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1.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(4): 043108, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043052

RESUMO

Many novel and promising single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) emerged in recent years. However, some of them may demonstrate a very high dark count rate, even tens of megahertz, especially during the development phase or at room temperature, posing new challenges to device characterization. Gating operation with a width of 10 ns can be used to suppress the dark counts not coincident with the photon arriving time. However, as a side effect of the fast-gating operation, the gating response could be much higher than the avalanche signal and is usually removed by various circuit-based cancellation techniques. Here, we present an alternative method. A high-speed digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) is used to extract the weak avalanche signals from the large gating response background by waveform subtraction in software. Consequently, no complex circuit and precise tuning for each SPAD are needed. The avalanche detection threshold can be reduced to 5% of the full vertical scale of the DSO or 5 mV, whichever is greater. The timing resolution can be better than 2 ps for typical avalanche signals. Optical alignment and calibration are easy. The feasibility of on-wafer test with an RF probe station is discussed. All the advantages and features listed above make this method very useful in new SPAD research.

2.
Opt Lett ; 44(2): 335-338, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644894

RESUMO

We study the weakly guided silicon nitride waveguide as an on-chip power delivery solution for dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs). We focus on the two main limiting factors on the waveguide network for DLAs: the optical damage and nonlinear characteristics. The typical delivered fluence at the onset of optical damage is measured to be ∼0.19 J/cm2 at a 2 µm central wavelength and 250 fs pulse width. This damage fluence is lower than that of the bulk Si3N4 (∼0.65 J/cm2), but higher than that of bulk silicon (∼0.17 J/cm2). We also report the nonlinearity-induced spectrum and phase variance of the output pulse at this pulse duration. We find that a total waveguide length within 3 mm is sufficient to avoid significant self-phase modulation effects when operating slightly below the damage threshold. We also estimate that one SiNx waveguide can power 70 µm silicon dual pillar DLAs from a single side, based on the results from the recent free-space DLA experiment.

3.
Opt Express ; 26(18): 22801-22815, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184935

RESUMO

We propose a dielectric laser accelerator design based on a tapered slot waveguide structure for sub-relativistic electron acceleration. This tapering scheme allows for straightforward tuning of the phase velocity of the accelerating field along the propagation direction, which is necessary for maintaining synchronization with electrons as their velocities increase. Furthermore, the non-resonant nature of this design allows for better tolerance to experimental errors. We also introduce a method to design this continuously tapered structure based on the eikonal approximation, and give a working example based on realistic experimental parameters.

4.
Opt Lett ; 43(9): 2181-2184, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714784

RESUMO

We present the demonstration of phase-dependent laser acceleration and deflection of electrons using a symmetrically driven silicon dual pillar grating structure. We show that exciting an evanescent inverse Smith-Purcell mode on each side of a dual pillar grating can produce hyperbolic cosine acceleration and hyperbolic sine deflection modes, depending on the relative excitation phase of each side. Our devices accelerate sub-relativistic 99.0 keV kinetic energy electrons by 3.0 keV over a 15 µm distance with accelerating gradients of 200 MeV/m with 40 nJ, 300 fs, 1940 nm pulses from an optical parametric amplifier. These results represent a significant step towards making practical dielectric laser accelerators for ultrafast, medical, and high-energy applications.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(48): 41863-41870, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29124928

RESUMO

In this paper, the integration of metal oxides as carrier-selective contacts for ultrathin crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells is demonstrated which results in an ∼13% relative improvement in efficiency. The improvement in efficiency originates from the suppression of the contact recombination current due to the band offset asymmetry of these oxides with Si. First, an ultrathin c-Si solar cell having a total thickness of 2 µm is shown to have >10% efficiency without any light-trapping scheme. This is achieved by the integration of nickel oxide (NiOx) as a hole-selective contact interlayer material, which has a low valence band offset and high conduction band offset with Si. Second, we show a champion cell efficiency of 10.8% with the additional integration of titanium oxide (TiOx), a well-known material for an electron-selective contact interlayer. Key parameters including Voc and Jsc also show different degrees of enhancement if single (NiOx only) or double (both NiOx and TiOx) carrier-selective contacts are integrated. The fabrication process for TiOx and NiOx layer integration is scalable and shows good compatibility with the device.

6.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 628, 2017 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931815

RESUMO

Silicon single-photon avalanche detectors are becoming increasingly significant in research and in practical applications due to their high signal-to-noise ratio, complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatibility, room temperature operation, and cost-effectiveness. However, there is a trade-off in current silicon single-photon avalanche detectors, especially in the near infrared regime. Thick-junction devices have decent photon detection efficiency but poor timing jitter, while thin-junction devices have good timing jitter but poor efficiency. Here, we demonstrate a light-trapping, thin-junction Si single-photon avalanche diode that breaks this trade-off, by diffracting the incident photons into the horizontal waveguide mode, thus significantly increasing the absorption length. The photon detection efficiency has a 2.5-fold improvement in the near infrared regime, while the timing jitter remains 25 ps. The result provides a practical and complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible method to improve the performance of single-photon avalanche detectors, image sensor arrays, and silicon photomultipliers over a broad spectral range.The performance of silicon single-photon avalanche detectors is currently limited by the trade-off between photon detection efficiency and timing jitter. Here, the authors demonstrate how a CMOS-compatible, nanostructured, thin junction structure can make use of tailored light trapping to break this trade-off.

7.
Opt Lett ; 42(8): 1608-1611, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28409810

RESUMO

A high-quality Ge0.88Si0.08Sn0.04/Ge0.94Sn0.06 multiple quantum well (MQW) structure was grown on a Ge (001) substrate by sputtering epitaxy. The MQW structure was characterized by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Surface-illuminated Ge0.88Si0.08Sn0.04/Ge0.94Sn0.06 MQW pin photodetectors were fabricated with cutoff wavelengths of up to 2140 nm. The analysis of transitions from spectral response was fitted well with the theoretical calculations. Results suggest that sputtering epitaxy is a promising method for preparing high-quality low-dimensional Sn-based group IV materials and that Ge1-x-ySiySnx/Ge1-xSnx MQWs have potential applications in the development of efficient Si-based photonic devices.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(8): E1306-E1315, 2017 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28167769

RESUMO

Isolation and characterization of rare cells and molecules from a heterogeneous population is of critical importance in diagnosis of common lethal diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and cancer. For the developing world, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics design must account for limited funds, modest public health infrastructure, and low power availability. To address these challenges, here we integrate microfluidics, electronics, and inkjet printing to build an ultra-low-cost, rapid, and miniaturized lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform. This platform can perform label-free and rapid single-cell capture, efficient cellular manipulation, rare-cell isolation, selective analytical separation of biological species, sorting, concentration, positioning, enumeration, and characterization. The miniaturized format allows for small sample and reagent volumes. By keeping the electronics separate from microfluidic chips, the former can be reused and device lifetime is extended. Perhaps most notably, the device manufacturing is significantly less expensive, time-consuming, and complex than traditional LOC platforms, requiring only an inkjet printer rather than skilled personnel and clean-room facilities. Production only takes 20 min (vs. up to weeks) and $0.01-an unprecedented cost in clinical diagnostics. The platform works based on intrinsic physical characteristics of biomolecules (e.g., size and polarizability). We demonstrate biomedical applications and verify cell viability in our platform, whose multiplexing and integration of numerous steps and external analyses enhance its application in the clinic, including by nonspecialists. Through its massive cost reduction and usability we anticipate that our platform will enable greater access to diagnostic facilities in developed countries as well as POC diagnostics in resource-poor and developing countries.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Impressão/instrumentação , Linhagem Celular , Separação Celular/instrumentação , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
9.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13237, 2016 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796309

RESUMO

Hydrogen production via electrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for storing solar energy. For this technology to be economically competitive, it is critical to develop water splitting systems with high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiencies. Here we report a photovoltaic-electrolysis system with the highest STH efficiency for any water splitting technology to date, to the best of our knowledge. Our system consists of two polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysers in series with one InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell, which produces a large-enough voltage to drive both electrolysers with no additional energy input. The solar concentration is adjusted such that the maximum power point of the photovoltaic is well matched to the operating capacity of the electrolysers to optimize the system efficiency. The system achieves a 48-h average STH efficiency of 30%. These results demonstrate the potential of photovoltaic-electrolysis systems for cost-effective solar energy storage.

10.
Nano Lett ; 16(12): 7521-7529, 2016 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27802056

RESUMO

Germanium-tin alloy nanowires hold promise as silicon-compatible optoelectronic elements with the potential to achieve a direct band gap transition required for efficient light emission. In contrast to Ge1-xSnx epitaxial thin films, free-standing nanowires deposited on misfitting germanium or silicon substrates can avoid compressive, elastic strains that inhibit formation of a direct gap. We demonstrate strong room temperature photoluminescence, consistent with band edge emission from both Ge core nanowires, elastically strained in tension, and the almost unstrained Ge1-xSnx shells grown around them. Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition of these core-shell structures was achieved using standard precursors, resulting in Sn incorporation that significantly exceeds the bulk solubility limit in germanium.

11.
Opt Lett ; 41(15): 3435-8, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472587

RESUMO

We demonstrate an experimental technique for both transverse and longitudinal characterization of bunched femtosecond free electron beams. The operation principle is based on monitoring of the current of electrons that obtained an energy gain during the interaction with the synchronized optical near-field wave excited by femtosecond laser pulses. The synchronous accelerating/decelerating fields confined to the surface of a silicon nanostructure are characterized using a highly focused sub-relativistic electron beam. Here the transverse spatial resolution of 450 nm and femtosecond temporal resolution of 480 fs (sub-optical-cycle temporal regime is briefly discussed) achievable by this technique are demonstrated.

12.
Biomed Microdevices ; 18(1): 7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26780442

RESUMO

The improvements in our ability to sequence and genotype DNA have opened up numerous avenues in the understanding of human biology and medicine with various applications, especially in medical diagnostics. But the realization of a label free, real time, high-throughput and low cost biosensing platforms to detect molecular interactions with a high level of sensitivity has been yet stunted due to two factors: one, slow binding kinetics caused by the lack of probe molecules on the sensors and two, limited mass transport due to the planar structure (two-dimensional) of the current biosensors. Here we present a novel three-dimensional (3D), highly sensitive, real-time, inexpensive and label-free nanotip array as a rapid and direct platform to sequence-specific DNA screening. Our nanotip sensors are designed to have a nano sized thin film as their sensing area (~ 20 nm), sandwiched between two sensing electrodes. The tip is then conjugated to a DNA oligonucleotide complementary to the sequence of interest, which is electrochemically detected in real-time via impedance changes upon the formation of a double-stranded helix at the sensor interface. This 3D configuration is specifically designed to improve the biomolecular hit rate and the detection speed. We demonstrate that our nanotip array effectively detects oligonucleotides in a sequence-specific and highly sensitive manner, yielding concentration-dependent impedance change measurements with a target concentration as low as 10 pM and discrimination against even a single mismatch. Notably, our nanotip sensors achieve this accurate, sensitive detection without relying on signal indicators or enhancing molecules like fluorophores. It can also easily be scaled for highly multiplxed detection with up to 5000 sensors/square centimeter, and integrated into microfluidic devices. The versatile, rapid, and sensitive performance of the nanotip array makes it an excellent candidate for point-of-care diagnostics, and high-throughput DNA analysis applications.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Análise Mutacional de DNA/instrumentação , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/instrumentação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos
13.
IEEE Trans Biomed Circuits Syst ; 10(1): 85-97, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25622325

RESUMO

Photovoltaic conversion of pulsed light into pulsed electric current enables optically-activated neural stimulation with miniature wireless implants. In photovoltaic retinal prostheses, patterns of near-infrared light projected from video goggles onto subretinal arrays of photovoltaic pixels are converted into patterns of current to stimulate the inner retinal neurons. We describe a model of these devices and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic circuits, including the electrode-electrolyte interface. Characteristics of the electrodes measured in saline with various voltages, pulse durations, and polarities were modeled as voltage-dependent capacitances and Faradaic resistances. The resulting mathematical model of the circuit yielded dynamics of the electric current generated by the photovoltaic pixels illuminated by pulsed light. Voltages measured in saline with a pipette electrode above the pixel closely matched results of the model. Using the circuit model, our pixel design was optimized for maximum charge injection under various lighting conditions and for different stimulation thresholds. To speed discharge of the electrodes between the pulses of light, a shunt resistor was introduced and optimized for high frequency stimulation.


Assuntos
Estimulação Luminosa , Neurônios Retinianos/fisiologia , Próteses Visuais , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletrodos Implantados , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Desenho de Prótese , Tecnologia sem Fio
14.
Sci Rep ; 5: 15794, 2015 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26507563

RESUMO

Polarization manipulation is essential in almost every photonic system ranging from telecommunications to bio-sensing to quantum information. This is traditionally achieved using bulk waveplates. With the developing trend of photonic systems towards integration and miniaturization, the need for an on-chip waveguide type waveplate becomes extremely urgent. However, this is very challenging using conventional dielectric waveguides, which usually require complex 3D geometries to alter the waveguide symmetry and are also difficult to create an arbitrary optical axis. Recently, a waveguide waveplate was realized using femtosecond laser writing, but the device length is in millimeter range. Here, for the first time we propose and experimentally demonstrate an ultracompact, on-chip waveplate using an asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide to create an arbitrary optical axis. The device is only in several microns length and produced in a flexible integratable IC compatible format, thus opening up the potential for integration into a broad range of systems.

15.
Opt Express ; 23(17): 22424-30, 2015 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26368212

RESUMO

In this paper, we report a broad investigation of the optical properties of germanium (Ge) quantum-well devices. Our simulations show a significant increase of carrier density in the Ge quantum wells. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show the enhanced direct-bandgap radiative recombination rates due to the carrier density increase in the Ge quantum wells. Electroluminescence (EL) measurements show the temperature-dependent properties of our Ge quantum-well devices, which are in good agreement with our theoretical models. We also demonstrate the PL measurements of Ge quantum-well microdisks using tapered-fiber collection method and quantify the optical loss of the Ge quantum-well structure from the measured PL spectra for the first time.

16.
Opt Lett ; 40(18): 4344-7, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26371932

RESUMO

We present the demonstration of high-gradient laser acceleration and deflection of electrons with silicon dual-pillar grating structures using both evanescent inverse Smith-Purcell modes and coupled modes. Our devices accelerate subrelativistic 86.5 and 96.3 keV electrons by 2.05 keV over 5.6 µm distance for accelerating gradients of 370 MeV/m with a 3 nJ mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. We also show that dual pillars can produce uniform accelerating gradients with a coupled-mode field profile. These results represent a significant step toward making practical dielectric laser accelerators for ultrafast, medical, and high-energy applications.

17.
Nano Lett ; 15(7): 4241-7, 2015 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26030139

RESUMO

The local electrical characteristics on the surface of MBE-grown Bi2Te3 are probed under ambient conditions by conductive atomic force microscopy. Nanoscale mapping reveals a 10-100× enhancement in current at step-edges compared to that on terraces. Analysis of the local current-voltage characteristics indicates that the transport mechanism is similar for step-edges and terraces. Comparison of the results with those for control samples shows that the current enhancement is not a measurement artifact but instead is due to local differences in electronic properties. The likelihood of various possible mechanisms is discussed. The absence of enhancement at the step-edges for graphite terraces is consistent with the intriguing possibility that spin-orbit coupling and topological effects play a significant role in the step-edge current enhancement in Bi2Te3.

18.
Opt Express ; 23(7): A219-31, 2015 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25968788

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate an improved method to simulate the characteristics of multijunction solar cell by introducing a bias-dependent luminescent coupling efficiency. The standard two-diode equivalent-circuit model with constant luminescent coupling efficiency has limited accuracy because it does not include the recombination current from photogenerated carriers. Therefore, we propose an alternative analytical method with bias-dependent luminescent coupling efficiency to model multijunction cell behavior. We show that there is a noticeable difference in the J-V characteristics and cell performance generated by simulations with a constant vs. bias-dependent coupling efficiency. The results indicate that introducing a bias-dependent coupling efficiency produces more accurate modeling of multijunction cell behavior under real operating conditions.

19.
Vision Res ; 111(Pt B): 142-8, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25255990

RESUMO

Loss of photoreceptors during retinal degeneration leads to blindness, but information can be reintroduced into the visual system using electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons. Subretinal photovoltaic arrays convert pulsed illumination into pulsed electric current to stimulate the inner retinal neurons. Since required irradiance exceeds the natural luminance levels, an invisible near-infrared (915 nm) light is used to avoid photophobic effects. We characterized the thresholds and dynamic range of cortical responses to prosthetic stimulation with arrays of various pixel sizes and with different number of photodiodes. Stimulation thresholds for devices with 140 µm pixels were approximately half those of 70 µm pixels, and with both pixel sizes, thresholds were lower with 2 diodes than with 3 diodes per pixel. In all cases these thresholds were more than two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. At high stimulation frequencies (>20 Hz), the cortical response exhibited flicker fusion. Over one order of magnitude of dynamic range could be achieved by varying either pulse duration or irradiance. However, contrast sensitivity was very limited. Cortical responses could be detected even with only a few illuminated pixels. Finally, we demonstrate that recording of the corneal electric potential in response to patterned illumination of the subretinal arrays allows monitoring the current produced by each pixel, and thereby assessing the changes in the implant performance over time.


Assuntos
Cegueira/reabilitação , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Próteses Visuais , Animais , Cegueira/etiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Ratos , Retina/fisiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/complicações
20.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 9(1): 81, 2014 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24533740

RESUMO

Time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) was applied to study the dynamics of carrier recombination in GaInNAsSb quantum wells (QWs) emitting near 1.3 µm and annealed at various temperatures. It was observed that the annealing temperature has a strong influence on the PL decay time, and hence, it influences the optical quality of GaInNAsSb QWs. At low temperatures, the PL decay time exhibits energy dependence (i.e., the decay times change for different energies of emitted photons), which can be explained by the presence of localized states. This energy dependence of PL decay times was fitted by a phenomenological formula, and the average value of E0, which describes the energy distribution of localized states, was extracted from this fit and found to be smallest (E0 = 6 meV) for the QW annealed at 700°C. In addition, the value of PL decay time at the peak energy was compared for all samples. The longest PL decay time (600 ps) was observed for the sample annealed at 700°C. It means that based on the PL dynamics, the optimal annealing temperature for this QW is approximately 700°C.

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