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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors related to energy balance have been associated with ovarian cancer risk and influence the tumor immune microenvironment, including tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). However, no studies have assessed whether these factors differentially impact ovarian cancer risk by TAM densities. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis in the Nurses' Health Studies to examine the associations of physical activity, sitting time, and a food-based empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk by TAM density assessed by immunohistochemistry. We considered density of CD68 (marker of total TAMs) and CD163 (marker of pro-carcinogenic M2-type TAMs), and their ratios. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of exposures with risk of ovarian tumors with high versus low TAMs, including analyses stratified by body mass index. RESULTS: Analyses included 312 incident ovarian cancer cases with TAM measurements. Physical activity, sitting time, and EDIP score were not differentially associated with ovarian cancer risk by TAM densities (Pheterogeneity>0.05). Among overweight and obese women, higher EDIP score was associated with increased risk of CD163 low density tumors (HR comparing extreme tertiles=1.57, 95%CI=0.88-2.80; Ptrend=0.01), but not CD163 high density tumors (comparable HR=1.16, 95%CI=0.73-1.86; Ptrend=0.24), though this difference was not statistically significant (Pheterogeneity=0.22). CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe differential associations between lifestyle factors and ovarian cancer risk by TAM densities. IMPACT: Future investigations examining the interplay between other ovarian cancer risk factors and the tumor immune microenvironment may help provide insight into ovarian cancer etiology.

2.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13404, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583078

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Associations between immune dysfunction conditions (eg, systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis) and endometriosis have been observed in adult women, but not assessed among a younger population. We investigated the association between immune-mediated conditions and endometriosis among young women. METHOD OF STUDY: This cross-sectional analysis in the Women's Health Study: From Adolescence to Adulthood included 551 participants with surgically diagnosed endometriosis (median age=19) and 652 controls without endometriosis (median age=24). Participants completed an expanded Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonization Project questionnaire. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to investigate the associations between autoimmune/inflammatory, atopic, chronic pain/fatigue, and endocrine disorders with endometriosis, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Participants with any autoimmune and/or inflammatory condition had an increased odds of co-occurring endometriosis (OR: 1.87; CI: 0.92-3.80), as did participants with allergies (OR: 1.76; CI: 1.32-2.36), asthma (OR: 1.35; CI: 0.97-1.88), chronic fatigue syndrome and/or fibromyalgia (OR: 5.81; CI: 1.89-17.9), or previous mononucleosis (OR: 1.75; CI: 1.14-2.68). Odds of endometriosis were lower among participants with eczema (OR: 0.68; CI: 0.44-1.04). We observed a positive trend between the number of immune-mediated conditions and the odds of endometriosis (p-trend=0.0002). Endocrine disorders were not associated with endometriosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among this population of adolescents and adult women, endometriosis was more likely among participants with autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases, allergies, asthma, previous mononucleosis infection, and chronic fatigue and/or fibromyalgia. We observed that an increasing number of immune-mediated conditions were positively associated with endometriosis risk. It is important for clinicians who care for adolescents and women with these conditions to consider endometriosis as a comorbidity.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619020

RESUMO

Background Combined oral contraceptive use is associated with a decreased risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (ovarian cancer). There is suggestive evidence of an inverse association between progestin-only contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk, but studies have been underpowered. Methods The current study used primary data from 7,977 women with ovarian cancer and 11,820 control women in seven case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to evaluate the association between use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), an injectable progestin-only contraceptive, and ovarian cancer risk. Logistic models were fit to determine the association between ever use of DMPA and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. A systematic review of the association between DMPA use and ovarian cancer risk was conducted. Results Ever use of DMPA was associated with a 35% decreased risk overall (OR=0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85). There was a statistically significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing duration of use (p-trend<0.001). The systematic review yielded six studies, four of which showed an inverse association and two showed increased risk. Conclusions DMPA use appears to be associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer in a duration-dependent manner based on the preponderance of evidence. Further study of the mechanism through which DMPA use is associated with ovarian cancer is warranted. Impact The results of this study are of particular interest given the rise in popularity of progestin-releasing intrauterine devices which have a substantially lower progestin dose than that in DMPA, but may have a stronger local effect.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521947

RESUMO

Family history (FH) of ovarian cancer and breast cancer are well-established risk factors for ovarian cancer, but few studies have examined this association in African American (AA) and white women by histotype. We assessed first- and second-degree FH of ovarian and breast cancer and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the Ovarian Cancer in Women of African Ancestry Consortium. Analyses included 1052 AA cases, 2328 AA controls, 2380 white cases and 3982 white controls. Race-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multilevel logistic regression with adjustment for covariates. Analyses were stratified by histotype (high-grade serous vs others). First-degree FH of ovarian cancer was associated with high-grade serous carcinoma in AA (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.50, 3.59) and white women (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.82, 3.38). First-degree FH of breast cancer increased risk irrespective of histotype in AAs, but with high-grade serous carcinoma only in white women. Associations with second-degree FH of ovarian cancer were observed for overall ovarian cancer in white women and with high-grade serous carcinoma in both groups. First-degree FH of ovarian cancer and of breast cancer, and second-degree FH of ovarian cancer is strongly associated with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma in AA and white women. The association of FH of breast cancer with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is similar in white women and AA women, but may differ for other histotypes.

5.
Hum Reprod ; 36(1): 199-210, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432329

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Is recreational and residential sun exposure associated with risk of endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Tanning bed use in early adulthood, sunscreen use and history of sunburns were associated with a greater risk of endometriosis; however, higher residential UV exposure was associated with a lower endometriosis risk. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous research has reported an association between endometriosis and skin cancer, with evidence of shared risk factors between the two diseases. We investigated the potential associations between ultraviolet radiation and endometriosis risk. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective cohort of 116 429 female US nurses aged 25-42 years at enrolment in 1989. Participants completed self-administered biennial questionnaires through June 2015. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS: We investigated self-reported measures of recreational sun-exposure and geocoded residential UV exposure in childhood and adulthood in relation to risk of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis among premenopausal white women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: During follow-up, 4791 incident cases of laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis were reported among 1 252  248 person-years. Tanning bed use during high school/college (≥6 times per year vs. never use: HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40; Ptrend = 0.04) and at ages 25-35 (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.12-1.39; Ptrend ≤ 0.0001), number of sunburns during adolescence (Ptrend = 0.03) and percentage of time using sunscreen in adulthood (Ptrend = 0.002) were positively associated with risk of endometriosis. In contrast, residential UV level at birth (highest vs. lowest quintile: HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72-0.92; Ptrend = 0.0001), at age 15 (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70-0.88; Ptrend ≤ 0.0001) and at age 30 (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82-0.99; Ptrend = 0.21) were associated with a decreased risk of endometriosis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Self-reported endometriosis diagnosis may be prone to misclassification; however, we restricted our definition to laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis, which has been shown to have high validity compared to medical records. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our results suggest that tanning bed use in early adulthood increases endometriosis risk, potentially through a harmful effect of ultraviolet A wavelengths, and that residential UV exposure reduces risk, possibly via optimal vitamin D synthesis. These findings should be investigated further to enhance our understanding of endometriosis aetiology. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This project was supported by NICHD grants HD48544 and HD52473, HD57210, NIH grant CA50385, CA176726. M.K. was supported by a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (#PIOF-GA-2011-302078) and is grateful to the Philippe Foundation and the Bettencourt-Schueller Foundation for their financial support. H.R.H. is supported by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (K22 CA193860). The authors have nothing to disclose. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

6.
Diabetologia ; 64(3): 552-560, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399910

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis and risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort of female nurses followed for >25 years (N = 112,037). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs of incident, confirmed type 2 diabetes (n = 8496 participants) adjusted a priori for confounding factors. We additionally investigated differences in the relationship between endometriosis and type 2 diabetes by age (<50 or ≥50 years), BMI (<30 or ≥30 kg/m2), infertility history, menopausal status and history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; restricted to parous women). RESULTS: We saw no association between laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis and risk of type 2 diabetes in multivariable confounder-adjusted models (HR 1.06 [95% CI 0.98, 1.13]) or models accounting for potential mediating factors (HR 0.94 [95% CI 0.87, 1.00]). However, we observed modest differences in the association between endometriosis and type 2 diabetes by BMI group, history of infertility and history of GDM. Among non-obese women (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.02, 1.35]), women who never experienced infertility (HR 1.14 [95% CI 1.04, 1.25]) and women who never experienced GDM (HR 1.11 [95% CI 1.01, 1.22]), endometriosis was associated with greater risk of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Overall, women with endometriosis were not at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, among subgroups at low risk for type 2 diabetes (i.e. non-obese women and women with no prior history of infertility or GDM), endometriosis was associated with a modest increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433939

RESUMO

When powder is applied to the genital area, it has the potential to reach internal reproductive organs and promote carcinogenesis by irritating and inflaming exposed tissues. Although many studies have considered the association between genital powder use and ovarian cancer risk, the relationship between genital powder use and uterine cancer is less well-studied. We pooled data from four large, prospective cohorts (the Nurses' Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study II, the Sister Study and the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for prespecified confounders. In total, 209 185 women were included, with 37% reporting ever genital powder use. Over a mean 14.5 years of follow-up, 3272 invasive uterine cancers were diagnosed. There was no overall association between ever genital powder use and uterine cancer (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.94-1.09), with little difference observed for frequent (≥1 times/week) vs never use (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.16; P-for-trend = .46). Long-term use (>20 years; HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.96-1.31; P-for-trend = 0.14) was associated with a small, but not statistically significant, increase in risk, compared to never use. There were not clear differences by uterine cancer histologic subtypes or across strata of relevant covariates, including race/ethnicity, follow-up time, menopausal status and body mass index. The results of this large, pooled analysis do not support a relationship between the use of genital powder and uterine cancer, although the positive associations observed for long-term use may merit further consideration.

8.
Hum Reprod Update ; 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is an often chronic, inflammatory gynaecologic condition affecting 190 million women worldwide. Studies have reported an elevated cancer risk among patients with endometriosis. However, prior research has included methodologic issues that impede valid and robust interpretation. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between endometriosis and cancer risk and analysed the results by methodologic characteristics. We discuss the implications of cancer screening in patients and management challenges faced by clinicians. SEARCH METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase databases for eligible studies from inception through 24 October 2019. We included cohort and case-control studies examining the association between endometriosis and cancer risk; cross-sectional studies and case reports were excluded. Publications had to present risk/rate/odds estimates with 95% CI. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRR) and CIs. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by the Q test and I2 statistics, and publication bias using Egger's and Begg's tests. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies were assessed using the risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. OUTCOMES: Forty-nine population-based case-control and cohort studies were included. Twenty-six studies were scored as having a 'serious'/'critical' risk of bias, and the remaining 23 'low'/'moderate'. Cancer-specific analyses showed a positive association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk (SRR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.68-2.22; n = 24 studies) that was strongest for clear cell (SRR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.82-4.42; n = 5 studies) and endometrioid (SRR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.82-2.98; n = 5 studies) histotypes (Pheterogeneity < 0.0001), although with significant evidence of both heterogeneity across studies and publication bias (Egger's and Begg's P-values < 0.01). A robust association was observed between endometriosis and thyroid cancer (SRR = 1.39, 95% CI =1.24-1.57; n = 5 studies), a very small association with breast cancer (SRR = 1.04, 95% CI =1.00-1.09; n = 20 studies) and no association with colorectal cancer (SRR = 1.00, 95% CI =0.87-1.16; n = 5 studies). The association with endometrial cancer was not statistically significant (SRR = 1.23, 95% CI =0.97-1.57; n = 17 studies) overall and wholly null when restricted to prospective cohort studies (SRR = 0.99, 95% CI =0.72-1.37; n = 5 studies). The association with cutaneous melanoma was also non-significant (SRR = 1.17, 95% CI =0.97-1.41; n = 7 studies) but increased in magnitude and was statistically significant when restricted to studies with low/moderate risk of bias (SRR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.24-2.36, n = 2 studies). The most robust finding both in terms of statistical significance and magnitude of effect was an inverse association with cervical cancer (SRR = 0.68, 95% CI =0.56-0.82; n = 4 studies); however, this result has a high potential to reflect heightened access to detection of dysplasia for women who reached an endometriosis diagnosis and is thus likely not causal. Several additional cancer types were explored based on <4 studies. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Endometriosis was associated with a higher risk of ovarian and thyroid, and minimally (only 4% greater risk) with breast cancer, and with a lower risk of cervical cancer. However, this meta-analysis confirms that: a majority of studies had severe/critical risk of bias; there is impactful heterogeneity across studies-and for ovarian cancer, publication bias; and causal inference requires temporality, which in many studies was not considered. We discuss the implications of these potential associations from the perspectives of patients with endometriosis, clinicians involved in their care, and scientists investigating their long-term health risks.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causes of racial disparities in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) incidence remain unclear. Differences in the prevalence of ovarian cancer risk factors may explain disparities in EOC incidence among African American (AA) and White women. METHODS: We used data from four case-control studies and three case-control studies nested within prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer in Women of African Ancestry Consortium to estimate race-specific associations of ten known or suspected EOC risk factors using logistic regression. Using the Bruzzi method, race-specific population attributable risks (PAR) were estimated for each risk factor individually and collectively, including groupings of exposures (reproductive factors and modifiable factors). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Among 3,244 White EOC cases and 9,638 controls and 1,052 AA EOC cases and 2,410 controls, AA women had a statistically significantly higher PAR (false discovery rate (FDR) P < .001) for first-degree family history of breast cancer (PAR = 10.1%, 95% CI = 6.5% to 13.7%) compared to White women (PAR = 2.6%, 95% CI = 0.8% to 4.4%). After multiple test correction, AA women had a higher PAR than White women when evaluating all risk factors collectively (PAR = 61.6%, 95% CI = 48.6% to 71.3% vs. PAR = 43.0%, 95% CI = 32.8% to 51.4%, respectively; FDR P = .06) and for modifiable exposures, including BMI, oral contraceptives, aspirin, and body powder (PAR = 36.0%, 95% CI = 21.0% to 48.8% vs. PAR = 13.8%, 95% CI = 4.5% to 21.8%, respectively; FDR P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the selected risk factors accounted for slightly more of the risk among AA than White women, and interventions to reduce EOC incidence that are focused on multiple modifiable risk factors may be slightly more beneficial to AA women than White women at risk for EOC.

10.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The impact of dairy consumption on breast cancer development is unclear. We sought to examine associations between long-term consumption of milk and fermented dairy products and risk of breast cancer by estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status and assess whether these associations varied by body weight. METHODS: The population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort included 33,780 women (88.2% postmenopausal), with no history of cancer or diabetes at baseline (1997). Long-term consumption of dairy products was assessed using a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire in 1987 and 1997. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During 16.6 years of follow-up (559,286 person-years), 1870 total breast cancer cases were diagnosed (1162 ER+/PR+; 195 ER-/PR-). High long-term non-fermented milk consumption was associated with increased ER+/PR+ breast cancer incidence, HR = 1.30, 95%CI:1.02-1.65 for the average of 1987 and 1997 intake ≥2 vs. 0 servings/day and this increased risk was limited to women with BMI<25 kg/m2 HR = 1.55, 95%CI:1.08-2.21, while no significant associations with milk consumption were observed with ER-/PR- breast cancer. In contrast, consumption of fermented dairy products was inversely associated with ER-/PR- breast cancer (for consistently high intake ≥3 vs. <1 servings/day HR = 0.28, 95%CI:0.10-0.78), but not clear association was observed for ER+/PR+ (HR = 0.89, 95%CI:0.69-1.14). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of mainly postmenopausal women, high long-term consumption of milk was associated with increased risk of ER+/PR+ breast cancer. In contrast, high long-term consumption of fermented dairy products was associated with decreased risk of ER-/PR- breast cancer.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917642

RESUMO

Several studies have assessed the relationship between sleep duration and ovarian cancer risk, but the results are conflicting. Importantly, no studies addressed the relationship between sleep disturbance or sleep quality and ovarian cancer incidence. Moreover, few studies have examined the relationships between sleep measures and subtypes of ovarian cancer. This study included 109,024 postmenopausal women ages 50-79 from the Women's Health Initiative during 1993-1998 and followed through 2018. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted HRs for the associations between sleep habits and the incidence of ovarian cancer and its subtypes. No association was observed between sleep duration, sleep quality, sleep disturbance, or insomnia and risk of overall ovarian cancer, serous/nonserous, or type I/type II ovarian cancer subtype. However, compared with women with average sleep quality, women with restful or very restful sleep quality had a significantly lower risk of invasive serous subtype [HR: 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-0.90] while insomnia was associated with a higher risk of invasive serous subtype (HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.12-1.66). Associations with insomnia differed significantly by serous and nonserous subtypes, and type I and type II subtypes (P heterogeneity = 0.001 and P heterogeneity <0.001, respectively). This study provides no evidence on association between sleep habits and overall ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women. However, restful or very restful sleep quality was associated with a lower risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer, and insomnia was associated with a higher risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer. Associations with insomnia differed by subtypes. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: This study shows no association between sleep duration, sleep quality, or insomnia with the risk of overall ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women. However, restful sleep quality was associated with a lower risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer, and insomnia was associated with a higher risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated. METHODS: A pooled analysis of 10,470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16,942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race/ethnicity, age, and education level, and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses. RESULTS: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (two-sided Ptrend <.001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859616

RESUMO

Dietary composition can influence systemic inflammation; higher levels of circulating inflammatory biomarkers are associated with increased risk of breast and other cancers. A total of 438 overweight/obese, healthy, postmenopausal women were randomized to a caloric-restriction diet (goal: 10% weight-loss), aerobic-exercise (225 min/week moderate-to-vigorous activity), combined diet+exercise, or control. Dietary inflammatory index (DII) and energy-adjusted (E-DII) scores were derived from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and could be calculated for 365 participants with complete FFQs at baseline and 12 months. Changes from baseline to 12 months in E-DII scores in the intervention arms versus controls were analyzed using generalized estimating equations, adjusted for confounders. We examined associations between changes in previously measured biomarkers and E-DII at 12 months. Participants randomized to diet and diet+exercise arms had greater reductions in E-DII (-104.4% and -84.4%), versus controls (-34.8%, both P < 0.001). Weight change had a more marked effect than E-DII change on biomarkers at 12-months; associations between E-DII and biomarker changes were reduced after adjustment by weight change. Changes in E-DII at 12 months, adjusted for weight change, were negatively associated with changes in ghrelin [r = -0.19; P = 0.05 (diet), r = -0.29; P = 0.02 (diet+exercise)], and positively with VEGF [r = 0.22; P = 0.03 (diet+exercise)], and red blood cell counts [r = 0.30; P = 0.004 (exercise)]. C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL6 levels were not associated with E-DII changes at 12 months. In conclusion, a behavior change of low-calorie, low-fat diet significantly reduces dietary inflammatory potential, modulating biomarkers that are associated with tumorigenesis, such as VEGF, but not CRP or IL6.

15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(3): 702-709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival. METHODS: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery. RESULTS: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.

16.
Fertil Steril ; 114(4): 837-847, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the association between dietary fat intake and risk of uterine fibroids; and to evaluate the association between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA) levels and fibroid risk. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI). In a subset of participants 34 individual FAs were measured and logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI for the association between FA tertiles and fibroids. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Premenopausal US women (81,590) in the Nurses' Health Study II, aged 25-42 years at enrollment in 1989 for whom diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. A total of 553 participants with erythrocyte FA measurements. INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Cases of fibroids were defined on the basis of self-reported ultrasound or hysterectomy confirmation. RESULT(S): A total of 8,142 cases of ultrasound-confirmed or hysterectomy-confirmed were diagnosed during an 18-year period (1991-2009). No associations were observed between intake of any dietary fats and fibroids in the multivariable models. However, when erythrocyte FAs were examined, an inverse association was observed between total n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and likelihood of fibroids (OR for third versus first tertile, 0.41; 95% CI 0.19-0.89). In addition, total trans FAs were associated with more odds of fibroids (OR for third tertile, 3.33; 95% CI 1.50-7.38). CONCLUSION(S): Our findings provide preliminary suggestions that n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and trans FAs may play a role in fibroid etiology; however, these results should be confirmed in future studies.

17.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 252: 393-398, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder often associated with severe pelvic pain and infertility with few known modifiable risk factors. We investigated whether in utero and early life exposures are associated with surgically diagnosed endometriosis among adolescents and young adults. STUDY DESIGN: This case-control study, including 295 laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis cases and 309 population-based controls aged <25 years, was conducted using data from The Women's Health Study: From Adolescence to Adulthood which enrolled participants from 2012 to 2018. Information on in utero and early life factors were collected using a modified WERF EPHect questionnaire at enrollment, including their mother's age at delivery, birthweight, gestation length, exposure to smoking in utero and secondhand smoke during childhood up to age 13, and if the participant was breastfed. RESULTS: Median age at enrollment was 17 years (range 12-24) in cases and 22 years (range 7-24) in controls, with 83 % and 68 % non-Hispanic whites, respectively. The majority of cases (95 %) were rASRM stage I or II at diagnostic surgery. Exposure to breastfeeding in early life was associated with lower odds of endometriosis diagnosis (OR = 0.39, 95 % CI = 0.21-0.74). Exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood due to maternal smoking was associated with increased odds of endometriosis diagnosis (OR = 2.70, 95 % CI = 1.11-6.60). CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescents and young adults, our data suggest exposures to breastfeeding in early life and secondhand smoke during childhood may be associated with endometriosis risk, providing insight into etiologic pathways to be explored in this young population.

18.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546565

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The known epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) susceptibility genes account for less than 50% of the heritable risk of ovarian cancer suggesting that other susceptibility genes exist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to ovarian cancer susceptibility of rare deleterious germline variants in a set of candidate genes. METHODS: We sequenced the coding region of 54 candidate genes in 6385 invasive EOC cases and 6115 controls of broad European ancestry. Genes with an increased frequency of putative deleterious variants in cases versus controls were further examined in an independent set of 14 135 EOC cases and 28 655 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium and the UK Biobank. For each gene, we estimated the EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: The ORs associated for high-grade serous ovarian cancer were 3.01 for PALB2 (95% CI 1.59 to 5.68; p=0.00068), 1.99 for POLK (95% CI 1.15 to 3.43; p=0.014) and 4.07 for SLX4 (95% CI 1.34 to 12.4; p=0.013). Deleterious mutations in FBXO10 were associated with a reduced risk of disease (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.00, p=0.049). However, based on the Bayes false discovery probability, only the association for PALB2 in high-grade serous ovarian cancer is likely to represent a true positive. CONCLUSIONS: We have found strong evidence that carriers of PALB2 deleterious mutations are at increased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Whether the magnitude of risk is sufficiently high to warrant the inclusion of PALB2 in cancer gene panels for ovarian cancer risk testing is unclear; much larger sample sizes will be needed to provide sufficiently precise estimates for clinical counselling.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(20): 5411-5423, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554541

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gene expression-based molecular subtypes of high-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer (HGSOC), demonstrated across multiple studies, may provide improved stratification for molecularly targeted trials. However, evaluation of clinical utility has been hindered by nonstandardized methods, which are not applicable in a clinical setting. We sought to generate a clinical grade minimal gene set assay for classification of individual tumor specimens into HGSOC subtypes and confirm previously reported subtype-associated features. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Adopting two independent approaches, we derived and internally validated algorithms for subtype prediction using published gene expression data from 1,650 tumors. We applied resulting models to NanoString data on 3,829 HGSOCs from the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium. We further developed, confirmed, and validated a reduced, minimal gene set predictor, with methods suitable for a single-patient setting. RESULTS: Gene expression data were used to derive the predictor of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma molecular subtype (PrOTYPE) assay. We established a de facto standard as a consensus of two parallel approaches. PrOTYPE subtypes are significantly associated with age, stage, residual disease, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, and outcome. The locked-down clinical grade PrOTYPE test includes a model with 55 genes that predicted gene expression subtype with >95% accuracy that was maintained in all analytic and biological validations. CONCLUSIONS: We validated the PrOTYPE assay following the Institute of Medicine guidelines for the development of omics-based tests. This fully defined and locked-down clinical grade assay will enable trial design with molecular subtype stratification and allow for objective assessment of the predictive value of HGSOC molecular subtypes in precision medicine applications.See related commentary by McMullen et al., p. 5271.

20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 229-236, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents with endometriosis are a particularly underserved population who struggle with chronic pain. Despite widespread use, there are no published trials examining the individual effects of vitamin D and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation on endometriosis-associated pain in adolescents. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether supplementation with vitamin D or ω-3 fatty acids remediates pain, changes frequency of pain medication usage, or affects quality of life in young women with endometriosis. METHODS: Women (aged 12-25 y) with surgically confirmed endometriosis and pelvic pain enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The primary outcome was pain measured by the visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were quality of life, pain catastrophizing, and pain medication usage. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 2000 IU vitamin D3, 1000 mg fish oil, or placebo daily for 6 mo. RESULTS: A total of 147 women were screened and 69 were randomly assigned as follows: 27 to vitamin D3; 20 to fish oil; and 22 to placebo. Participants in the vitamin D arm experienced significant improvement in VAS pain [mean (95% CI) worst pain in the past month, from baseline to 6 mo: 7.0 (6.2, 7.8) to 5.5 (4.2, 6.8), P = 0.02]; however, an improvement of nearly identical magnitude was observed in the placebo arm [6.0 (5.1, 6.9) to 4.4 (3.0, 5.8), P = 0.07]. A more modest improvement was observed in the fish oil arm [5.9 (4.8, 7.0) to 5.2 (3.7, 6.8), P = 0.39]. Neither of the intervention arms were statistically different from placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In young women with endometriosis, supplementation with vitamin D led to significant changes in pelvic pain; however, these were similar in magnitude to placebo. Supplementation with fish oil resulted in about half of the VAS pain reduction of the other 2 arms. Studies are needed to better define the physiology underlying the observed reduction in pain score in the placebo arm that persisted across 6 mo.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02387931.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Endometriose/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Efeito Placebo , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
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