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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 754436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733287

RESUMO

Cancer patients with low or absent pre-existing anti-tumour immunity ("cold" tumours) respond poorly to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI). In order to render these patients susceptible to ICPI, initiation of de novo tumour-targeted immune responses is required. This involves triggering of inflammatory signalling, innate immune activation including recruitment and stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs), and ultimately priming of tumour-specific T cells. The ability of tumour localised therapies to trigger these pathways and act as in situ tumour vaccines is being increasingly explored, with the aspiration of developing combination strategies with ICPI that could generate long-lasting responses. In this effort, it is crucial to consider how therapy-induced changes in the tumour microenvironment (TME) act both as immune stimulants but also, in some cases, exacerbate immune resistance mechanisms. Increasingly refined immune monitoring in pre-clinical studies and analysis of on-treatment biopsies from clinical trials have provided insight into therapy-induced biomarkers of response, as well as actionable targets for optimal synergy between localised therapies and ICB. Here, we review studies on the immunomodulatory effects of novel and experimental localised therapies, as well as the re-evaluation of established therapies, such as radiotherapy, as immune adjuvants with a focus on ICPI combinations.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 153: 242-256, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radical (chemo)radiotherapy offers potentially curative treatment for patients with locally advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer. We aimed to show that dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (DE-IMRT) improved locoregional control. METHODS: We performed a phase III open-label randomised controlled trial in patients with laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer (AJCC III-IVa/b, TNM 7). Patients were randomised (1:1) to DE-IMRT or standard dose IMRT (ST-IMRT) using a minimisation algorithm, balancing for centre, tumour site, nodal status and chemotherapy use. DE-IMRT was 67.2 gray (Gy) in 28 fractions (f) to the primary tumour and 56Gy/28f to at-risk nodes; ST-IMRT was 65Gy/30f to primary tumour and 54Gy/30f to at-risk nodes. Suitable patients received 2 cycles of concomitant cisplatin and up to 3 cycles of platinum-based induction chemotherapy. The primary end-point was time to locoregional failure analysed by intention-to-treat analysis using competing risk methodology. FINDINGS: Between February 2011 and October 2015, 276 patients (138 ST-IMRT; 138 DE-IMRT) were randomised. A preplanned interim futility analysis met the criterion for early closure. After a median follow-up of 47.9 months (interquartile range 37.5-60.5), there were locoregional failures in 38 of 138 (27.5%) ST-IMRT patients and 42 of 138 (30.4%) DE-IMRT patients; an adjusted subhazard ratio of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-1.83, p = 0.519) indicated no evidence of benefit with DE-IMRT. Acute grade 2 pharyngeal mucositis was reported more frequently with DE-IMRT than with ST-IMRT (42% vs. 32%). No differences in grade ≥3 acute or late toxicity rates were seen. CONCLUSION: DE-IMRT did not improve locoregional control in patients with laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer. The trial is registered: ISRCTN01483375.

3.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 111(4): 867-875, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: High-field magnetic resonance-linear accelerators (MR-Linacs), linear accelerators combined with a diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and online adaptive workflow, potentially give rise to novel online anatomic and response adaptive radiation therapy paradigms. The first high-field (1.5T) MR-Linac received regulatory approval in late 2018, and little is known about clinical use, patient tolerability of daily high-field MRI, and toxicity of treatments. Herein we report the initial experience within the MOMENTUM Study (NCT04075305), a prospective international registry of the MR-Linac Consortium. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients were included between February 2019 and October 2020 at 7 institutions in 4 countries. We used descriptive statistics to describe the patterns of care, tolerability (the percentage of patients discontinuing their course early), and safety (grade 3-5 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.5 acute toxicity within 3 months after the end of treatment). RESULTS: A total 943 patients participated in the MOMENTUM Study, 702 of whom had complete baseline data at the time of this analysis. Patients were primarily male (79%) with a median age of 68 years (range, 22-93) and were treated for 39 different indications. The most frequent indications were prostate (40%), oligometastatic lymph node (17%), brain (12%), and rectal (10%) cancers. The median number of fractions was 5 (range, 1-35). Six patients discontinued MR-Linac treatments, but none due to an inability to tolerate repeated high-field MRI. Of the 415 patients with complete data on acute toxicity at 3-month follow-up, 18 (4%) patients experienced grade 3 acute toxicity related to radiation. No grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity related to radiation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In the first 21 months of our study, patterns of care were diverse with respect to clinical utilization, body sites, and radiation prescriptions. No patient discontinued treatment due to inability to tolerate daily high-field MRI scans, and the acute radiation toxicity experience was encouraging.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7119, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782505

RESUMO

Recent clinical trials in breast and prostate cancer have established that fewer, larger daily doses (fractions) of radiotherapy are safe and effective, but these do not represent personalised dosing on a patient-by-patient basis. Understanding cell and molecular mechanisms determining fraction size sensitivity is essential to fully exploit this therapeutic variable for patient benefit. The hypothesis under test in this study is that fraction size sensitivity is dependent on the presence of wild-type (WT) p53 and intact non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Using single or split-doses of radiation in a range of normal and malignant cells, split-dose recovery was determined using colony-survival assays. Both normal and tumour cells with WT p53 demonstrated significant split-dose recovery, whereas Li-Fraumeni fibroblasts and tumour cells with defective G1/S checkpoint had a large S/G2 component and lost the sparing effect of smaller fractions. There was lack of split-dose recovery in NHEJ-deficient cells and DNA-PKcs inhibitor increased sensitivity to split-doses in glioma cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of p53 in fibroblasts reduced split-dose recovery. In summary, cells defective in p53 are less sensitive to radiotherapy fraction size and lack of split-dose recovery in DNA ligase IV and DNA-PKcs mutant cells suggests the dependence of fraction size sensitivity on intact NHEJ.


Assuntos
Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA/efeitos da radiação , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Humanos , Tolerância a Radiação
5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(12): 3280-3290, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558423

RESUMO

The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide (APOBEC) family protects against infection by degrading incoming viral genomes through cytosine deamination. Here, we review how the potential to unleash these potent DNA mutagens comes at a price as APOBEC DNA mutagenesis can contribute to development of multiple types of cancer. In addition, because viral infection induces its expression, APOBEC is seen as the enemy of oncolytic virotherapy through mutation of the viral genome and by generating virotherapy-resistant tumors. Therefore, overall APOBEC in cancer has received very poor press. However, we also speculate how there may be silver linings to the storm clouds (kataegis) associated with APOBEC activity. Thus, although mutagenic genomic chaos promotes emergence of ever more aggressive subclones, it also provides significant opportunity for cytotoxic and immune therapies. In particular, the superpower of cancer immunotherapy derives in part from mutation, wherein generation of tumor neoantigens-neoantigenesis-exposes tumor cells to functional T-cell repertoires, and susceptibility to immune checkpoint blockade. Moreover, APOBECs may be able to induce suprathreshold levels of cellular mutation leading to mitotic catastrophe and direct tumor cell killing. Finally, we discuss the possibility that linking predictable APOBEC-induced mutation with escape from specific frontline therapies could identify mutated molecules/pathways that can be targeted with small molecules and/or immunotherapies in a Trap and Ambush strategy. Together, these considerations lead to the counterintuitive hypothesis that, instead of attempting to expunge and excoriate APOBEC activity in cancer therapy, it might be exploited-and even, counterintuitively, encouraged.

6.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 110(3): 682-695, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571626

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reirradiation for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is challenging because prior radiation dose delivered in the first course is often close to the tolerance limit of surrounding normal structures. A delicate balance between achieving local salvage and minimizing treatment toxicities is needed. However, high-level evidence is lacking because available reports are mostly retrospective studies on small series of patients. Pragmatic consensus guidelines, based on an extensive literature search and the pooling of opinions by leading specialists, will provide a useful reference to assist decision-making for these difficult decisions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A thorough review of available literature on recurrent NPC was conducted. A set of questions and preliminary draft guideline was circulated to a panel of international specialists with extensive experience in this field for voting on controversial areas and comments. A refined second proposal, based on a summary of the initial voting and different opinions expressed, was recirculated to the whole panel for review and reconsideration. The current guideline was based on majority voting after repeated iteration for final agreement. RESULTS: The initial round of questions showed variations in clinical practice even among the specialists, reflecting the lack of high-quality supporting data and the difficulties in formulating clinical decisions. Through exchange of comments and iterative revisions, recommendations with high-to-moderate agreement were formulated on general treatment strategies and details of reirradiation (including patient selection, targets contouring, dose prescription, and constraints). CONCLUSION: This paper provides useful reference on radical salvage treatment strategies for recurrent NPC and optimization of reirradiation through review of published evidence and consensus building. However, the final decision by the attending clinician must include full consideration of an individual patient's condition, understanding of the delicate balance between risk and benefits, and acceptance of risk of complications.


Assuntos
Internacionalidade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/radioterapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Reirradiação , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Recidiva , Terapia de Salvação
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(3): 689-703, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122346

RESUMO

Therapeutic cancer vaccines, an exciting development in cancer immunotherapy, share the goal of creating and amplifying tumor-specific T-cell responses, but significant obstacles still remain to their success. Here, we briefly outline the principles underlying cancer vaccine therapy with a focus on novel vaccine platforms and antigens, underscoring the renewed optimism. Numerous strategies have been investigated to overcome immunosuppressive mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and counteract tumor escape, including improving antigen selection, refining delivery platforms, and use of combination therapies. Several new cancer vaccine platforms and antigen targets are under development. In an effort to amplify tumor-specific T-cell responses, a heterologous prime-boost antigen delivery strategy is increasingly used for virus-based vaccines. Viruses have also been engineered to express targeted antigens and immunomodulatory molecules simultaneously, to favorably modify the TME. Nanoparticle systems have shown promise as delivery vectors for cancer vaccines in preclinical research. T-win is another platform targeting both tumor cells and the TME, using peptide-based vaccines that engage and activate T cells to target immunoregulatory molecules expressed on immunosuppressive and malignant cells. With the availability of next-generation sequencing, algorithms for neoantigen selection are emerging, and several bioinformatic platforms are available to select therapeutically relevant neoantigen targets for developing personalized therapies. However, more research is needed before the use of neoepitope prediction and personalized immunotherapy becomes commonplace. Taken together, the field of therapeutic cancer vaccines is fast evolving, with the promise of potential synergy with existing immunotherapies for long-term cancer treatment.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(2): 171-181, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) affects health-related quality of life (HRQoL); few treatments have demonstrated clinically meaningful HRQoL benefit. KEYNOTE-040 evaluated pembrolizumab vs standard of care (SOC) in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic HNSCC whose disease recurred or progressed after platinum-containing regimen. METHODS: Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg or SOC (methotrexate, docetaxel, or cetuximab). Exploratory HRQoL analyses used European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 30 quality-of-life, EORTC 35-question quality-of-life head and neck cancer-specific module, and EuroQoL 5-dimensions questionnaires. RESULTS: The HRQoL population comprised 469 patients (pembrolizumab = 241, SOC = 228). HRQoL compliance for patients in the study at week 15 was 75.3% (116 of 154) for pembrolizumab and 74.6% (85 of 114) for SOC. The median time to deterioration in global health status (GHS) and QoL scores were 4.8 months with pembrolizumab and 2.8 months with SOC (hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59 to 1.05). At week 15, GHS / QoL scores were stable for pembrolizumab (least squares mean [LSM] = 0.39, 95% CI = -3.00 to 3.78) but worsened for SOC (LSM = -5.86, 95% CI = -9.68 to -2.04); the LSM between-group difference was 6.25 points (95% CI = 1.32 to 11.18; nominal 2-sided P = .01). A greater difference in the LSM for GHS / QoL score occurred with pembrolizumab vs docetaxel (10.23, 95% CI = 3.15 to 17.30) compared with pembrolizumab vs methotrexate (6.21, 95% CI = -4.57 to 16.99) or pembrolizumab vs cetuximab (-1.44, 95% CI = -11.43 to 8.56). Pembrolizumab-treated patients had stable functioning and symptoms at week 15, with no notable differences from SOC. CONCLUSIONS: GHS / QoL scores were stable with pembrolizumab but declined with SOC in patients at week 15, supporting the clinically meaningful benefit of pembrolizumab in recurrent and/or metastatic HNSCC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Cetuximab/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia
9.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1328, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014774

RESUMO

Purpose: MR-guided Radiation Therapy (MRgRT) allows for high-precision radiotherapy under real-time MR visualization. This enables margin reduction and subsequent dose escalation which may lead to higher tumor control and less toxicity. The Unity MR-linac (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) integrates a linear accelerator with a 1.5T diagnostic quality MRI and an online adaptive workflow. A prospective international registry was established to facilitate the evidence-based implementation of the Unity MR-linac into clinical practice, to systemically evaluate long-term outcomes, and to aid further technical development of MR-linac-based MRgRT. Methods and Results: In February 2019, the Multi-OutcoMe EvaluatioN of radiation Therapy Using the MR-linac study (MOMENTUM) started within the MR-linac Consortium. The MOMENTUM study is an international academic-industrial partnership between several hospitals and industry partner Elekta. All patients treated on the MR-linac are eligible for inclusion in MOMENTUM. For participants, we collect clinical patient data (e.g., patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics) and technical patient data which is defined as information generated on the MR-linac during treatment. The data are captured, pseudonymized, and stored in an international registry at set time intervals up to two years after treatment. Patients can choose to provide patient-reported outcomes and consent to additional MRI scans acquired on the MR-linac. This registry will serve as a data platform that supports multicenter research investigating the MR-linac. Rules and regulations on data sharing, data access, and intellectual property rights are summarized in an academic-industrial collaboration agreement. Data access rules ensure secure data handling and research integrity for investigators and institutions. Separate data access rules exist for academic and industry partners. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with ID: NCT04075305 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04075305). Conclusion: The multi-institutional MOMENTUM study has been set up to collect clinical and technical patient data to advance technical development, and facilitate evidenced-based implementation of MR-linac technology with the ultimate purpose to improve tumor control, survival, and quality of life of patients with cancer.

10.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 886, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082328

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to develop therapeutic approaches that can increase the response rate to immuno-oncology agents. Photoimmunotherapy has recently been shown to generate anti-tumour immunological responses by releasing tumour-associated antigens from ablated tumour cell residues, thereby enhancing antigenicity and adjuvanticity. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a novel HER2-targeted affibody-based conjugate (ZHER2:2395-IR700) selectively to induce cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo. The studies in vitro confirmed the specificity of ZHER2:2395-IR700 binding to HER2-positive cells and its ability to produce reactive oxygen species upon light irradiation. A conjugate concentration- and light irradiation-dependent decrease in cell viability was also demonstrated. Furthermore, light-activated ZHER2:2395-IR700 triggered all hallmarks of immunogenic cell death, as defined by the translocation of calreticulin to the cell surface, and the secretion of ATP, HSP70/90 and HMGB1 from dying cancer cells into the medium. Irradiating a co-culture of immature dendritic cells (DCs) and cancer cells exposed to light-activated ZHER2:2395-IR700 enhanced DC maturation, as indicated by augmented expression of CD86 and HLA-DR. In SKOV-3 xenografts, the ZHER2:2395-IR700-based phototherapy delayed tumour growth and increased median overall survival. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that ZHER2:2395-IR700 is a promising new therapeutic conjugate that has great potential to be applicable for photoimmunotherapy-based regimens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Fototerapia/métodos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
12.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aggressive clinical behavior of poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers (PDTC and ATC) has proven challenging to treat, and survival beyond a few months from diagnosis is rare. Although 30%-60% of these tumors contain mutations in the BRAF gene, inhibitors designed specifically to target oncogenic BRAF have shown limited and only short-lasting therapeutic benefits as single agents, thus highlighting the need for improved treatment strategies, including novel combinations. METHODS: Using a BRAFV600E-driven mouse model of ATC, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of BRAF inhibition and oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV). Analyses of samples from tumor-bearing mice were performed to immunologically characterize the effects of different treatments. These immune data were used to inform the incorporation of immune checkpoint inhibitors into triple combination therapies. RESULTS: We characterized the immune landscape in vivo following BRAF inhibitor treatment and detected only modest immune changes. We, therefore, hypothesized that the addition of oncolytic virotherapy to BRAF inhibition in thyroid cancer would create a more favorable tumor immune microenvironment, boost the inflammatory status of tumors and improve BRAF inhibitor therapy. First, we showed that thyroid cancer cells were susceptible to infection with oHSV and that this process was associated with activation of the immune tumor microenvironment in vivo. Next, we showed improved therapeutic responses when combining oHSV and BRAF inhibition in vivo, although no synergistic effects were seen in vitro, further confirming that the dominant effect of oHSV in this context was likely immune-mediated. Importantly, both gene and protein expression data revealed an increase in activation of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells in the tumor in combination-treated samples. The benefit of combination oHSV and BRAF inhibitor therapy was abrogated when T cells or NK cells were depleted in vivo. In addition, we showed upregulation of PD-L1 and CTLA-4 following combined treatment and demonstrated that blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis or CTLA-4 further improved combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of oHSV and BRAF inhibition significantly improved survival in a mouse model of ATC by enhancing immune-mediated antitumor effects, and triple combination therapies, including either PD-1 or CTLA-4 blockade, further improved therapy.


Assuntos
Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 1/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 138: 11-18, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829104

RESUMO

The United Kingdom head and neck mucosal melanoma guideline development group used an evidence-based systematic approach to make recommendations in key areas of uncertainty in the field, including accurate diagnosis and staging; the appropriate treatment pathway including surgery, adjuvant radiation and new systemic treatments, such as targeted agents and immunotherapy; and the surveillance of patients after treatment. The guidelines were sent for international peer review and have been accredited by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. A summary of key recommendations is presented. The full documents are available on the Melanoma Focus website (https://melanomafocus.com/activities/mucosal-guidelines/mucosal-melanoma-resources/).


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Melanoma/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Melanoma/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Reino Unido
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(19): 5153-5161, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669371

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) is poor, and only a minority of patients benefit from checkpoint immunotherapy. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), an oncolytic immunotherapy approved for advanced melanoma, in combination with pembrolizumab may yield enhanced antitumor activity over either agent alone. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a phase Ib/III, multicenter trial testing intratumoral T-VEC combined with intravenous pembrolizumab in R/M HNSCC refractory to platinum-based chemotherapy. For phase Ib, primary endpoint was incidence of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Key secondary endpoints included objective response rate and progression-free survival per irRECIST, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were enrolled into the phase Ib study. The data cut-off date was August 28, 2018. Median follow-up was 5.8 months (range, 0.3-24.2). One DLT of T-VEC-related fatal arterial hemorrhage was reported. Twenty (55.6%) and 21 (58.3%) patients experienced adverse events (AE) related to T-VEC and pembrolizumab, respectively. Besides the DLT, there were no treatment-related fatal AEs. A confirmed partial response was observed in 5 (13.9%) patients. Ten (27.8%) patients were unevaluable for response due to early death. Median PFS and OS were 3.0 months [95% confidence interval (Cl), 2.0-5.8] and 5.8 months (95% Cl, 2.9-11.4), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of T-VEC and pembrolizumab demonstrated a tolerable safety profile in R/M HNSCC. The efficacy with the combination was similar to that with pembrolizumab monotherapy in historical HNSCC studies. Phase III part of this study was not further pursued (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02626000).

16.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(7): 758-766, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483388

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) perform diverse roles and can modulate therapy responses1. The inflammatory environment within tumours also influences responses to many therapies, including the efficacy of oncolytic viruses2; however, the role of CAFs in this context remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the cell signalling triggered by heterotypic cancer cell-fibroblast contacts and about what activates fibroblasts to express inflammatory mediators1,3. Here, we show that direct contact between cancer cells and CAFs triggers the expression of a wide range of inflammatory modulators by fibroblasts. This is initiated following transcytosis of cytoplasm from cancer cells into fibroblasts, leading to the activation of STING and IRF3-mediated expression of interferon-ß1 and other cytokines. Interferon-ß1 then drives interferon-stimulated transcriptional programs in both cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts and ultimately undermines the efficacy of oncolytic viruses, both in vitro and in vivo. Further, targeting IRF3 solely in stromal fibroblasts restores oncolytic herpes simplex virus function.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Instabilidade Genômica , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Células Estromais/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(6): e10979, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419365

RESUMO

Drugs that mobilise the immune system against cancer are dramatically improving care for many people. Dying cancer cells play an active role in inducing anti-tumour immunity but not every form of death can elicit an immune response. Moreover, resistance to apoptosis is a major problem in cancer treatment and disease control. While the term "immunogenic cell death" is not fully defined, activation of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) can induce a type of death that mobilises the immune system against cancer. However, no clinical treatment protocols have yet been established that would harness the immunogenic potential of RIPK1. Here, we report the first pre-clinical application of an in vivo treatment protocol for soft-tissue sarcoma that directly engages RIPK1-mediated immunogenic cell death. We find that RIPK1-mediated cell death significantly improves local disease control, increases activation of CD8+ T cells as well as NK cells, and enhances the survival benefit of immune checkpoint blockade. Our findings warrant a clinical trial to assess the survival benefit of RIPK1-induced cell death in patients with advanced disease at limb extremities.


Assuntos
Morte Celular Imunogênica , Sarcoma , Apoptose , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Sarcoma/terapia , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
18.
Eur J Cancer ; 131: 9-15, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical evidence suggests reduced efficacy of anticancer treatment in patients exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics. It is hypothesised that this phenomenon may be explained by the effects of antibiotics on the composition of the microbiota. To assess this in a clinical setting, we analysed the impact of antibiotics in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) treated with curative intent with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective data for LAHNC patients treated with curative intent (245 induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation [CRT], 17 surgery followed by post-operative CRT, six CRT, three RT alone and one RT with concurrent cetuximab) were analysed. We evaluated the impact of antibiotics prescribed during primary anti-cancer treatment on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates by multivariate Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 272 patients, those receiving antibiotics between within 1 week before and 2 weeks after treatment (N = 124) progressed significantly earlier and had lower OS and DSS rates. In the multivariate analysis, administration of antibiotics was independently associated with reduced PFS (hazards ratio [HR] 1.98, P = 0.001), OS (HR 1.85, P = 0.001) and DSS (HR 1.95, P = 0.004). This effect was maintained with independence of reason for prescription, type and time of antibiotic prescription. The negative impact was greater for patients who received two or more courses of antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment was correlated with increased risk of locoregional relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a negative impact of antibiotic therapy on treatment outcomes following CRT with curative intent in patients with LAHNC. This potential harm should be considered when prescribing broad-spectrum and prophylactic antibiotics for such patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 28(3): 165-171, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345921

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite advances in head and neck cancer treatment provision, recurrence rates remain high with the added risk of successfully treated patients developing a second primary. We report on the management of dysphagia in the context of residual/recurrent or new disease in a preirradiated field and make suggestions for future research. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been numerous developments in treatment options for people with residual/recurrent head and neck cancer. This is because of improved surgical interventions including microvascular reconstruction techniques and transoral robotic surgery. In the era of highly conformal radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), there may be opportunities for re-irradiation. These advancements are now increasingly employed in the context of locoregionally recurrent disease. With results being reported from an increasing number of clinical trials, systemic therapies, including treatment with immunotherapy, offer the potential for increased survival with less treatment-related toxicity. SUMMARY: Dysphagia is recognized as a significant toxicity following radical surgical and radiation-based approaches, particularly when multimodal treatment is required. Increasingly, late radiation-associated dysphagia is gaining greater attention in the literature. Many patients presenting with residual and recurrent disease do so against a background of comorbidities as well as persistent and late treatment-related toxicity.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Neoplasia Residual/terapia , Lesões por Radiação/terapia , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/complicações , Neoplasia Residual/complicações , Lesões por Radiação/complicações
20.
Mol Ther Oncolytics ; 16: 238-249, 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128359

RESUMO

Reovirus type 3 Dearing (reovirus) is a tumor-selective oncolytic virus currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Here, we report that the therapeutic efficacy of reovirus in head and neck squamous cell cancer can be enhanced by targeting the unfolded protein response (UPR) kinase, protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK). PERK inhibition by GSK2606414 increased reovirus efficacy in both 2D and 3D models in vitro, while perturbing the normal host cell response to reovirus-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. UPR reporter constructs were used for live-cell 3D spheroid imaging. Profiling of eIF2a-ATF4, IRE1a-XBP1, and ATF6 pathway activity revealed a context-dependent increase in eIF2a-ATF4 signaling due to GSK2606414. GSK2606414 blocked eIF2a-ATF4 signaling because of the canonical ER stress agent thapsigargin. In the context of reovirus infection, GSK2606414 induced eIF2a-ATF4 signaling. Knockdown of eIF2a kinases PERK, GCN2, and PKR revealed eIF2a-ATF4 reporter activity was dependent on either PERK or GCN2. Knockdown of ATF4 abrogated the GSK2606414-induced increase in reovirus protein levels, confirming eIF2a-ATF signaling as key to the observed phenotype. Our work identifies a novel approach to enhance the efficacy and replication of reovirus in a therapeutic setting.

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