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J Med Chem ; 60(14): 6166-6190, 2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28635286


Agonism of the 5-HT2C receptor represents one of the most well-studied and clinically proven mechanisms for pharmacological weight reduction. Selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptors is critical as their activation has been shown to lead to undesirable side effects and major safety concerns. In this communication, we report the development of a new screening paradigm that utilizes an active site mutant D134A (D3.32) 5-HT2C receptor to identify atypical agonist structures. We additionally report the discovery and optimization of a novel class of nonbasic heterocyclic amide agonists of 5-HT2C. SAR investigations around the screening hits provided a diverse set of potent agonists at 5-HT2C with high selectivity over the related 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B receptor subtypes. Further optimization through replacement of the amide with a variety of five- and six-membered heterocycles led to the identification of 6-(1-ethyl-3-(quinolin-8-yl)-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-3-amine (69). Oral administration of 69 to rats reduced food intake in an ad libitum feeding model, which could be completely reversed by a selective 5-HT2C antagonist.

Arginina/análogos & derivados , Flavonas/química , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/metabolismo , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/química , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Arginina/síntese química , Arginina/química , Arginina/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonas/síntese química , Flavonas/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Membranas Artificiais , Camundongos Knockout , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Mutação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT2B de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/genética , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/síntese química , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT2 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 8(1): 67-72, 2017 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28105277


Two novel series of meta-linked phenylglycine-based macrocyclic FVIIa inhibitors have been designed to improve the rodent metabolic stability and PK observed with the precursor para-linked phenylglycine macrocycles. Through iterative structure-based design and optimization, the TF/FVIIa Ki was improved to subnanomolar levels with good clotting activity, metabolic stability, and permeability.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 26(20): 5051-5057, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27612545


Selective tissue factor-factor VIIa complex (TF-FVIIa) inhibitors are viewed as promising compounds for treating thrombotic disease. In this contribution, we describe multifaceted exploratory SAR studies of S1'-binding moieties within a macrocyclic chemotype aimed at replacing cyclopropyl sulfone P1' group. Over the course of the optimization efforts, the 1-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)cyclopropane P1' substituent emerged as an improved alternative, offering increased metabolic stability and lower clearance, while maintaining excellent potency and selectivity.

Fator VIIa/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Macrocíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacologia , Tromboplastina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Cães , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
J Med Chem ; 59(15): 7125-37, 2016 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455395


Inhibitors of the tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIa complex (TF-FVIIa) are promising novel anticoagulants which show excellent efficacy and minimal bleeding in preclinical models. Starting with an aminoisoquinoline P1-based macrocyclic inhibitor, optimization of the P' groups led to a series of highly potent and selective TF-FVIIa inhibitors which displayed poor permeability. Fluorination of the aminoisoquinoline reduced the basicity of the P1 group and significantly improved permeability. The resulting lead compound was highly potent, selective, and achieved good pharmacokinetics in dogs with oral dosing. Moreover, it demonstrated robust antithrombotic activity in a rabbit model of arterial thrombosis.

Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Fator VIIa/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacologia , Tromboplastina/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fator VIIa/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Coelhos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tromboplastina/metabolismo
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 5(2): 188-92, 2014 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24900796


Inhibitors of the Tissue Factor/Factor VIIa (TF-FVIIa) complex are promising novel anticoagulants that show excellent efficacy and minimal bleeding in preclinical models. On the basis of a zwitterionic phenylglycine acylsulfonamide 1, a phenylglycine benzylamide 2 was shown to possess improved permeability and oral bioavailability. Optimization of the benzylamide, guided by X-ray crystallography, led to a potent TF-FVIIa inhibitor 18i with promising oral bioavailability, but promiscuous activity in an in vitro safety panel of receptors and enzymes. Introducing an acid on the pyrrolidine ring, guided by molecular modeling, resulted in highly potent, selective, and efficacious TF-FVIIa inhibitors with clean in vitro safety profile. The pyrrolidine acid 20 showed a moderate clearance, low volume of distribution, and a short t 1/2 in dog PK studies.

J Neurophysiol ; 89(5): 2564-76, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12740406


During a shift of gaze, an object can move along with gaze or stay fixed in the world. To examine the effect of an object's reference frame on spatial working memory, we trained monkeys to memorize locations of visual stimuli as either fixed in the world or fixed to gaze. Each trial consisted of an initial reference frame instruction, followed by a peripheral visual flash, a memory-period gaze shift, and finally a memory-guided saccade to the location consistent with the instructed reference frame. The memory-period gaze shift was either rapid (a saccade) or slow (smooth pursuit or whole body rotation). This design allowed a comparison of memory-guided saccade performance under various conditions. Our data indicate that after a rotation or smooth-pursuit eye movement, saccades to memorized world-fixed targets are more variable than saccades to memorized gaze-fixed targets. In contrast, memory-guided saccades to world- and gaze-fixed targets are equally variable following a visually guided saccade. Across all conditions, accuracy, latency, and main sequence characteristics of memory-guided saccades are not influenced by the target's reference frame. Memory-guided saccades are, however, more accurate after fast compared with slow gaze shifts. These results are most consistent with an eye-centered representational system for storing the spatial locations of memorized objects but suggest that the visual system may engage different mechanisms to update the stored signal depending on how gaze is shifted.

Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Rotação