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1.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
2.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 115(1): 185-92, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18523885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transforming growth factor beta-1 gene (TGFB1) is a plausible candidate for breast cancer susceptibility. The L10P variant of TGFB1 is associated with higher circulating levels and secretion of TGF-beta, and recent large-scale studies suggest strongly that this variant is associated with breast cancer risk in the general population. METHODS: To evaluate whether TGFB1 L10P also modifies the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a multi-center study of 3,442 BRCA1 and 2,095 BRCA2 mutation carriers. RESULTS: We found no evidence of association between TGFB1 L10P and breast cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The per-allele HR for the L10P variant was 1.01 (95%CI: 0.92-1.11) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.92 (95%CI: 0.81-1.04) in BRCA2 mutation carriers. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support the hypothesis that TGFB1 L10P genotypes modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Genótipo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Risco
3.
Hum Mutat ; 28(12): 1207-15, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17688236

RESUMO

A total of 283 epithelial ovarian cancer families from the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) were screened for coding sequence changes and large genomic alterations (rearrangements and deletions) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Deleterious BRCA1 mutations were identified in 104 families (37%) and BRCA2 mutations in 25 families (9%). Of the 104 BRCA1 mutations, 12 were large genomic alterations; thus this type of change represented 12% of all BRCA1 mutations. Six families carried a previously described exon 13 duplication, known to be a UK founder mutation. The remaining six BRCA1 genomic alterations were previously unreported and comprised five deletions and an amplification of exon 15. One of the 25 BRCA2 mutations identified was a large genomic deletion of exons 19-20. The prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations correlated with the extent of ovarian and breast cancer in families. Of 37 families containing more than two ovarian cancer cases and at least one breast cancer case with diagnosis at less than 60 years of age, 30 (81%) had a BRCA1/2 mutation. The mutation prevalence was appreciably less in families without breast cancer; mutations were found in only 38 out of 141 families (27%) containing two ovarian cancer cases only, and in 37 out of 59 families (63%) containing three or more ovarian cancer cases. These data indicate that BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the major susceptibility genes for ovarian cancer but that other susceptibility genes may exist. Finally, it is likely that these data will be of clinical importance for individuals in families with a history of epithelial ovarian cancer, in providing accurate estimates of their disease risks.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Deleção de Sequência , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
4.
Hum Mutat ; 28(5): 525-6, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17397054

RESUMO

Misdiagnosis of a germline mutation associated with an inherited disease syndrome can have serious implications for the clinical management of patients. A false negative diagnosis (mutation missed by genetic screening) limits decision making about intervention strategies within families. More serious is the consequence of a false positive diagnosis (genetic test suggesting a mutation is present when it is not). This could lead to an individual, falsely diagnosed as a mutation carrier, undergoing unnecessary clinical intervention, possibly involving risk-reducing surgery. As part of screening 283 ovarian cancer families for BRCA1 mutations, we used two different methods (mutation specific PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) to screen for a known rearrangement mutation L78833.1:g.44369_50449dup (ins6kbEx13). We found false positive and false negative results in several families. We then tested 61 known carriers or non-carriers from an epidemiological study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (the EMBRACE study). These data highlight the need for caution when interpreting analyses of the ins6kbEx13 mutation and similar mutations, where characterising the exact sequence alteration for a deleterious mutation is not a part of the routine genetic test.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
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