 2011 and October 2015 were reviewed. The underlying disease was classified with international criteria using clinical and serological features. RESULTS: Among 544 patients with anti-RNP antibodies, 188 had a chest computed tomography scan, and 48 (26%) of them had radiological features of ILD. The presence of ILD was significantly associated with dyspnea, crackles, arthritis, Raynaud phenomenon, myositis, and sicca syndrome. The most frequent pattern was nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 39 patients (81%). Among patients with ILD, 17 (35%) had a radiological pattern consisting of cysts and ground-glass attenuation not fulfilling the lymphoid interstitial pneumonia criteria. In 3 patients, cysts were related to fibrosis; in 14 patients, cysts corresponded to an original ILD pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Interstitial lung disease was found in 26% of patients with anti-RNP antibodies independently of the underlying disease. Anti-RNP-associated ILD mainly corresponds to nonspecific interstitial pneumonia or an original pattern consisting of cysts and ground-glass attenuation.

13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(3): 275-285, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269469

RESUMO

Objective: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare inflammatory myeloid neoplasm which can infiltrate any organ or tissue. Endocrine involvement has mostly been described in case reports and small retrospective studies. We aimed to describe endocrine manifestations in a large cohort of adulthood onset (AO) and childhood onset (CO) patients with LCH. Design: Single-center observational study conducted between January 2002 and December 2017 at Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital (Paris, France), a tertiary care hospital. Method: Clinical, biological and morphological evaluations of pituitary, gonadal, adrenal and thyroid function evaluations performed in 63 consecutive patients with LCH (AO patients: 40, CO patients: 23). Fifty-eight patients underwent follow-up assessments. Results: Complete pituitary evaluation was performed in 38/63 patients (60.3%); at least one anterior pituitary dysfunction (APD) was found in 63.2% of them. In this subgroup of patients, the most prevalent deficiencies were diabetes insipidus (DI) and GHD (55.3% each), followed by gonadotropin deficiency (34.2%) and thyrotropin deficiency (23.7%). In the subgroup of the 25 incompletely evaluated patients, we found DI in 44%, GHD in 50%, gonadotropin deficiency in 30.4% and thyrotropin deficiency in 16%. APD was more common in CO patients (P = 0.003) but was not systematically associated with DI regardless of the age of onset. Endocrine dysfunction was most often permanent; moreover, occurrence of new deficiencies has been described during follow-up. Conclusion: The spectrum of endocrine disorders appears to be large in LCH (both in AO and CO patients) and should be evaluated carefully at diagnosis and during follow-up. APD was not always associated with DI.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal biopsy is the cornerstone of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) nephropathy management. However, transcutaneous renal biopsy (TCRB) is hampered by the antithrombotic treatment frequently prescribed for those diseases. Transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) offers an attractive alternative for patients at increased risk of bleeding. The primary objective of the study was to describe the safety profile and diagnostic performance of TJRB in SLE and APS patients. METHODS: All SLE and/or APS patients who underwent a renal biopsy in our department (between January 2004 and October 2016) were retrospectively reviewed. Major complications were death, haemostasis nephrectomy, renal artery embolization, red blood cell transfusion, sepsis and vascular thrombosis; macroscopic haematuria, symptomatic perirenal/retroperitoneal bleeding and renal arteriovenous fistula without artery embolization were considered as minor complications. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-six TJRBs-119 without antithrombotics (untreated), 69 under aspirin and 68 on anticoagulants and 54 TCRBs without antithrombotics-were analysed. Their major and minor complication rates, respectively, did not differ significantly for the four groups: 0 and 8% for untreated TJRBs, 1 and 6% for aspirin-treated, 6 and 10% for anticoagulant-treated and 2 and 2% for TCRBs. The number of glomeruli sampled and the biopsy contribution to establishing a histological diagnosis was similar for the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: TJRBs obtained from SLE and APS patients taking antithrombotics had diagnostic yields and safety profiles similar to those of untreated TCRBs. Thus, TJRB should be considered for SLE and APS patients at risk of bleeding.

17.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 21(7): 62, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115724

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provide an overview of recent progress in decoding the pathogenesis and treatment of systemic histiocytoses. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in molecular techniques over the last few years, enabling the identification of several MAPK mutations in lesion histiocytes, have revolutionized our understanding of histiocytosis that led to a revised classification and new treatments. Since the 2010 discovery of the BRAFV600E mutation in 57% of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) lesions, several other kinase mutations have been found, mostly in the MAPK pathway, and also in other key signaling pathways, in LCH, Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD) and, less frequently, Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD). Those revolutionary breakthroughs enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of histiocytosis and led to trials with targeted therapies that demonstrated notable efficacy.

19.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Episodic Angioedema with eosinophilia (EAE, Gleich's syndrome) is a rare disorder consisting of recurrent episodes of angioedema, hypereosinophilia and frequent elevated serum Immunoglobin M. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter nationwide study regarding the clinical spectrum and therapeutic management of patients with EAE in France. RESULTS: Thirty patients were included with a median age at diagnosis of 41 years [5-84]. The median duration of each crisis was 5.5 days [1-90] with swelling affecting mainly the face and the upper limbs. Total serum IgM levels were increased in 20 patients (67%). Abnormal T-cell immunophenotypes were detected in 12 patients (40%) among which 5 (17%) showed evidence of clonal TCR γ gene rearrangement. Median follow-up duration was 53 months [31-99]. The presence of an abnormal T-cell population was the sole factor associated with a shorter time to flare (hazard ratio 4.15 [CI 95% 1.18-14.66; p=0.02). At last follow-up, 3 patients (10%) were able to withdraw all treatments and 11 (37%) were in clinical and biological remission with less than 10 mg of daily prednisone. CONCLUSION: EAE is a heterogeneous condition that encompasses several disease forms. Although patients usually respond well to glucocorticoids, those with evidence of abnormal T-cell phenotype have a shorter time to flare.

20.
J Neurol ; 266(5): 1073-1078, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Infliximab is increasingly used to treat neurosarcoidosis. We aimed to determine the efficacy and tolerance of an infliximab biosimilar for treating neurosarcoidosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study to describe the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of an infliximab biosimilar in neurosarcoidosis patients. We compared the survival time without relapse while receiving the biosimilar or previous originator-infliximab treatment. RESULTS: Twenty patients with histologically documented neurosarcoidosis were treated with an infliximab biosimilar (initiation of treatment in 12 and switch from the originator drug in 8) between February 2016 and August 2018. All patients presenting with neurological involvement of one or more areas, including meningeal (n = 15), cerebral (n = 10), spinal cord (n = 9), and/or cranial nerves (n = 5); epilepsy (n = 3); and/or intracranial hypertension (n = 3) were enrolled. Eighteen patients received glucocorticoids during infliximab treatment, and 16 had methotrexate or azathioprine concomitant treatment. The median duration of follow-up was 25 months (19-28). Six patients relapsed during biosimilar treatment. Relapse rates and time-to-relapse did not differ between the infliximab originator previously received and biosimilar treatment groups (p = 0.40 and 0.51, respectively). Nine patients experienced 11 adverse events with the infliximab biosimilar, including infections (n = 5), urticaria (n = 4), headache (n = 1), and diarrhea (n = 1). All side effects were grade 2 or less using the WHO classification. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, the infliximab biosimilar was efficacious and safe for treating neurosarcoidosis.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Biossimilares/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/tratamento farmacológico , Substituição de Medicamentos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
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