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1.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e21585, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of availability of evidence-based services for people exposed to adversity globally has led to the development of psychological interventions with features that will likely make them more scalable. The evidence for the efficacy of e-mental health from high-income countries is compelling, and the use of these interventions could be a way to increase the coverage of evidence-based psychological interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Step-by-Step is a brief (5-session) intervention proposed by the World Health Organization as an innovative approach to reducing the suffering and disability associated with depression. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a locally adapted version of Step-by-Step with Syrian nationals (trial 1) and Lebanese nationals and other populations residing in Lebanon (trial 2). METHODS: This Step-by-Step trial involves 2 parallel, two-armed, randomized controlled trials comparing the e-intervention Step-by-Step to enhanced care as usual in participants with depressive symptoms and impaired functioning. The randomized controlled trials are designed and powered to detect effectiveness in 2 populations: Syrians in Lebanon (n=568) and other people residing in Lebanon (n=568; Lebanese nationals and other populations resident in Lebanon). The primary outcomes are depressive symptomatology (measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and functioning (measured with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale 2.0). Secondary outcomes include anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, personalized measures of psychosocial problems, subjective well-being, and economic effectiveness. Participants are mainly recruited through online advertising. Additional outreach methods will be used if required, for example through dissemination of information through partner agencies and organizations. They can access the intervention on a computer, tablet, and mobile phone through a hybrid app. Step-by-Step has 5 sessions, and users are guided by trained nonspecialist "e-helpers" providing phone-based or message-based support for around 15 minutes a week. RESULTS: The trials were funded in 2018. The study protocol was last verified June 20, 2019 (WHO ERC.0002797) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03720769). The trials started recruitment as of December 9, 2019, and all data collection was completed in December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The Step-by-Step trials will provide evidence about the effectiveness of an e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. If the intervention proves to be effective, this will inform future scale-up of this and similar interventions in Lebanon and in other settings across the world. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03720769. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21585.

2.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

3.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 57(1): 108-123, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237805

RESUMO

Health care should be informed by the physical, socioeconomic, mental, and emotional well-being of the person, and account for social circumstances and culture. Patient-generated outcome measures can contribute positively to mental health research in culturally diverse populations. In this study, we analysed qualitative responses to the Psychological Outcome Profiles (PSYCHLOPS) Questionnaire-a patient-generated outcome measure based on open-ended questions, and compared the qualitative responses gathered to conventional, nomothetic measures used alongside the PSYCHLOPS in two studies. Data were collected as part of outcome research on a psychological intervention in Pakistan (N = 346) and Kenya (N = 521). Two researchers coded the qualitative responses to the PSYCHLOPS and identified overarching themes. We compared the overarching themes identified to the items in the conventional, nomothetic outcome measures to investigate conceptual equivalence. Using the PSYCHLOPS, the most frequently reported problems in Kenya were financial constraints, poor health, and unemployment. In Pakistan, the most frequent problems were poor health and emotional problems. Most of the person-generated problem concepts were covered also in nomothetic measures that were part of the same study. However, there was no item equivalence in the nomothetic measures for the most frequent PSYCHLOPS problem cited in both countries. Response bias and measurement bias may not be excluded. More research on the use of PSYCHLOPS alongside conventional outcome measures is needed to further explore the extent to which it may bring added value. Use of a PSYCHLOPS semistructured interview schedule and efforts to minimise response biases should be considered.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
JMIR Form Res ; 3(1): e11600, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic mental (e-mental) health interventions can address mental health needs of different populations. Cultural adaptation of these interventions is crucial to establish a better fit with the cultural group and to achieve better treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the cultural adaptation of the World Health Organization's e-mental health program Step-by-Step for overseas Filipino workers. We used a framework which posits that cultural adaptation should enhance (1) relevance, wherein the cultural group can relate with the content; (2) acceptability, where the cultural group will not find any element offensive; (3) comprehensibility, where the program is understandable; and (4) completeness, wherein the adapted version covers the same concepts and constructs as the original program. We aimed to have English and Filipino and male and female versions. METHODS: Overall, 3 experienced Filipino psychologists provided their perspectives on the program and how it might be adapted for overseas Filipino workers. We then adapted the program and obtained feedback from 28 overseas Filipino workers from diverse industries through focus group discussions. We conducted 7 and 9 focus group discussions with male and female participants, respectively. Per discussion, cognitive interviewing was used to probe for relevance, acceptability, comprehensibility, and completeness of illustrations and text. Participant feedback guided iterative program adaptations, which were again shown to participants for validation and improvement. RESULTS: Several issues were raised by participants about the generic version of Step-by-Step. There were elements deemed irrelevant, like unfitting characters, lack of Filipino values, and unsuitable problems and activities. There were unacceptable components that were stigmatizing, political, inappropriate to context or subgroups, and too feminine for male users. Some elements were incomprehensible, unclear, or complicated. To address these issues, we made key adaptations. To enhance relevance, we adapted the narrative to match the experiences of overseas Filipino workers, incorporated Filipino values, and illustrated familiar problems and activities. To increase acceptability, our main characters were changed to wise elders rather than health professionals (reducing mental health and help-seeking stigma), political or unacceptable content was removed, and the program was made suitable for overseas Filipino workers from different sectors. To increase comprehension, we used English and Filipino languages, simplified the text to ease interpretation of abstract terms, and ensured that text and illustrations matched. We also used Taglish (ie, merged English and Filipino) when participants deemed pure Filipino translations sounded odd or incomprehensible. Finally, we retained the core elements and concepts included in the original Step-by-Step program to maintain completeness. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the utility of a 4-point framework that focuses on acceptance, relevance, comprehensibility, and completeness in cultural adaptation. Moreover, we achieved a culturally appropriate adapted version of the Step-by-Step program for overseas Filipino workers. We discuss lessons learned in the process to guide future cultural adaptation projects of e-mental health interventions.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 986, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116815

RESUMO

Background: E-mental health is an established mode of delivering treatment for common mental disorders in many high income countries. However, evidence of its effectiveness in lower income countries is lacking. This mixed methods study presents lessons learned and preliminary data on the feasibility of a minimally guided e-mental health intervention in Lebanon. The aim was to pilot test Step-by-Step, a WHO guided e-mental health intervention, and research methods prior to future, controlled testing. Methods: Participants were recruited using social media and advertisements in primary care clinics. Participants completed baseline and post-intervention questionnaires on depression symptoms (primary outcome, PHQ-8), anxiety symptoms, well-being, disability and self-perceived problem severity, and a client satisfaction questionnaire. In addition, seven completers, four drop-outs, 11 study staff, and four clinic managers were interviewed with responses thematically analyzed. Website analytics were used to understand participant behavior when using the website. Results: A total of 129 participants signed up via the Step-by-Step website. Seventy-four participants started session 1 after completing pre-test questionnaires and 26 completed both baseline and post-intervention data. Among those who completed post-assessments, depression symptoms improved (PHQ-8 scores (t=5.62, p < 0.001 two-tailed, df = 25). Wilcoxon signed ranks tests showed a significant difference between baseline and post-Step-by-Step scores on all secondary outcome measures. Client satisfaction data was positive. Interview responses suggested that the intervention could be made more appropriate for younger, single people, more motivating, and easier to use. Those who utilized the support element of the intervention were happy with their relationship with the non-specialist support person (e-helper), though some participants would have preferred specialist support. E-helpers would have liked more training on complex cases. Website analytics showed that many users dropped out before intervention start, and that some re-entered screening data having been excluded from the study. Conclusion: Step-by-Step skills and techniques, model of service integration, and its non-specialist support element are acceptable. Though the sample was small and non-controlled and drop-out was high, results suggest that it may be effective in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms and increasing well-being. Lessons learned will inform content revision, the development of an app version of Step-by-Step, and the research methodology of upcoming effectiveness studies.

6.
Mhealth ; 4: 34, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225240

RESUMO

The World Health Organization is developing a range of interventions, including technology supported interventions, to help address the mental health treatment gap, particularly in low and middle-income countries. One of these, Step-by-Step, is a guided, technology supported, intervention for depression. It provides psychoeducation and training in behavioural activation through an illustrated narrative with additional therapeutic techniques such as stress management (slow breathing), identifying strengths, positive self-talk, increasing social support and relapse prevention. Step-by-Step has been designed so that it can be adapted for use in settings with different cultural contexts and resource availability and to be meaningful in communities affected by adversity. This paper describes the process of developing Step-by-Step and highlights particular design features aimed at increasing feasibility of implementation in a wide variety of settings.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507742

RESUMO

Background: Problem Management Plus (PM+) is a brief multicomponent intervention incorporating behavioral strategies delivered by lay health workers. The effectiveness of PM+ has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials in Kenya and Pakistan. When developing interventions for large-scale implementation it is considered essential to evaluate their feasibility and acceptability in addition to their efficacy. This paper discusses a qualitative evaluation of PM+ for women affected by adversity in Kenya. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 27 key informants from peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya, where PM+ was tested. Interview participants included six women who completed PM+, six community health volunteers (CHVs) who delivered the intervention, seven people with local decision making power, and eight project staff involved in the PM+ trial. Results: Key informants generally noted positive experiences with PM+. Participants and CHVs reported the positive impact PM+ had made on their lives. Nonetheless, potential structural and psychological barriers to scale up were identified. The sustainability of CHVs as unsalaried, volunteer providers was mentioned by most interviewees as the main barrier to scaling up the intervention. Conclusions: The findings across diverse stakeholders show that PM+ is largely acceptable in this Kenyan setting. The results indicated that when further implemented, PM+ could be of great value to people in communities exposed to adversities such as interpersonal violence and chronic poverty. Barriers to large-scale implementation were identified, of which the sustainability of the non-specialist health workforce was the most important one.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 663, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740065

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study is to describe the initial stages of the iterative and user-centered mobile mental health adaptation process of Step-by-Step (SbS), a modularized and originally web-based e-mental health intervention developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Given the great need for improving the responsiveness and accessibility of health systems in host countries, the EU-funded STRENGTHS consortium studies the adaptation, implementation and scaling-up of SbS for Syrian refugees in Germany, Sweden and Egypt. Using early prototyping, usability testing and identification of barriers to implementation, the study demonstrates a user-centered process of contextual adaptation to the needs and expectations of Syrian refugees. Materials and Methods: N = 128 adult Syrian refugees residing in Germany, Sweden and Egypt took part in qualitative assessments. Access, usage, and potential barriers regarding information and communication technologies (ICTs) were assessed in free list interviews. Interactive prototypes of the app were presented in key informant interviews and evaluated on usability, user experience and dissemination strategies. Focus groups were conducted to verify the results. The interview protocols were analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Results: The use of digital technologies was found to be widespread among Syrian refugees. Technical literacy and problems with accessing the internet were common barriers. The majority of the respondents reacted positively to the presented app prototypes, stressing the potential health impact of the intervention (n = 28; 78%), its flexibility and customizability (n = 19; 53%) as well as the easy learnability of the app (n = 12; 33%). Aesthetic components (n = 12; 33%) and the overall length and pace of the intervention sessions (n = 9; 25%) were criticized in regard to their negative impact on user motivation. Acceptability, credibility, and technical requirements were identified as main barriers to implementation. Discussion: The study provided valuable guidance for adapting the app version of SbS and for mobile mental health adaptation in general. The findings underline the value of contextual adaptation with a focus on usability, user experience, and context specific dissemination strategies. Related factors such as access, acceptability and adherence have major implications for scaling-up digital interventions.

9.
PLoS Med ; 14(8): e1002371, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28809935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence (GBV) represents a major cause of psychological morbidity worldwide, and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although there are effective treatments for common mental disorders associated with GBV, they typically require lengthy treatment programs that may limit scaling up in LMICs. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a new 5-session behavioural treatment called Problem Management Plus (PM+) that lay community workers can be taught to deliver. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this single-blind, parallel, randomised controlled trial, adult women who had experienced GBV were identified through community screening for psychological distress and impaired functioning in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio either to PM+ delivered in the community by lay community health workers provided with 8 days of training or to facility-based enhanced usual care (EUC) provided by community nurses. Participants were aware of treatment allocation, but research assessors were blinded. The primary outcome was psychological distress as measured by the total score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) assessed at 3 months after treatment. Secondary outcomes were impaired functioning (measured by the WHO Disability Adjustment Schedule [WHODAS]), symptoms of posttraumatic stress (measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist [PCL]), personally identified problems (measured by Psychological Outcome Profiles [PSYCHLOPS]), stressful life events (measured by the Life Events Checklist [LEC]), and health service utilisation. Between 15 April 2015 and 20 August 2015, 1,393 women were screened for eligibility on the basis of psychological distress and impaired functioning. Of these, 518 women (37%) screened positive, of whom 421 (81%) were women who had experienced GBV. Of these 421 women, 209 were assigned to PM+ and 212 to EUC. Follow-up assessments were completed on 16 January 2016. The primary analysis was intention to treat and included 53 women in PM+ (25%) and 49 women in EUC (23%) lost to follow-up. The difference between PM+ and EUC in the change from baseline to 3 months on the GHQ-12 was 3.33 (95% CI 1.86-4.79, P = 0.001) in favour of PM+. In terms of secondary outcomes, for WHODAS the difference between PM+ and EUC in the change from baseline to 3-month follow-up was 1.96 (95% CI 0.21-3.71, P = 0.03), for PCL it was 3.95 (95% CI 0.06-7.83, P = 0.05), and for PSYCHLOPS it was 2.15 (95% CI 0.98-3.32, P = 0.001), all in favour of PM+. These estimated differences correspond to moderate effect sizes in favour of PM+ for GHQ-12 score (0.57, 95% CI 0.32-0.83) and PSYCHLOPS (0.67, 95% CI 0.31-1.03), and small effect sizes for WHODAS (0.26, 95% CI 0.02-0.50) and PCL (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.41). Twelve adverse events were reported, all of which were suicidal risks detected during screening. No adverse events were attributable to the interventions or the trial. Limitations of the study include no long-term follow-up, reliance on self-report rather than structured interview data, and lack of an attention control condition. CONCLUSIONS: Among a community sample of women in urban Kenya with a history of GBV, a brief, lay-administered behavioural intervention, compared with EUC, resulted in moderate reductions in psychological distress at 3-month follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614001291673.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia/normas , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
10.
JMIR Ment Health ; 3(3): e44, 2016 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27670598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cultural adaptation of mental health care interventions is key, particularly when there is little or no therapist interaction. There is little published information on the methods of adaptation of bibliotherapy and e-mental health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To systematically search for evidence of the effectiveness of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders among culturally diverse people with common mental disorders; to analyze the extent and effects of cultural adaptation of minimally guided interventions for the treatment of common mental disorders. METHODS: We searched Embase, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO for randomized controlled trials that tested the efficacy of minimally guided or self-help interventions for depression or anxiety among culturally diverse populations. We calculated pooled standardized mean differences using a random-effects model. In addition, we administered a questionnaire to the authors of primary studies to assess the cultural adaptation methods used in the included primary studies. We entered this information into a meta-regression to investigate effects of the extent of adaptation on intervention efficacy. RESULTS: We included eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of the 4911 potentially eligible records identified by the search: four on e-mental health and four on bibliotherapy. The extent of cultural adaptation varied across the studies, with language translation and use of metaphors being the most frequently applied elements of adaptation. The pooled standardized mean difference for primary outcome measures of depression and anxiety was -0.81 (95% CI -0.10 to -0.62). Higher cultural adaptation scores were significantly associated with greater effect sizes (P=.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the results of previous systematic reviews on the cultural adaptation of face-to-face interventions: the extent of cultural adaptation has an effect on intervention efficacy. More research is warranted to explore how cultural adaptation may contribute to improve the acceptability and effectiveness of minimally guided psychological interventions for common mental disorders.

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