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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 2): 150566, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582864

RESUMO

Although anthropogenic activities contribute to the selection and spread of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments, limited information is available from countries with absent or incomplete sewage treatment systems and the impact of their discharges onto water bodies. This study therefore aimed to characterize the genetic structure of colistin resistance (mcr) genes among Escherichia coli isolates recovered from surface waters and sediments in Ecuador. Out of 459 isolates, four Escherichia coli showed multidrug-resistant phenotypes, which harbored the mcr-1 gene and ß-lactamases, such as blaTEM, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-55, or blaCTX-M-65 genes. Three E. coli isolates (U20, U30 and U144) shared a similar genetic environment surrounding the mcr-1 gene, which was located on plasmids. Only one E. coli isolate (U175) showed that the mcr-1 gene was chromosomally located. Moreover, the core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) analysis revealed that these isolates belong to different lineages. This study represents the first detection of the mcr-1 gene in multidrug-resistant E. coli isolates from environmental samples in Ecuador.

2.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(12): e1679-e1687, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many individuals who survive tuberculosis disease face ongoing disability and elevated mortality risks. However, the impact of post-tuberculosis sequelae is generally omitted from policy analyses and disease burden estimates. We therefore estimated the global burden of tuberculosis, inclusive of post-tuberculosis morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We constructed a hypothetical cohort of individuals developing tuberculosis in 2019, including pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease. We simulated lifetime health outcomes for this cohort, stratified by country, age, sex, HIV status, and treatment status. We used disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) to summarise fatal and non-fatal health losses attributable to tuberculosis, during the disease episode and afterwards. We estimated post-tuberculosis mortality and morbidity based on the decreased lung function caused by pulmonary tuberculosis disease. FINDINGS: Globally, we estimated 122 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 98-151) million DALYs due to incident tuberculosis disease in 2019, with 58 (38-83) million DALYs attributed to post-tuberculosis sequelae, representing 47% (95% UI 37-57) of the total burden estimate. The increase in burden from post-tuberculosis varied substantially across countries and regions, driven largely by differences in estimated case fatality for the disease episode. We estimated 12·1 DALYs (95% UI 10·0-14·9) per incident tuberculosis case, of which 6·3 DALYs (5·6-7·0) were from the disease episode and 5·8 DALYs (3·8-8·3) were from post-tuberculosis. Per-case post-tuberculosis burden estimates were greater for younger individuals, and in countries with high incidence rates. The burden of post-tuberculosis was spread over the remaining lifetime of tuberculosis survivors, with almost a third of total DALYs (28%, 95% UI 23-34) accruing 15 or more years after incident tuberculosis. INTERPRETATION: Post-tuberculosis sequelae add substantially to the overall disease burden caused by tuberculosis. This hitherto unquantified burden has been omitted from most previous policy analyses. Future policy analyses and burden estimates should take better account of post-tuberculosis, to avoid the potential misallocation of funding, political attention, and research effort resulting from continued neglect of this issue. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.

3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9.1): 3S-6S, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609954

RESUMO

The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) model has contributed to building research capacity and has produced evidence for improving public health program performance in countries with limited research capacity. The model involves hands-on mentorship and consists of three modules/weeks. It is recognized to be an innovative research capacity building model. In a world changed by COVID-19, where bringing people together is not viable, an innovative, interactive, web-based, knowledge-transfer platform (e-SORT IT) for virtual implementation of SORT IT modules was created. The platform design imitated the residential course as closely as possible with the same lectures, plenary sessions, and breakout rooms. Despite the challenges, the platform performed well and even though participants and mentors were located in eight different time zones, the course was successful; 90% of participants achieved their milestones and 10 manuscripts were successfully completed. Participant evaluation revealed a satisfaction level that was nearly equivalent to the residential module. However, mentor evaluation indicated a number of shortcomings including capacity building, professional networking, communication, engagement, and contribution by participants, as well as overall module success. In conclusion, COVID-19 stimulated the creation of the e-SORT IT platform that provided a functional alternative to the residential version. Despite the limitations of reduced capacity building and networking, the e-SORT IT platform should be considered a success - it delivered the goods. This is an example of innovation and flexibility, two attributes that are sorely needed to maintain activities during the pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância/normas , Pesquisa/educação , Mentores/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9.1): 66S-74S, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609962

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: MDR/RR-TB is a growing problem in Kyrgyzstan. In 2005, the country introduced standard or individualized treatment for 20-24 months. Because of poor treatment outcomes, in 2017 a short treatment with strict eligibility criteria was introduced. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics and treatment outcomes of MDR/RR-TB patients receiving short (9-12 months) treatment in 2017 with those receiving standard or individualized (20-24 months) treatment in 2016/2017. METHODOLOGY: A comparative cohort study using routine programmatic data. Characteristics, sputum culture conversion and treatment outcomes were compared between those on short treatment with those on standard/individualized treatment using the chi-square test, crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR and aRR). RESULTS: The study included 274, 82 and 132 patients on standard, individualized and short treatment, respectively. There were more females, fewer migrants/homeless and unemployed and more new TB patients on short treatment compared with the other two groups. A favorable outcome (cure and treatment completed) was significantly higher in short treatment patients (83%) compared with those on standard (50%) or individualized (59%) treatment (p < 0.001). There was higher 1-month sputum culture conversion with short treatment (35%) compared with the other two groups (19% and 24%, p < 0.05). Short treatment (aRR 1.6, 1.4-1.8), female gender (aRR 1.2, 1.1-1.4), not being homeless (aRR 12.9, 4.5-17.3) and having new TB (aRR 1.3, 1.0-1.5) were independently associated with a favorable outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment success was higher in selected MDR-TB patients given short treatment in Kyrgyzstan: this regimen should be scaled-up to all MDR-TB patients.

5.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(3)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564548

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that a substantial proportion of people who complete anti-tuberculosis treatment experience significant morbidity and mortality which can negatively affect their quality of life. It is suggested that national tuberculosis programs conduct end-of-treatment assessments, but whether this is feasible is currently not known. We therefore assessed whether tuberculosis program staff could assess functional and general health status of patients at the end of treatment in five TB clinics in four provinces in China. There were 115 patients, aged 14-82 years, who completed anti-tuberculosis treatment and a post-TB assessment. There were 54 (47%) patients who continued to have symptoms, the commonest being cough, dyspnea and fatigue. Symptom continuation was significantly more common in the 22 patients with diabetes (p = 0.027) and the 12 patients previously treated for TB (p = 0.008). There were 12 (10%) current smokers, an abnormal chest X-ray was found in 106 (92%) patients and distance walked in the 6-min walking test (6MWT) ranged from 30-750 m (mean 452 ± 120); 24 (21%) patients walked less than 400 m. Time taken to perform the post-TB assessment, including the 6MWT, ranged from 8-45 min (mean 21 ± 8 min). In 98% of the completed questionnaires, health workers stated that conducting post-TB assessments was feasible and useful. This study shows that post-TB assessments can be conducted under routine programmatic conditions and that there is significant morbidity that needs to be addressed.

6.
AIDS ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low body mass index (BMI) and hyperglycemia are each important risk factors for tuberculosis (TB). However, the contribution of synergy between low BMI and hyperglycemia to risk of TB among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is unexplored. We compared TB incidence among PLHIV with different exposure profiles to low BMI (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and hyperglycemia (random blood glucose ≥140 mg/dl). DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using data of PLHIV (≥15 years) who enrolled in Myanmar's Integrated HIV Care Program between 2011 and 2017. We used their follow-up data until 2018 to determine TB incidence. RESULTS: Among 20,865 PLHIV included in this study, 7,610 (36%) had low BMI only, 1,324 (6%) had hyperglycemia only, and 465 (2%) patients had concurrent low BMI and hyperglycemia (joint exposure) at baseline. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years (IQR: 0.5, 4.2), 3,628 (17%) developed TB (6.7, 95% CI: 6.5,7.0 cases per 100 person-years [PY]). TB incidence among PLHIV with joint exposure was 21.0 (95% CI: 18.0, 24.7), with low BMI only was 10.9 (95% CI: 10.4, 11.4), with hyperglycemia only was 5.2 (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3) and with no exposure was 4.6 (95% CI: 4.4, 4.9) cases per 100PY. The attributable proportion of incident TB due to synergy between low BMI and hyperglycemia was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.36). CONCLUSIONS: Synergy between low BMI and hyperglycemia was associated with increased excess TB incidence in PLHIV. TB preventive treatment, nutritional support, and hyperglycemia management should be evaluated as interventions to reduce TB risk in PLHIV with joint exposure.

7.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201324

RESUMO

Real-time operational research can be defined as research on strategies or interventions to assess if they are feasible, working as planned, scalable and effective. The research involves primary data collection, periodic analysis during the conduct of the study and dissemination of the findings to policy makers for timely action. This paper aims to illustrate the use of real-time operational research and discuss how to make it happen. Four case studies are presented from the field of tuberculosis. These include (i) mis-registration of recurrent tuberculosis in Malawi; (ii) HIV testing and adjunctive cotrimoxazole to reduce mortality in TB patients in Malawi; (iii) screening TB patients for diabetes mellitus in India; and (iv) mitigating the impact of COVID-19 on TB case detection in capital cities in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe. The important ingredients of real-time operational research are sound ethics; relevant research; adherence to international standards of conducting and reporting on research; consideration of comparison groups; timely data collection; dissemination to key stakeholders; capacity building; and funding. Operational research can improve the delivery of established health interventions and ensure the deployment of new interventions as they become available, irrespective of diseases. This is particularly important when public health emergencies, including pandemics, threaten health services.

8.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(3)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201909

RESUMO

Inappropriate use of antibiotics has led to the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in ambient air. There is no published information about the presence and resistance profiles of bacteria in ambient air in Ghana. We evaluated the presence and antibiotic resistance profiles of selected bacterial, environmental and meteorological characteristics and airborne bacterial counts in 12 active air quality monitoring sites (seven roadside, two industrial and three residential) in Accra in February 2020. Roadside sites had the highest median temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and PM10 concentrations, and median airborne bacterial counts in roadside sites (115,000 CFU/m3) were higher compared with industrial (35,150 CFU/m3) and residential sites (1210 CFU/m3). Bacillus species were isolated in all samples and none were antibiotic resistant. There were, however, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas species, non-hemolytic Streptococci, Coliforms and Staphylococci species, of which six (50%) showed mono-resistance or multidrug resistance to four antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone). There was a positive correlation between PM10 concentrations and airborne bacterial counts (rs = 0.72), but no correlations were found between PM10 concentrations and the pathogenic bacteria nor their antibiotic resistance. We call for the expansion of surveillance of ambient air to other cities of Ghana to obtain nationally representative information.

9.
F1000Res ; 10: 198, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164113

RESUMO

Background: The Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) teaches the practical skills of conducting and publishing operational research (OR) to influence health policy and/or practice. In addition to original research articles, viewpoint articles are also produced and published as secondary outputs of SORT IT courses. We assessed the characteristics, use and influence of viewpoint articles derived from all SORT IT courses. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving all published viewpoint articles derived from the SORT IT courses held from August 2009 - March 2020. Characteristics of these papers were sourced from the papers themselves and from SORT-IT members involved in writing the papers. Data on use were sourced from the metrics provided on the online publishing platforms and from Google Scholar. Influence on policy and practice was self-assessed by the authors of the papers and was performed only for papers deemed to be 'calls for action'. Results: A total of 41 viewpoint papers were published. Of these, 15 (37%) were 'calls for action'. In total, 31 (76%) were published in open-access journals and the remaining 10 in delayed access journals. In 12 (29%) of the papers, first authors were from low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Female authors (54%) were included in 22, but only four (10%) and two (5%) of first and last authors respectively, were female. Only seven (17%) papers had available data regarding online views and downloads. The median citation score for the papers was four (IQR 1-9). Of the 15 'call for action' papers, six influenced OR capacity building, two influenced policy and practice, and three influenced both OR capacity building within SORT IT and policy and practice. Conclusion: Viewpoint articles generated during SORT IT courses appear to complement original OR studies and are valued contributors to the dissemination of OR practices in LMICs.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Pesquisa Operacional , Benchmarking , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Publicações
10.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068109

RESUMO

Monitoring antibiotic consumption is crucial to tackling antimicrobial resistance. However, currently there is no system in Sierra Leone for recording and reporting on antibiotic consumption. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess national antibiotic consumption expressed as defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day using all registered and imported antibiotics (categorized under the subgroup J01 under the anatomical and therapeutic classification (ATC) system) as a proxy. Between 2017-2019, total cumulative consumption of antibiotics was 19 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day. The vast majority consisted of oral antibiotics (98.4%), while parenteral antibiotics made up 1.6%. According to therapeutic/pharmacological subgroups (ATC level 3), beta-lactam/penicillins, quinolones, and other antibacterials (mainly oral metronidazole) comprised 65% of total consumption. According to WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe), 65% of antibiotics consumed were Access, 31% were Watch, and no Reserve antibiotics were reported. The top ten oral antibiotics represented 97% of total oral antibiotics consumed, with metronidazole (35%) and ciprofloxacin (15%) together constituting half of the total. Of parenteral antibiotics consumed, procaine penicillin (32%) and ceftriaxone (19%) together comprised half of the total. Policy recommendations at global and national levels have been made to improve monitoring of antibiotic consumption and antibiotic stewardship.

11.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068615

RESUMO

There was concern that the COVID-19 pandemic would adversely affect TB and HIV programme services in Kenya. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 18 health facilities in Nairobi so that interventions could be implemented to counteract anticipated declining trends. Aggregate data were collected and reported monthly to programme heads during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using EpiCollect5 and compared with monthly data collected during the pre-COVID period (March 2019-February 2020). During the COVID-19 period, there was an overall decrease in people with presumptive pulmonary TB (31.2%), diagnosed and registered with TB (28.0%) and in those tested for HIV (50.5%). Interventions to improve TB case detection and HIV testing were implemented from August 2020 and were associated with improvements in all parameters during the second six months of the COVID-19 period. During the COVID-19 period, there were small increases in TB treatment success (65.0% to 67.0%) and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy (91.2% to 92.9%): this was more apparent in the second six months after interventions were implemented. Programmatic interventions were associated with improved case detection and treatment outcomes during the COVID-19 period, suggesting that monthly real-time surveillance is useful during unprecedented events.

12.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069332

RESUMO

When the COVID-19 pandemic was announced in March 2020, there was concern that TB and HIV programme services in Malawi would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in eight health facilities in Lilongwe to see if it was possible to counteract the anticipated negative impact on TB case detection and treatment and HIV testing. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using an EpiCollect5 application and compared with monthly data collected during the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020); these reports were sent monthly to programme directors. During COVID-19, there was an overall decrease in persons presenting with presumptive pulmonary TB (45.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (19.1%), and in individuals tested for HIV (39.0%). For presumptive TB, children and females were more affected, but for HIV testing, adults and males were more affected. During COVID-19, the TB treatment success rate (96.1% in pre-COVID-19 and 96.0% during COVID-19 period) and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy (100% in pre-COVID-19 and 98.6% during COVID-19 period) remained high and largely unchanged. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection were not redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance.

13.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(2)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072803

RESUMO

When COVID-19 was declared a pandemic, there was concern that TB and HIV services in Zimbabwe would be severely affected. We set up real-time monthly surveillance of TB and HIV activities in 10 health facilities in Harare to capture trends in TB case detection, TB treatment outcomes and HIV testing and use these data to facilitate corrective action. Aggregate data were collected monthly during the COVID-19 period (March 2020-February 2021) using EpiCollect5 and compared with monthly data extracted for the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020). Monthly reports were sent to program directors. During the COVID-19 period, there was a decrease in persons with presumptive pulmonary TB (40.6%), in patients registered for TB treatment (33.7%) and in individuals tested for HIV (62.8%). The HIV testing decline improved in the second 6 months of the COVID-19 period. However, TB case finding deteriorated further, associated with expiry of diagnostic reagents. During the COVID-19 period, TB treatment success decreased from 80.9 to 69.3%, and referral of HIV-positive persons to antiretroviral therapy decreased from 95.7 to 91.7%. Declining trends in TB and HIV case detection and TB treatment outcomes were not fully redressed despite real-time monthly surveillance. More support is needed to transform this useful information into action.

14.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(6): 600-602, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075400

RESUMO

In 2019, global diabetes prevalence was 463 million. Diabetes increases the risk of TB and adverse treatment outcomes including death and relapse. Diabetes also increases the risk of severe disease, multi-organ failure, coagulopathy and death in COVID-19. TB and COVID-19 share many features, suggesting opportunities to integrate prevention, diagnosis and care. Three areas for further work are highlighted: better infection control in diabetes clinics, easier and quicker diagnosis using similar technology platforms and optimal blood glucose control. The funding and resources for COVID-19 should be harnessed to improve TB and diabetes care and achieve their respective sustainable development goal targets.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(4): 559-565, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health care workers (HCWs), especially from sub-Saharan Africa, are at risk of occupational exposure to HIV. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can reduce this risk. There is no published information from Zimbabwe, a high HIV burden country, about how PEP works. We therefore assessed how the PEP programme performed at the Parirenyatwa Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe, from 2017-2018. METHODOLOGY: This was a cohort study using secondary data from the staff clinic paper-based register. The chi square test and relative risks were used to assess associations. RESULTS: There were 154 HCWs who experienced occupational injuries. The commonest group was medical doctors (36%) and needle sticks were the most frequent type of occupational injury (74%). The exposure source was identified in 114 (74%) occupational injuries: 91% of source patients were HIV-tested and 77% were HIV-positive. All but two HCWs were HIV-tested, 148 were eligible for PEP and 142 (96%) started triple therapy, all within 48 hours of exposure. Of those starting PEP, 15 (11%) completed 28 days, 13 (9%) completed < 28 days and in the remainder PEP duration was not recorded. There were no HCW characteristics associated with not completing PEP. Of those starting PEP, 9 (6%) were HIV-tested at 6-weeks, 3 (2%) were HIV-tested at 3-months and 1 (< 1%) was HIV-tested at 6-months: all HIV-tests were negative. CONCLUSIONS: While uptake of PEP was timely and high, the majority of HCWs failed to complete the 28-day treatment course and even fewer attended for follow-up HIV-tests. Various changes are recommended to promote awareness of PEP and improve adherence to guidelines.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924862

RESUMO

Uzbekistan has a large burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). To deal with this public health threat, the National TB Program introduced rapid molecular diagnostic tests such as Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and line probe assays (LPAs) for first-line and second-line drugs. We documented the scale-up of Xpert and LPAs from 2012-2019 and assessed whether this led to an increase in patients with laboratory-confirmed multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). This was a descriptive study using secondary program data. The numbers of GeneXpert instruments cumulatively increased from six to sixty-seven, resulting in annual assays increasing from 5574 to 107,330. A broader use of the technology resulted in a lower proportion of tests detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis with half of the positive results showing rifampicin resistance. LPA instruments cumulatively increased from two to thirteen; the annual first-line assays for MDR-TB increased from 2582 to 6607 while second-line assays increased from 1435 in 2016 to 6815 in 2019 with about one quarter to one third of diagnosed patients showing second-line drug resistance. Patient numbers with laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB remained stable (from 1728 to 2060) but there was a large increase in patients with laboratory-confirmed XDR-TB (from 31 to 696). Programmatic implications and ways forward are discussed.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Patologia Molecular , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Uzbequistão/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925705

RESUMO

Uzbekistan has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Although conventional treatment for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) has been available since 2013, there has been no systematic documentation about its use and effectiveness. We therefore documented at national level the trends, characteristics, and outcomes of patients with drug-resistant TB enrolled for treatment from 2013-2018 and assessed risk factors for unfavorable treatment outcomes (death, failure, loss to follow-up, treatment continuation, change to XDR-TB regimen) in patients treated in Tashkent city from 2016-2017. This was a cohort study using secondary aggregate and individual patient data. Between 2013 and 2018, MDR-TB numbers were stable between 2347 and 2653 per annum, while XDR-TB numbers increased from 33 to 433 per annum. At national level, treatment success (cured and treatment completed) for MDR-TB decreased annually from 63% to 57%, while treatment success for XDR-TB increased annually from 24% to 57%. On multivariable analysis, risk factors for unfavorable outcomes, death, and loss to follow-up in drug-resistant TB patients treated in Tashkent city included XDR-TB, male sex, increasing age, previous TB treatment, alcohol abuse, and associated comorbidities (cardiovascular and liver disease, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS). Reasons for these findings and programmatic implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Uzbequistão/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: All countries impacted by COVID-19 have had to change routine health service delivery. Although this has reversed some of the progress made in reducing the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) disease, there is an opportunity to incorporate lessons learned to improve TB programmes going forward. APPROACH: We use Pakistan as a case study to discuss three important adaptations in light of COVID-19: bringing care closer to patients; strengthening primary health care systems; and proactively addressing stigma and fear. FINDINGS: COVID-19 control in Pakistan has restricted people's ability to travel and this has forced the TB programme to reduce the need for in-person health facility visits and bring care closer to patients' homes. Strategies that may be useful for providing more convenient care to patients in the future include: : remote treatment support using telemedicine; collaborating with private healthcare providers; and establishing community medicine collection points. As part of the response to COVID-19 in Pakistan, the out-patient departments of major tertiary and secondary care hospitals were closed, and this highlighted the importance of strengthening primary healthcare for both better pandemic and TB control. Finally, stigma associated with COVID-19 and TB can be addressed using trusted community-based health workers, such as Lady Health Workers in Pakistan.

19.
Sleep Breath ; 25(4): 1905-1912, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550562

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of sleep-related disorders, poor sleeping, and factors associated with poor sleep quality among inhabitants of Parakou, Benin. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from April-August 2018 on 930 randomly selected adults (age ≥ 18 years). Using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, the Insomnia Severity Index, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, subjects were questioned on their sleep, on parasomnias, and on movement-related sleep disorders. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of insomnia was 22% (95% CI, 19.1-24.4) and severe insomnia was 0.8%. The prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness was 15% (95% CI, 12.5-17.0). Daily nightmares (2%) and rhythmic movements (6%) were those most commonly reported among parasomnias and movement-related sleep disorders. No major differences were found between men and women. The prevalence of poor sleeping (PSQI > 5) was 39% (95%CI, 36.3-42.5). Adjusted analyses showed a higher risk of poor sleeping in those aged 45-54 years (aOR = 1.78, p = 0.032) or ≥ 55 years (aOR = 3.61, p < 0.001), those overweight or obese (aOR = 1.53, p = 0.007), those underweight (aOR = 2.90, p = 0.030), and among females (aOR = 1.84, p < 0.001). Being divorced was associated with a lower risk of poor sleeping (aOR = 0.18, p = 0.036). Poor sleepers were more commonly found among those who had excessive daytime sleepiness (65% versus 36%, p < 0.001) and insomnia (86% versus 27%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Sleep-related disorders were common in Parakou city, Benin, with four out of ten persons having poor sleep quality. There is a need to improve the management of sleep-related disorders and promote better sleep practices for the community.

20.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(1): 117-119, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031556

RESUMO

With lockdown restrictions over coronavirus disease 2019 being relaxed, airlines are returning to the skies. Published evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 transmission on aircraft is limited, but in-flight transmission of respiratory infections such as tuberculosis, influenza and SARS has been well described. Risk factors include proximity to index patients and sitting in aisle seats. Personal protection on aircraft could be enhanced by always wearing a well-fitting face mask and face shield or sunglasses, wiping surfaces and hands with alcohol-based sanitizers, not touching the face, not queuing for washrooms, changing seats if nearby passengers are coughing and choosing a window rather than an aisle seat.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Aeronaves , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Tosse , Desinfecção , Óculos , Higienizadores de Mão , Humanos , Máscaras , Distanciamento Físico , Fatores de Risco , Tato
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