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1.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e12962, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157807

RESUMO

The World Health Organization International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes prohibits claims and other marketing that may confuse caregivers about benefits of formula and other milk-based drinks for infants and toddlers, but such marketing is common in the United States. This study assessed caregivers' provision of milk-based products to their infants and toddlers and potential confusion about product benefits and appropriate use. Online survey of 1,645 U.S. caregivers of infants (6-11 months) and toddlers (12-36 months). Respondents identified infant formula and toddler milk products they served their child (ren) and provided relative agreement with common marketing claims. Logistic regression assessed relationships between agreement and serving these products, controlling for individual characteristics. Over one-half of caregivers of infants (52%) agreed that infant formula can be better for babies' digestion and brain development than breastmilk, and 62% agreed it can provide nutrition not present in breastmilk. Most caregivers of toddlers (60%) agreed that toddler milks provide nutrition toddlers do not get from other foods. Some caregivers of infants (11%) reported serving toddler milk to their child most often. Agreement with marketing claims increased the odds of serving infant formula and/or toddler milks. For caregivers of toddlers, odds were higher for college-educated and lower for non-Hispanic White caregivers. Common marketing messages promoting infant formula and toddler milks may mislead caregivers about benefits and appropriateness of serving to young children. These findings support calls for public health policies and increased regulation of infant formula and toddler milks.

2.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 113: 104624, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126256

RESUMO

An international expert working group representing 37 organisations (pharmaceutical/biotechnology companies, contract research organisations, academic institutions and regulatory bodies) collaborated in a data sharing exercise to evaluate the utility of two species within regulatory general toxicology studies. Anonymised data on 172 drug candidates (92 small molecules, 46 monoclonal antibodies, 15 recombinant proteins, 13 synthetic peptides and 6 antibody-drug conjugates) were submitted by 18 organisations. The use of one or two species across molecule types, the frequency for reduction to a single species within the package of general toxicology studies, and a comparison of target organ toxicities identified in each species in both short and longer-term studies were determined. Reduction to a single species for longer-term toxicity studies, as used for the development of biologicals (ICHS6(R1) guideline) was only applied for 8/133 drug candidates, but might have been possible for more, regardless of drug modality, as similar target organ toxicity profiles were identified in the short-term studies. However, definition and harmonisation around the criteria for similarity of toxicity profiles is needed to enable wider consideration of these principles. Analysis of a more robust dataset would be required to provide clear, evidence-based recommendations for expansion of these principles to small molecules or other modalities where two species toxicity testing is currently recommended.

3.
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079285

RESUMO

Public health experts worldwide are calling for a reduction of the marketing of nutrient-poor food and beverages to children. However, industry self-regulation and most government policies do not address in-store marketing, including shelf placement and retail promotions. This paper reports two U.S.-based studies examining the prevalence and potential impact of in-store marketing for nutrient-poor child-targeted products. Study 1 compares the in-store marketing of children's breakfast cereals with the marketing of other (family/adult) cereals, including shelf space allocation and placement, special displays and promotions, using a national audit of U.S. supermarkets. Child-targeted cereals received more shelf space, middle- and lower-shelf placements, special displays, and promotions compared with other cereals. Study 2 compares the proportion of product sales associated with in-store displays and promotions for child-targeted versus other fruit drinks/juices, using syndicated sales data. A higher proportion of child-targeted drink sales were associated with displays and promotions than sales of other drinks. In both categories, the results were due primarily to major company products. Although in-store marketing of child-targeted products likely appeals to both children and parents, these practices encourage children's consumption of nutrient-poor food and drinks. If companies will not voluntarily address in-store marketing to children, government policy options are available to limit the marketing of unhealthy foods in the supermarket.

5.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(6): 1127-1135, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Extensive marketing of 'toddler milks' (sugar-sweetened milk-based drinks for toddlers) promotes unsubstantiated product benefits and raises concerns about consumption by young children. The present study documents trends in US toddler milk sales and assesses relationships with brand and category marketing. DESIGN: We report annual US toddler milk and infant formula sales and marketing from 2006 to 2015. Sales response models estimate associations between marketing (television advertising spending, product price, number of retail displays) and volume sales of toddler milks by brand and category. SETTING: US Nielsen retail scanner sales and advertising spending data from 2006 to 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Researchers analysed all Universal Product Codes (n 117·4 million) sold by seven infant formula and eight toddler milk brands from 2006 to 2015. RESULTS: Advertising spending on toddler milks increased fourfold during this 10-year period and volume sales increased 2·6 times. In contrast, advertising spending and volume sales of infant formulas declined. Toddler milk volume sales were positively associated with television advertising and retail displays, and negatively associated with price, at both the brand and category levels. CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive marketing of toddler milks has likely contributed to rapid sales increases in the USA. However, these sugar-sweetened drinks are not recommended for toddler consumption. Health-care providers, professional organizations and public health campaigns should provide clear guidance and educate parents to reduce toddler milk consumption and address misperceptions about their benefits. These findings also support the need to regulate marketing of toddler milks in countries that prohibit infant formula marketing to consumers.

6.
Nutr Rev ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968101

RESUMO

Children's diets in their first 1000 days influence dietary preferences, eating habits, and long-term health. Yet the diets of most infants and toddlers in the United States do not conform to recommendations for optimal child nutrition. This narrative review examines whether marketing for infant formula and other commercial baby/toddler foods plays a role. The World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing Breast-milk Substitutes strongly encourages countries and manufacturers to prohibit marketing practices that discourage initiation of, and continued, breastfeeding. However, in the United States, widespread infant formula marketing negatively impacts breastfeeding. Research has also identified questionable marketing of toddler milks (formula/milk-based drinks for children aged 12-36 mo). The United States has relied exclusively on industry self-regulation, but US federal agencies and state and local governments could regulate problematic marketing of infant formula and toddler milks. Health providers and public health organizations should also provide guidance. However, further research is needed to better understand how marketing influences what and how caregivers feed their young children and inform potential interventions and regulatory solutions.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 493-502, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food advertising is a major contributor to obesity, and fast food (FF) restaurants are top advertisers. Research on the impact of food advertising in adolescents is lacking and no prior research has investigated neural predictors of food intake in adolescents. Neural systems implicated in reward could be key to understanding how food advertising drives food intake. OBJECTIVES: To investigate how neural responses to both unhealthy and healthier FF commercials predict food intake in adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 171 adolescents (aged 13-16 y) who ranged from normal weight to obese completed an fMRI paradigm where they viewed unhealthy and healthier FF and nonfood commercials. Adolescents then consumed a meal in a simulated FF restaurant where foods of varying nutritional profiles (unhealthy compared with healthier) were available. RESULTS: Greater neural activation in reward-related regions (nucleus accumbens, r = 0.29; caudate nucleus, r = 0.27) to unhealthy FF commercials predicted greater total food intake. Greater responses to healthier FF relative to nonfood commercials in regions associated with reward (i.e., nucleus accumbens, r = 0.24), memory (i.e., hippocampus, r = 0.32), and sensorimotor processes (i.e., anterior cerebellum, r = 0.33) predicted greater total food and unhealthier food intake, but not healthier food intake. Lower activation in neural regions associated with visual attention and salience (e.g., precuneus, r = -0.35) to unhealthy relative to healthier FF commercials predicted healthier food intake. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that FF commercials contribute to overeating in adolescents through reward mechanisms. The addition of healthier commercials from FF restaurants is unlikely to encourage healthier food intake, but interventions that reduce the ability of unhealthy FF commercials to capture attention could be beneficial. However, an overall reduction in the amount of FF commercials exposure for adolescents is likely to be the most effective approach.

8.
J Asthma ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906748

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate music therapy (MT), in conjunction with standard care, as a complementary option for asthma management in pediatric patients.Methods: 173 children were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) Music: a single individualized MT session along with a recorder and journal with instructions for home use; 2) Music Plus: weekly group MT sessions along with a recorder and journal for home use; or 3) Control: standard of care. Primary endpoints included pulmonary function tests (FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75, PEF), hospitalizations, ER visits, missed school days, and quality of life (Juniper).Results: Significant intergroup differences relative to Controls were observed for FEV1/FVC (Music and Music Plus, p < 0.05) and FEF25-75 (Music Plus; p < 0.01). Music Plus participants experienced fewer hospitalizations compared to Controls (p < 0.001), corresponding to 1.16 fewer hospitalizations per patient-year. Caregivers' perception of their children's QOL significantly increased in the Music (p = 0.011) and Music Plus (p < 0.001) groups compared to Controls.Conclusion: These results reflect MT's potential to favorably impact pediatric asthma management as a child-friendly, low-risk intervention. Further research is needed to substantiate the possible benefits of incorporating MT into standard treatment regimens.

9.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 9(4): e1901137, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944612

RESUMO

Integration of conductive electrodes with 3D tissue models can have great potential for applications in bioelectronics, drug screening, and implantable devices. As conventional electrodes cannot be easily integrated on 3D, polymeric, and biocompatible substrates, alternatives are highly desirable. Graphene offers significant advantages over conventional electrodes due to its mechanical flexibility and robustness, biocompatibility, and electrical properties. However, the transfer of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto millimeter scale 3D structures is challenging using conventional wet graphene transfer methods with a rigid poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) supportive layer. Here, a biocompatible 3D graphene transfer method onto 3D printed structure using a soft poly ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) supportive layer to integrate the graphene layer with a 3D engineered ring of skeletal muscle tissue is reported. The use of softer PEGDA supportive layer, with a 105 times lower Young's modulus compared to PMMA, results in conformal integration of the graphene with 3D printed pillars and allows electrical stimulation and actuation of the muscle ring with various applied voltages and frequencies. The graphene integration method can be applied to many 3D tissue models and be used as a platform for electrical interfaces to 3D biological tissue system.

10.
Appetite ; 146: 104501, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669579

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Food-related promotion of brands via social media represents an increasingly important youth-targeted marketing strategy, but little is known about how adolescents interact with these brands online. This study measures adolescents' social media engagement with food/beverage brands, sociodemographic differences in level of engagement, and relationships between engagement and screen time. METHODS: Cross-sectional online survey of US adolescents (ages 13-17, N = 1564), oversampled for non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic (more- and less-acculturated) participants, assessed restaurant, food, and beverage brands ever liked, shared, or followed of on social media. Multivariate logistic regression models examined associations between brand engagement, sociodemographic variables (race/ethnicity, acculturation, age, gender, and parent education), and screen time (TV and other screens). RESULTS: Seventy percent of adolescents reported engaging with any food/beverage brands on social media (ranging from 1 to 48), and 35% engaged with 5 + brands. Non-Hispanic Black and less-acculturated Hispanic adolescents were more likely than non-Hispanic White adolescents to engage with brands. Approximately one-half reported engaging with brands of fast food (54% of participants), sugary drinks (50%), candy (46%), and snacks (45%), while just 7% reported engaging with all other categories of food/beverage brands. Watching TV more than 2 h-per-day was associated with any brand engagement; while using other screens more than 2 h-per-day was associated with following 5 + brands. CONCLUSIONS: Engagement with unhealthy food brands on social media is common among adolescents. Disproportionate engagement by non-Hispanic Black and less-acculturated Hispanic youth raises additional concerns. Research is needed to understand how such marketing affects adolescents' food preferences, diets, and health.

11.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(1): 188-195, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with inflammatory hepatic parenchymal disease (HPD) and increased risk for recurrence after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). The independent impact of HPD on recurrence patterns has not been well defined. METHODS: The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS) was used to quantify HPD including steatosis and fibrosis for all patients with completely resected CRLM between April 2003 and March 2007. Clinicopathologic factors, perioperative history, and outcomes were compared with the NAS. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the association between severe HPD (NAS ≥ 3) with clinical and perioperative characteristics. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate recurrence-free survival (RFS). The cumulative incidences of recurrence [any intrahepatic recurrence (IHR), extrahepatic recurrence only (EHR), and death without recurrence (DWR)] were estimated using competing risks methods. RESULTS: Among the 357 patients included in this study, microsteatosis was noted in 124 (35%) patients, severe HPD in 31 (9%), steatohepatitis in 14 (4%), and sinusoidal injury in 36 (10%). After median follow-up of 127 months (range 4-175 months), 10-year RFS was 22% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17-27%]. Ten-year cumulative incidence for IHR, EHR, and DWR was 37%, 30%, and 12%, respectively. After controlling for confounders, NAS ≥ 3 was independently associated with higher risk of IHR [hazard ratio (HR) 1.76, 95% CI 1.07-2.90, p = 0.027] and lower risk of EHR (HR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.75, p = 0.019) on multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Severe HPD was associated with increased IHR risk and decreased EHR risk. Future investigation into whether improving HPD from reversible etiologies can reduce the risk for IHR is warranted.

13.
J Palliat Care ; 35(1): 8-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968741

RESUMO

Existential suffering is commonly experienced by patients with serious medical illnesses despite the advances in the treatment of physical and psychological symptoms that often accompany incurable diseases. Palliative care (PC) clinicians wishing to help these patients are faced with many barriers including the inability to identify existential suffering, lack of training in how to address it, and time constraints. Although mental health and spiritual care providers play an instrumental role in addressing the existential needs of patients, PC clinicians are uniquely positioned to coordinate the necessary resources for addressing existential suffering in their patients. With this article, we present a case of a patient in existential distress and a framework to equip PC clinicians to assess and address existential suffering.

14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 382, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Topical antimicrobials are recommended for first line treatment of surface and superficial infections in dogs. This is especially important given the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistant infections. Antimicrobial wipes have become popular, but there are a lack of controlled studies assessing their in vitro antimicrobial and in vivo residual activity. We aimed to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of two commercial antimicrobial wipes against frequently isolated pathogens. Ten clinical and one reference isolate each of meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MSSP), meticillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), Escherichia coli (EC), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli (ESBL-EC), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Malassezia pachydermatis (MP) were tested using a modified Kirby-Bauer technique. Each isolate was tested against 6 mm discs of chlorhexidine (CHX) and acetic acid/boric acid (AABA) wipes, and positive and negative controls either overnight (bacteria) or for 3 days (Malassezia). Healthy dogs were treated with the wipes and distilled water on a randomised flank (n = 5 each). Hair samples (1 cm; 0.1 g) taken at days 0, 1 and 3 were inoculated with an isolate of each organism. Zones of inhibition (ZI) were measured. RESULTS: All isolates produced confluent growth with AABA and control wipes, except for the cleansing wipes and MP (median ZI 12 mm; 95% CI 8.2-15.8). The median (95% CI) CHX wipe ZIs (mm) were: MP 48.0 (47.0-49.0), MSSP 15.6 (14.2-17.0), MRSP 14.0 (13.6-14.4), EC 13.6 (12.0-15.2) and ESBL-EC 10.0 (9.4-10.6). PA showed confluent growth. The differences between the bacterial isolates was significant (Kruskal-Wallis p < 0.0001; post-tests MSSP = MRSP = EC > EBSL-EC > PA). Confluent growth was visible with all the hair samples. CONCLUSION: CHX but not AABA showed in vitro efficacy against MSSP, MRSP, EC and MP. ESBL-EC were less susceptible and there was no activity against PA. There was no residual activity on hair. Additional studies are required to determine efficacy of these products in clinically affected patients.

15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(12): 104473, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nontraumatic convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) is a nonaneurysmal variant that is associated with diverse etiologies. METHODS: With IRB approval, we retrospectively reviewed consecutive nontraumatic cSAH from July 1, 2006 to July 1, 2016. Data were abstracted on demographics, medical history, neuroimaging, etiology, and clinical presentation. RESULTS: We identified 94 cases of cSAH. The cases were classified according to the following etiologies: reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) 17 (18%), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) 15 (16%), posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome 16 (17%), cerebral venous thrombosis 10 (11%), large artery occlusion 7 (7%), endocarditis 6 (6%), and cryptogenic 25 (27%). Early rebleeding occurred in 9 (10%) patients. Time from initial imaging to CT rebleeding was 40 hours (range, 5-74). CAA was associated with the highest mean age at 75.8 and RCVS the lowest at 47.6 years (P< .0001). Among patients with RCVS, initial vascular imaging was negative in 6 (35%), and repeat imaging documented vasoconstriction at a mean delay of 5 days (range, 3-16). CONCLUSION: There were significant differences among the subgroups in cSAH, with CAA presenting as older men with transient neurological deficits, and RCVS presenting as younger women with thunderclap headache. Rebleeding was seen in 10% of cSAH patients. One-third of RCVS patients with cSAH required repeat vascular imaging to diagnose vasoconstriction.


Assuntos
Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/complicações , Endocardite/complicações , Trombose Intracraniana/complicações , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/complicações , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/etiologia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angiopatia Amiloide Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Trombose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome , Fatores de Tempo , Vasoconstrição , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Med ; 25(10): 1607-1614, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591597

RESUMO

Rectal cancer (RC) is a challenging disease to treat that requires chemotherapy, radiation and surgery to optimize outcomes for individual patients. No accurate model of RC exists to answer fundamental research questions relevant to patients. We established a biorepository of 65 patient-derived RC organoid cultures (tumoroids) from patients with primary, metastatic or recurrent disease. RC tumoroids retained molecular features of the tumors from which they were derived, and their ex vivo responses to clinically relevant chemotherapy and radiation treatment correlated with the clinical responses noted in individual patients' tumors. Upon engraftment into murine rectal mucosa, human RC tumoroids gave rise to invasive RC followed by metastasis to lung and liver. Importantly, engrafted tumors displayed the heterogenous sensitivity to chemotherapy observed clinically. Thus, the biology and drug sensitivity of RC clinical isolates can be efficiently interrogated using an organoid-based, ex vivo platform coupled with in vivo endoluminal propagation in animals.


Assuntos
Quimiorradioterapia , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Animais , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Retais/patologia
17.
J Child Health Care ; : 1367493519880049, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597456

RESUMO

Over 75% children in the United Kingdom fail to achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Successful implementation of 'The Daily Mile™', a school-based physical activity intervention, could promote activity. We examined factors instrumental to replication and/or wider implementation of 'The Daily Mile' through application of a two phase multi-method process evaluation. Phase one: 75 children (mean age seven years eight months) from one East Midland primary academy trialled the intervention. Data collected were self-report logs, perceived exertion scores and structured observation. Phase two: a sub-sample of 18 stakeholders participated in focus groups which were analysed using framework method. Teachers delivered 'The Daily Mile' on 93.6% of school days. An average of 95.2% of students participated, 94.2% completed recommended 15 minutes, 94.3% to a moderate-to-vigorous level. Three themes emerged in focus groups; embedding 'The Daily Mile' into practice, creating the right physical environment and building relationships/promoting a supportive climate. With systematic organisation and planning, 'The Daily Mile' could emerge as an integrated means of increasing physical activity. A supportive climate and factors that promote resilience are key facilitators. Further research is needed to establish outcomes and cost-effectiveness.

18.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512575

RESUMO

Nordic twin studies have played a critical role in understanding cancer etiology and elucidating the nature of familial effects on site-specific cancers. The NorTwinCan consortium is a collaborative effort that capitalizes on unique research advantages made possible through the Nordic system of registries. It was constructed by linking the population-based twin registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to their country-specific national cancer and cause-of-death registries. These linkages enable the twins to be followed many decades for cancer incidence and mortality. To date, two major linkages have been conducted: NorTwinCan I in 2011-2012 and NorTwinCan II in 2018. Overall, there are 315,413 eligible twins, 57,236 incident cancer cases and 58 years of follow-up, on average. In the initial phases of our work, NorTwinCan established the world's most comprehensive twin database for studying cancer, developed novel analytical approaches tailored to address specific research considerations within the context of the Nordic data and leveraged these models and data in research publications that provide the most accurate estimates of heritability and familial risk of cancers reported in the literature to date. Our findings indicate an excess familial risk for nearly all cancers and demonstrate that the incidence of cancer among twins mirrors the rate in the general population. They also revealed that twin concordance for cancer most often manifests across, rather than within, cancer sites, and we are currently focusing on the analysis of these cross-cancer associations.

19.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-4, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500688

RESUMO

The Norwegian Twin Registry (NTR) is maintained as a research resource that was compiled by merging several panels of twin data that were established for research into physical and mental health, wellbeing and development. NTR is a consent-based registry. Where possible, data that were collected in previous studies are curated for secondary research use. A particularly valuable potential benefit associated with the Norwegian twin data lies in the opportunities to expand and enhance the data through record linkage to nationwide registries that cover a wide array of health data and other information, including socioeconomic factors. This article provides a brief description of the current NTR sample and data collections, information about data access procedures and an overview of the national registries that can be linked to the NTR for research projects.

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