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1.
medRxiv ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845458

RESUMO

Background: An immune correlate of protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection is urgently needed. Methods: We used an ongoing household cohort with an embedded transmission study that closely monitors participants regardless of symptom status. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to measure infections and seropositivity. Sequencing was performed to determine circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2. We investigated the protection associated with seropositivity resulting from prior infection, the anti-spike antibody titers needed for protection, and we compared the severity of first and second infections. Results: In March 2021, 62.3% of the cohort was seropositive. After March 2021, gamma and delta variants predominated. Seropositivity was associated with 69.2% protection from any infection (95% CI: 60.7%-75.9%), with higher protection against moderate or severe infection (79.4%, 95% CI: 64.9%-87.9%). Anti-spike titers of 327 and 2,551 were associated with 50% and 80% protection from any infection; titers of 284 and 656 were sufficient for protection against moderate or severe disease. Second infections were less severe than first infections (Relative Risk (RR) of moderated or severe disease: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98; RR of subclinical disease:1.9, 95% CI: 1.33-2.73). Conclusions: Prior infection-induced immunity is protective against infection when predominantly gamma and delta SARS-CoV-2 circulated. The protective antibody titers presented may be useful for vaccine policy and control measures. While second infections were somewhat less severe, they were not as mild as ideal. A strategy involving vaccination will be needed to ease the burden of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103596, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicaragua experienced a large Zika epidemic in 2016, with up to 50% of the population in Managua infected. With the domesticated Aedes aegypti mosquito as its vector, it is widely assumed that Zika virus transmission occurs within the household and/or via human mobility. We investigated these assumptions by using viral genomes to trace Zika transmission spatially. METHODS: We analysed serum samples from 119 paediatric Zika cases participating in the long-standing Paediatric Dengue Cohort Study in Managua, which was expanded to include Zika in 2015. An optimal spanning directed tree was constructed by minimizing the differences in viral sequence diversity composition between patient nodes, where low-frequency variants were used to increase the resolution of the inferred Zika outbreak dynamics. FINDINGS: Out of the 18 houses where pairwise difference in sample collection dates among all the household members was within 30 days, we only found two where viruses from individuals within the same household were up to 10th-most closely linked to each other genetically. We also identified a substantial number of transmission events involving long geographical distances (n=30), as well as potential super-spreading events in the estimated transmission tree. INTERPRETATION: Our finding highlights that community transmission, often involving long geographical distances, played a much more important role in epidemic spread than within-household transmission. FUNDING: This study was supported by an NUS startup grant (OMS) and grants R01 AI099631 (AB), P01 AI106695 (EH), P01 AI106695-03S1 (FB), and U19 AI118610 (EH) from the US National Institutes of Health.

5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634779

RESUMO

The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits arboviral diseases at extraordinary rates. Dengue alone afflicts 50 to 100 million people each year, with more than 3 billion at risk globally. This indicates that current approaches to prevention and control are inadequate, and that a paradigm shift from one that largely promotes vertical chemical-based control and vaccine development to one that also concentrates on eliminating the mosquito through actions by the communities it plagues is necessary. We have developed a new social and software platform, DengueChat (denguechat.org), to advance community interventions in arbovirus vector control. It is an interactive platform combining open-source digital communication technologies with face-to-face assemblies. It promotes resident participation in evidence collection, reporting, and analysis, and it incorporates pedagogic information, key messaging, and game concepts to motivate communities to implement vector reduction strategies. Using DengueChat, we conducted a 19-month pilot study in five neighborhoods of Managua, Nicaragua. The results strongly suggest that using the software produced value-added features that enhance community engagement. We measured the entomological and behavioral impacts at different time points and relative risk reduction of entomological indices at the end of the study. The entomological results showed significant risk reductions in disease transmission: Ae. aegypti larvae and pupae indices were reduced by approximately 44% in neighborhoods using DengueChat during one epidemic year, whereas control neighborhoods experienced an increase of more than 500%. A cluster permutation test determined that the probability of household positivity was significantly reduced in neighborhoods that participated in DengueChat compared with the reference neighborhoods (P = 0.0265). Therefore, DengueChat is a promising resource for vector control.

6.
J Virol ; 95(22): e0099621, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468177

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a public health emergency of international concern in 2016, and it is still identified as a priority disease. Although most infected individuals are asymptomatic or show mild symptoms, a risk of neurologic complications is associated with infection in adults. Additionally, infection during pregnancy is directly linked to microcephaly and other congenital malformations. Since there are no currently available vaccines or approved therapeutics for this virus, there is a critical unmet need in developing treatments to prevent future ZIKV outbreaks. Toward this end, we performed a large-scale cell-based high-content screen of 51,520 chemical compounds to identify potential antiviral drug candidates. The compound (2E)-N-benzyl-3-(4-butoxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide (SBI-0090799) was found to inhibit replication of multiple ZIKV strains and in different cell systems. SBI-0090799 did not affect viral entry or RNA translation but suppressed RNA replication by preventing the formation of the membranous replication compartment. Selection of drug-resistant viruses identified single-amino-acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of nonstructural protein NS4A, arguing this is the likely drug target. These resistance mutations rescued viral RNA replication and restored the formation of the membranous replication compartment. This mechanism of action is similar to clinically approved NS5A inhibitors for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Taken together, SBI-0090799 represents a promising lead candidate for the development of an antiviral treatment against ZIKV infection for the mitigation of severe complications and potential resurgent outbreaks of the virus. IMPORTANCE This study describes the elucidation of (2E)-N-benzyl-3-(4-butoxyphenyl)prop-2-enamide (SBI-0090799) as a selective and potent inhibitor of Zika virus (ZIKV) replication using a high-throughput screening approach. Mapping and resistance studies, supported by electron microscopy observations, indicate that the small molecule is functioning through inhibition of NS4A-mediated formation of ZIKV replication compartments in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Intriguingly, this defines a novel nonenzymatic target and chemical matter for the development of a new class of ZIKV antivirals. Moreover, chemical modulation affecting this nonstructural protein mirrors the identification and development of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir and its derivatives, similarly interfering with the formation of the viral replication compartment and also targeting a protein with no enzymatic activity, which have been part of a curative strategy for HCV.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2124116, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524438

RESUMO

Importance: Essential workers in agriculture and food production have been severely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among farmworkers in California. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study invited farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley (Monterey County) receiving transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection at federally qualified community clinics and community sites to participate. Individuals were eligible if they were not pregnant, were 18 years or older, had conducted farmwork since the pandemic started, and were proficient in English or Spanish. Survey data were collected and SARS-CoV-2 tests were conducted among participants from July 16 to November 30, 2020. Exposures: Sociodemographic, household, community, and workplace characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures: TMA- and immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: A total of 1107 farmworkers (581 [52.5%] women; mean [SD] age, 39.7 [12.6] years) were included in these analyses. Most participants were born in Mexico (922 [83.3%]), were married or living with a partner (697 [63.0%]), and worked in the fields (825 [74.5%]). Overall, 118 of 911 (13.0%) had a positive result on their TMA test for SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas 201 of 1058 (19.0%) had antibody evidence of infection. In multivariable analyses accounting for recruitment venue and enrollment period, the incidence of TMA-positive SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among those with lower than primary school-level education (adjusted relative risk [aRR], 1.32; 95% CI, 0.99-1.76; non-statistically significant finding), who spoke an Indigenous language at home (aRR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.97-1.73; non-statistically significant finding), who worked in the fields (aRR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.03-2.50), and who were exposed to a known or suspected COVID-19 case at home (aRR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.06-4.32) or in the workplace (aRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18-2.14). Positive results on IgG tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection were more common among those who lived in crowded housing (aRR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.98-1.53; non-statistically significant finding), with children aged 5 years or younger (aRR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.11-1.76), with unrelated roommates (aRR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.64), and with an individual with known or suspected COVID-19 (aRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.13-2.24). The risk of IgG positivity was also higher among those with body mass index of 30 or greater (aRR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.01-2.70) or diabetes (aRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.98-1.75; non-statistically significant finding). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of farmworkers in California, both residential and workplace exposures were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Urgent distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and intervention on modifiable risk factors are warranted given this population's increased risk of infection and the essential nature of their work.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
J Virol ; 95(20): e0084421, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346770

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are arthropod-transmitted flaviviruses that cause systemic vascular leakage and encephalitis syndromes, respectively, in humans. However, the viral factors contributing to these specific clinical disorders are not completely understood. Flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is required for replication, expressed on the cell surface, and secreted as a soluble glycoprotein, reaching high levels in the blood of infected individuals. Extracellular DENV NS1 and WNV NS1 interact with host proteins and cells, have immune evasion functions, and promote endothelial dysfunction in a tissue-specific manner. To characterize how differences in DENV NS1 and WNV NS1 might function in pathogenesis, we generated WNV NS1 variants with substitutions corresponding to residues found in DENV NS1. We discovered that the substitution NS1-P101K led to reduced WNV infectivity in the brain and attenuated lethality in infected mice, although the virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and peripheral organs and bound at wild-type levels to brain endothelial cells and complement components. The P101K substitution resulted in reduced NS1 antigenemia in mice, and this was associated with reduced WNV spread to the brain. Because exogenous administration of NS1 protein rescued WNV brain infectivity in mice, we conclude that circulating WNV NS1 facilitates viral dissemination into the central nervous system and impacts disease outcomes. IMPORTANCE Flavivirus NS1 serves as an essential scaffolding molecule during virus replication but also is expressed on the cell surface and is secreted as a soluble glycoprotein that circulates in the blood of infected individuals. Although extracellular forms of NS1 are implicated in immune modulation and in promoting endothelial dysfunction at blood-tissue barriers, it has been challenging to study specific effects of NS1 on pathogenesis without disrupting its key role in virus replication. Here, we assessed WNV NS1 variants that do not affect virus replication and evaluated their effects on pathogenesis in mice. Our characterization of WNV NS1-P101K suggests that the levels of NS1 in the circulation facilitate WNV dissemination to the brain and affect disease outcomes. Our findings facilitate understanding of the role of NS1 during flavivirus infection and support antiviral strategies for targeting circulating forms of NS1.


Assuntos
Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais , Feminino , Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/análise , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/sangue , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few data on the full spectrum of disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection across the lifespan from community-based or non-clinical settings. METHODS: We followed 2,338 people in Managua, Nicaragua, aged 0 to 94 years old from March 2020 through March 2021. SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified through real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Disease presentation was assessed at the time of infection or retrospectively by survey at the time of blood collection. RESULTS: There was a large epidemic that peaked between March-August 2020. In total, 129 RT-PCR-positive infections were detected, for an overall incidence rate of 5.3 infections per 100 person-years (95% CI: 4.4-6.3). Seroprevalence was 56.7% (95%CI: 53.5%-60.1%) and was consistent from age 11 through adulthood but was lower in children aged ≤10 years. Overall, 31.0% of the infections were symptomatic, with 54.7% mild, 41.6% moderate, and 3.7% severe. There were two deaths that were likely due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, yielding an infection fatality rate of 0.2%. Antibody titers exhibited a J-shaped curve with respect to age, with the lowest titers observed among older children and young adults and the highest among older adults. When compared to SARS-CoV-2 seronegative individuals, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity at the midyear sample was associated with 93.6% protection from symptomatic re-infection (95%CI: 51.1-99.2%). CONCLUSIONS: This population exhibited a very high SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity with lower-than-expected severity, and immunity from natural infection was protective against symptomatic re-infection.

10.
medRxiv ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341804

RESUMO

Explosive epidemics of chikungunya, Zika, and COVID-19 have recently occurred worldwide, all of which featured large proportions of subclinical infections. Spatial studies of infectious disease epidemics typically use symptomatic infections (cases) to estimate incidence rates (cases/total population), often misinterpreting them as infection risks (infections/total population) or disease risks (cases/infected population). We examined these three measures in a pediatric cohort (Nâ‰Ë†3,000) over two chikungunya epidemics and one Zika epidemic and in a household cohort (N=1,793) over one COVID-19 epidemic in Nicaragua. Across different analyses and all epidemics, case incidence rates considerably underestimated both risk-based measures. Spatial infection risk differed from spatial disease risk, and typical case-only approaches precluded a full understanding of the spatial seroprevalence patterns. For epidemics of pathogens that cause many subclinical infections, relying on case-only datasets and misinterpreting incidence rates, as is common, results in substantial bias, a general finding applicable to many pathogens of high human concern.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 703887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367162

RESUMO

The only licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia®, increases risk of severe dengue when given to individuals without prior dengue virus (DENV) infection but is protective against future disease in those with prior DENV immunity. The World Health Organization has recommended using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to determine history of prior DENV infection and suitability for vaccination. Dengue experts recommend that these assays be highly specific (≥98%) to avoid erroneously vaccinating individuals without prior DENV infection, as well as be sensitive enough (≥95%) to detect individuals with a single prior DENV infection. We evaluated one existing and two newly developed anti-flavivirus RDTs using samples collected >6 months post-infection from individuals in non-endemic and DENV and ZIKV endemic areas. We first evaluated the IgG component of the SD BIOLINE Dengue IgG/IgM RDT, which was developed to assist in confirming acute/recent DENV infections (n=93 samples). When evaluated following the manufacturer's instructions, the SD BIOLINE Dengue RDT had 100% specificity for both non-endemic and endemic samples but low sensitivity for detecting DENV seropositivity (0% non-endemic, 41% endemic). Sensitivity increased (53% non-endemic, 98% endemic) when tests were allowed to run beyond manufacturer recommendations (0.5 up to 3 hours), but specificity decreased in endemic samples (36%). When tests were evaluated using a quantitative reader, optimal specificity could be achieved (≥98%) while still retaining sensitivity at earlier timepoints in non-endemic (44-88%) and endemic samples (31-55%). We next evaluated novel dengue and Zika RDTs developed by Excivion to detect prior DENV or ZIKV infections and reduce cross-flavivirus reactivity (n=207 samples). When evaluated visually, the Excivion Dengue RDT had sensitivity and specificity values of 79%, but when evaluated with a quantitative reader, optimal specificity could be achieved (≥98%) while still maintaining moderate sensitivity (48-75%). The Excivion Zika RDT had high specificity (>98%) and sensitivity (>93%) when evaluated quantitatively, suggesting it may be used alongside dengue RDTs to minimize misclassification due to cross-reactivity. Our findings demonstrate the potential of RDTs to be used for dengue pre-vaccination screening to reduce vaccine-induced priming for severe dengue and show how assay design adaptations as well quantitative evaluation can further improve RDTs for this purpose.

12.
Elife ; 102021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423779

RESUMO

Arthropod-borne rickettsial pathogens cause mild and severe human disease worldwide. The tick-borne pathogen Rickettsia parkeri elicits skin lesions (eschars) and disseminated disease in humans; however, inbred mice are generally resistant to infection. We report that intradermal infection of mice lacking both interferon receptors (Ifnar1-/-;Ifngr1-/-) with as few as 10 R. parkeri elicits eschar formation and disseminated, lethal disease. Similar to human infection, eschars exhibited necrosis and inflammation, with bacteria primarily found in leukocytes. Using this model, we find that the actin-based motility factor Sca2 is required for dissemination from the skin to internal organs, and the outer membrane protein OmpB contributes to eschar formation. Immunizing Ifnar1-/-;Ifngr1-/- mice with sca2 and ompB mutant R. parkeri protects against rechallenge, revealing live-attenuated vaccine candidates. Thus, Ifnar1-/-;Ifngr1-/- mice are a tractable model to investigate rickettsiosis, virulence factors, and immunity. Our results further suggest that discrepancies between mouse and human susceptibility may be due to differences in interferon signaling.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Receptores de Interferon/deficiência , Receptores de Interferon/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/imunologia , Animais , Medula Óssea , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação , Listeria monocytogenes , Macrófagos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Rickettsia , Infecções por Rickettsia/patologia , Carrapatos
13.
J Virol ; 95(19): e0061921, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232731

RESUMO

Although transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has greatly declined since late 2017, recent reports of reduced risks of symptomatic Zika by prior dengue virus (DENV) infection and increased risks of severe dengue disease by previous ZIKV or DENV infection underscore a critical need for serological tests that can discriminate past ZIKV, DENV, and/or other flavivirus infections and improve our understanding of the immune interactions between these viruses and vaccine strategy in endemic regions. As serological tests for ZIKV primarily focus on envelope (E) and nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), antibodies to other ZIKV proteins have not been explored. Here, we employed Western blot analysis using antigens of 6 flaviviruses from 3 serocomplexes to investigate antibody responses following reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-confirmed ZIKV infection. Panels of 20 primary ZIKV and 20 ZIKV with previous DENV infection recognized E proteins of all 6 flaviviruses and the NS1 protein of ZIKV with some cross-reactivity to DENV. While the primary ZIKV panel recognized only the premembrane (prM) protein of ZIKV, the ZIKV with previous DENV panel recognized both ZIKV and DENV prM proteins. Analysis of antibody responses following 42 DENV and 18 West Nile virus infections revealed similar patterns of recognition by anti-E and anti-NS1 antibodies, whereas both panels recognized the prM protein of the homologous serocomplex but not others. The specificity was further supported by analysis of sequential samples. Together, these findings suggest that anti-prM antibody is a flavivirus serocomplex-specific marker and can be used to delineate current and past flavivirus infections in endemic areas. IMPORTANCE Despite a decline in Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission since late 2017, questions regarding its surveillance, potential reemergence, and interactions with other flaviviruses in regions where it is endemic remain unanswered. Recent studies have reported reduced risks of symptomatic Zika by prior dengue virus (DENV) infection and increased risks of severe dengue disease by previous ZIKV or DENV infection, highlighting a need for better serological tests to discriminate past ZIKV, DENV, and/or other flavivirus infections and improved understanding of the immune interactions and vaccine strategy for these viruses. As most serological tests for ZIKV focused on envelope and nonstructural protein 1, antibodies to other ZIKV proteins, including potentially specific antibodies, remain understudied. We employed Western blot analysis using antigens of 6 flaviviruses to study antibody responses following well-documented ZIKV, DENV, and West Nile virus infections and identified anti-premembrane antibody as a flavivirus serocomplex-specific marker to delineate current and past flavivirus infections in areas where flaviviruses are endemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Dengue/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Western Blotting , Reações Cruzadas , Dengue/diagnóstico , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/diagnóstico , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265259

RESUMO

The most severe consequences of dengue virus infection include shock, haemorrhage, and major organ failure; however, the frequency of these manifestations varies, and the relative contribution of pre-existing anti-dengue virus antibodies, virus characteristics, and host factors (including age and comorbidities) are not well understood. Reliable characterisation of the epidemiology of severe dengue first depends on the use of consistent definitions of disease severity. As vaccine trials have shown, severe dengue is a crucial interventional endpoint, yet the infrequency of its occurrence necessitates the inclusion of thousands of study participants to appropriately compare its frequency among participants who have and have not been vaccinated. Hospital admission is frequently used as a proxy for severe dengue; however, lack of specificity and variability in clinical practices limit the reliability of this approach. Although previous infection with a dengue virus is the best characterised risk factor for developing severe dengue, the influence of the timing between dengue virus infections and the sequence of dengue virus infections on disease severity is only beginning to be elucidated. To improve our understanding of the diverse factors that shape the clinical spectrum of disease resulting from dengue virus infection, prospective, community-based and clinic-based immunological, virological, genetic, and clinical studies across a range of ages and geographical regions are needed.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009641, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329306

RESUMO

Concerns have arisen that pre-existing immunity to dengue virus (DENV) could enhance Zika virus (ZIKV) disease, due to the homology between ZIKV and DENV and the observation of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) among DENV serotypes. To date, no study has examined the impact of pre-existing DENV immunity on ZIKV pathogenesis during pregnancy in a translational non-human primate model. Here we show that macaques with a prior DENV-2 exposure had a higher burden of ZIKV vRNA in maternal-fetal interface tissues as compared to DENV-naive macaques. However, pre-existing DENV immunity had no detectable impact on ZIKV replication kinetics in maternal plasma, and all pregnancies progressed to term without adverse outcomes or gross fetal abnormalities detectable at delivery. Understanding the risks of ADE to pregnant women worldwide is critical as vaccines against DENV and ZIKV are developed and licensed and as DENV and ZIKV continue to circulate.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue/imunologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia , Zika virus , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Antígenos Virais , Dengue/virologia , Feminino , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Placenta , Gravidez , RNA Viral , Replicação Viral
16.
mSphere ; 6(3): e0050521, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160241

RESUMO

Zika and dengue virus (ZIKV and DENV) are two flaviviruses responsible for important vector-borne emerging infectious diseases. While there have been multiple DENV epidemics in the last decades, there have been fewer documented epidemics caused by ZIKV until recent years. Thus, our current knowledge about the biology of ZIKV, the disease, and the immune responses in humans is limited. Here, we used mass cytometry (CyTOF) to perform a detailed characterization of the innate immune responses elicited by ZIKV and DENV in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors infected ex vivo. We found that ZIKV and DENV exposure of human PBMCs induces global phenotypic changes in myeloid cells, characterized mainly by upregulation of costimulatory molecules (CD86 and CD40), CD38, and the type I interferon-inducible protein CD169, a marker for phagocytic function and cross-priming potential in myeloid cells. We also found that ZIKV induces expansion of nonclassical monocytes in cell culture. The analysis of the phenotype of the three monocyte subtypes (classical, intermediate, and nonclassical) at the single-cell level identified differences in their expression of CD86, CD38, CXCL8, and CXCL10 during ZIKV and DENV infection. Overall, using CyTOF, we found that ex vivo infections of PBMCs with ZIKV and DENV reproduced many aspects of the profile found in blood from patients in previously described cohort studies, which highlights the suitability of this system for the study of the human host responses to these viruses. IMPORTANCE Zika and dengue viruses are emergent arboviruses of great public health impact. Both viruses are responsible for important diseases, yet there is currently no vaccine or specific treatment available. Immune cells play critical roles in the virus cycle as well as in the innate and adaptive immune response elicited in the host; therefore, it is critical to understand the changes induced by virus infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In this study, we used a model of ex vivo infection of PBMCs and CyTOF technology to profile the early innate immune changes induced by Zika virus and dengue virus in blood.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 647086, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937360

RESUMO

All human cells are coated by a surface layer of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and plasma proteins, called the glycocalyx. The glycocalyx transmits shear stress to the cytoskeleton of endothelial cells, maintains a selective permeability barrier, and modulates adhesion of blood leukocytes and platelets. Major components of the glycocalyx, including syndecans, heparan sulfate, and hyaluronan, are shed from the endothelial surface layer during conditions including ischaemia and hypoxia, sepsis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, renal disease, and some viral infections. Studying mechanisms of glycocalyx damage in vivo can be challenging due to the complexity of immuno-inflammatory responses which are inextricably involved. Previously, both static as well as perfused in vitro models have studied the glycocalyx, and have reported either imaging data, assessment of barrier function, or interactions of blood components with the endothelial monolayer. To date, no model has simultaneously incorporated all these features at once, however such a model would arguably enhance the study of vasculopathic processes. This review compiles a series of current in vitro models described in the literature that have targeted the glycocalyx layer, their limitations, and potential opportunities for further developments in this field.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(14)2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811138

RESUMO

Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide, and the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes circulate endemically in many tropical and subtropical regions. Numerous studies have shown that the majority of DENV infections are inapparent, and that the ratio of inapparent to symptomatic infections (I/S) fluctuates substantially year-to-year. For example, in the ongoing Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS) in Nicaragua, which was established in 2004, the I/S ratio has varied from 16.5:1 in 2006-2007 to 1.2:1 in 2009-2010. However, the mechanisms explaining these large fluctuations are not well understood. We hypothesized that in dengue-endemic areas, frequent boosting (i.e., exposures to DENV that do not lead to extensive viremia and result in a less than fourfold rise in antibody titers) of the immune response can be protective against symptomatic disease, and this can explain fluctuating I/S ratios. We formulate mechanistic epidemiologic models to examine the epidemiologic effects of protective homologous and heterologous boosting of the antibody response in preventing subsequent symptomatic DENV infection. We show that models that include frequent boosts that protect against symptomatic disease can recover the fluctuations in the I/S ratio that we observe, whereas a classic model without boosting cannot. Furthermore, we show that a boosting model can recover the inverse relationship between the number of symptomatic cases and the I/S ratio observed in the PDCS. These results highlight the importance of robust dengue control efforts, as intermediate dengue control may have the potential to decrease the protective effects of boosting.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/imunologia , Modelos Teóricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nicarágua/epidemiologia
19.
J Virol ; 95(12)2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789994

RESUMO

The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread rapidly into regions where dengue virus (DENV) is endemic, and flavivirus cross-reactive T cell responses have been observed repeatedly in animal models and in humans. Preexisting cellular immunity to DENV is thought to contribute to protection in subsequent ZIKV infection, but the epitope targets of cross-reactive T cell responses have not been comprehensively identified. Using human blood samples from the regions of Nicaragua and Sri Lanka where DENV is endemic that were collected before the global spread of ZIKV in 2016, we employed an in vitro expansion strategy to map ZIKV T cell epitopes in ZIKV-unexposed, DENV-seropositive donors. We identified 93 epitopes across the ZIKV proteome, and we observed patterns of immunodominance that were dependent on antigen size and sequence identity to DENV. We confirmed the immunogenicity of these epitopes through a computational HLA binding analysis, and we showed that cross-reactive T cells specifically recognize ZIKV peptides homologous to DENV sequences. We also found that these CD4 responses were derived from the memory T cell compartment. These data have implications for understanding the dynamics of flavivirus-specific T cell immunity in areas of endemicity.IMPORTANCE Multiple flaviviruses, including Zika virus (ZIKV) and the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV), are prevalent in the same large tropical and equatorial areas, which are inhabited by hundreds of millions of people. The interplay of DENV and ZIKV infection is especially relevant, as these two viruses are endemic in largely overlapping regions, have significant sequence similarity, and share the same arthropod vector. Here, we define the targets of preexisting immunity to ZIKV in unexposed subjects in areas where dengue is endemic. We demonstrate that preexisting immunity to DENV could shape ZIKV-specific responses, and DENV-ZIKV cross-reactive T cell populations can be expanded by stimulation with ZIKV peptides. The issue of potential ZIKV and DENV cross-reactivity is of relevance for understanding patterns of natural immunity, as well as for the development of diagnostic tests and vaccines.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos Virais/química , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
20.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924066

RESUMO

Confirming ZIKV congenital infection is challenging because viral RNA is infrequently detected. We compared the presence of anti-ZIKV-IgM and the persistence of anti-ZIKV-IgG antibodies over 18 months in two cohorts of infants born to ZIKV-infected mothers: Cohort one: 30 infants with typical microcephaly or major brain abnormalities (Congenital Zika Syndrome-CZS); Cohort two: 123 asymptomatic infants. Serum samples obtained within 6 months of age were tested for anti-ZIKV-IgM. Anti-ZIKV-IgG was quantified in sequential samples collected at birth, 3-6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. ZIKV-RNA was never detected postnatally. Anti-ZIKV-IgM antibodies were detected at least once in 15/25 (60.0%; 95%CI: 38.7-78.9) infants with CZS and in 2/115 (1.7%; 95%CI: 0.2-6.1) asymptomatic infants. Although anti-ZIKV-IgG was always positive within 3-6 weeks of age, IgG levels decreased similarly over time in both cohorts. IgG levels decreased similarly in ZIKV-IgM-positive and ZIKV-IgM-negative CZS infants. Differently from other congenital infections, IgM would fail to diagnose 40% of severely symptomatic infants, and the persistence of IgG is not a useful marker for discriminating congenital infection among infants exposed to maternal ZIKV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia
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