Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 98
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 36(5): 574-580, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332846

RESUMO

Recent focus on the neonatal intestinal microbiome has advanced our knowledge of the complex interplay between the intestinal barrier, the developing immune system, and commensal and pathogenic organisms. Despite the parallel role of the infant skin in serving as both a barrier and an interface for priming the immune system, large gaps exist in our understanding of the infantile cutaneous microbiome. The skin microbiome changes and matures throughout infancy, becoming more diverse and developing the site specificity known to exist in adults. Delivery method initially determines the composition of the cutaneous microbiome, though this impact appears transient. Cutaneous microbes play a critical role in immune system development, particularly during the neonatal period, and microbes and immune cells have closely intertwined, reciprocal effects. The unique structure of newborn skin influences cutaneous microbial colonization and the development of dermatologic pathology. The development of the infantile skin barrier and cutaneous microbiome contributes to future skin pathology. Atopic dermatitis flares and seborrheic dermatitis have been linked to dysbiosis, while erythema toxicum neonatorum is an immune response to the establishment of normal bacterial skin flora. Physicians who care for infants should be aware of the impact of the infantile skin microbiome and its role in the development of pathology. A better understanding of the origin and evolution of the skin microbiome will lead to more effective prevention and treatment of pediatric skin disease.

3.
Medchemcomm ; 10(5): 699-711, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191860

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common and prevalent infectious diseases worldwide, with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) reported as the main causative pathogen. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are commonly used to treat UTIs but for infections involving UPEC biofilms, which are commonly associated with catheter use and recurrent episodes, ciprofloxacin is often ineffective. Here we report the development of a ciprofloxacin-dinitroxide (CDN) conjugate with potent UPEC biofilm-eradication activity. CDN 11 exhibited a 2-fold increase in potency over the parent antibiotic ciprofloxacin against UPEC biofilms. Moreover, CDN 11 resulted in almost complete UPEC biofilm cell eradication (99.7%) at concentrations as low as 12.5 µM, and significantly potentiated ciprofloxacin's biofilm-eradication activity against UPEC upon co-administration. The biofilm-eradication activity of CDN 11 highlights the potential of nitroxide functionalized antibiotics as a promising strategy for the treatment of biofilm-related UTIs.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e029388, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167875

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: 'Real world' bleeding in patients exposed to different regimens of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and triple therapy (TT, DAPT plus an anticoagulant) have a clinical and economic impact but have not been previously quantified. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will use linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data to assemble populations eligible for three 'target trials' in patient groups: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); conservatively managed (medication only) acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients ≥18 years old will be eligible if, in CPRD records, they have: ≥1 year of data before the index event; no prescription for DAPT or anticoagulants in the preceding 3 months; a prescription for aspirin or DAPT within 2 months after discharge from the index event. The primary outcome will be any bleeding event (CPRD or HES) up to 12 months after the index event. We will estimate adjusted HR for time to first bleeding event comparing: aspirin and clopidogrel (reference) versus aspirin and prasugrel or aspirin and ticagrelor after PCI; and aspirin (reference) versus aspirin and clopidogrel after CABG and ACS. We will describe rates of bleeding in patients prescribed TT (DAPT plus an anticoagulant). Potential confounders will be identified systematically using literature review, semistructured interviews with clinicians and a short survey of clinicians. We will conduct sensitivity analyses addressing the robustness of results to the study's main limitation-that we will not be able to identify the intervention group for patients whose bleeding event occurs before a DAPT prescription in CPRD. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol was approved by the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee for the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency Database Research (protocol 16_126R) and the South West Cornwall and Plymouth Research Ethics Committee (17/SW/0092). The findings will be presented in peer-reviewed journals, lay summaries and briefing papers to commissioners/other stakeholders. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: 76607611; Pre-results.

5.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 116, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We determined whether it is feasible to identify important changes in care management resulting from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients who activate the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) pathway from hospital episode data, in order to construct a composite primary outcome (hypothesised to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiac-related events, MACE) to compare patients exposed to CMR or not. METHODS: We used Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and Patient Episode Database for Wales (PEDW) to identify clinical events that reflected important changes in management in the year following the index admission in five subgroups of patients who activated the PPCI pathway recruited as part of a feasibility cohort study (n = 1655 with HES/PEDW data). For all subgroups, we identified frequency of events and time to the first event for each change in management. RESULTS: We identified all clinical events (new diagnoses, additional diagnostic tests and procedures) except for medication prescriptions. Diagnostic tests were underestimated because most are carried out in outpatient clinics and outpatient datasets had missing procedure codes for 74% of patients (some tests done in hospital may also not be recorded). We successfully tabulated frequencies of events and distributions of times to first event for most changes in management by CMR status and in CMR / non CMR centres. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to identify changes in care management between patients who have / do not have CMR within relevant patient subgroups. Further work to derive a weighting algorithm is required before attempting to combine the events in a composite endpoint.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008038, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946743

RESUMO

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a highly heritable immune-mediated arthritis common in Turkish and Iranian populations. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease most common in people of Mediterranean origin. MEFV, an FMF-associated gene, is also a candidate gene for AS. We aimed to identify AS susceptibility loci and also examine the association between MEFV and AS in Turkish and Iranian cohorts. We performed genome-wide association studies in 1001 Turkish AS patients and 1011 Turkish controls, and 479 Iranian AS patients and 830 Iranian controls. Serum IL-1ß, IL-17 and IL-23 cytokine levels were quantified in Turkish samples. An association of major effect was observed with a novel rare coding variant in MEFV in the Turkish cohort (rs61752717, M694V, OR = 5.3, P = 7.63×10(-12)), Iranian cohort (OR = 2.9, P = 0.042), and combined dataset (OR = 5.1, P = 1.65×10(-13)). 99.6% of Turkish AS cases, and 96% of those carrying MEFV rs61752717 variants, did not have FMF. In Turkish subjects, the association of rs61752717 was particularly strong in HLA-B27-negative cases (OR = 7.8, P = 8.93×10(-15)), but also positive in HLA-B27-positive cases (OR = 4.3, P = 7.69×10(-8)). Serum IL-1ß, IL-17 and IL-23 levels were higher in AS cases than controls. Among AS cases, serum IL-1ß and IL-23 levels were increased in MEFV 694V carriers compared with non-carriers. Our data suggest that FMF and AS have overlapping aetiopathogenic mechanisms. Functionally important MEFV mutations, such as M694V, lead to dysregulated inflammasome function and excessive IL-1ß function. As IL-1 inhibition is effective in FMF, AS cases carrying FMF-associated MEFV variants may benefit from such therapy.


Assuntos
Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Pirina/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígeno HLA-B27/genética , Antígeno HLA-B51/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-23/sangue , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Espondilite Anquilosante/imunologia , Turquia
7.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 180: 28-33, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reported incidence of dysphagia after ACDFs has been as high as 79%. There, however, have been no studies that have specifically looked at developing a criteria for reducing the incidence of dysphagia for outpatient ACDFs. The aim of this study was to determine the risks factors for significant dysphagia that will exclude patients from outpatient single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusions (ACDFs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the Kaiser Permanente Spine registry database, between January 2009 and September 2013, we identified all inpatients (there were no outpatients) who underwent primary elective one-level ACDFs. A cohort of patients were identified with in-hospital length of stay (LOS) > 48 h in which the reason for continued admission was primarily significant dysphagia (DG). Patient's demographics and intraoperative data (ACDF levels (upper [C2-3, C3-4], middle [C4-5, C5-6], lower [C6-7, C7-T1]), and operative times (<100, 100-199, ≥ 200, minutes)) was used to determine risk factors for dysphagia. RESULTS: We found 747 single-level ACDF cases with a cohort of 239 (32.0%) who met the criteria for dysphagia (DG) with > 48 h admission. The DG group and non-dysphagia group (NDG) had similar demographics. Diabetes was excluded from regression analysis due to the low frequency. Compared to the lower spine level (C5-6, C7-T1), the upper spine level (C2-3, C3-4) ACDF had a higher likelihood for dysphagia (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.35-3.68, p = 0.0016); no difference was found for middle spine level (C4-5, C5-6) ACDF. CONCLUSION: Single-level ACDF at the upper cervical spine (C2-3, C3-4) was found to be the only risk factor for dysphagia with LOS > 48 h based on inpatient data from a spine registry. Age, BMI category, gender, ASA classification, smoking, and operative time were not predictive factors. These findings should be used for excluding patients who undergo outpatient single-level ACDF surgery to reduce significant postoperative dysphagia.

9.
World Neurosurg ; 121: e458-e466, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is a difference in reoperation rates for symptomatic nonunions in atlantoaxial (C1-C2) fusions with or without bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) using data from a national spine registry and to analyze the different types of bone grafts used in the non-BMP group. METHODS: Data from the Kaiser Permanente spine registry were used to identify patients with C1-C2 fusions with >2 years follow-up. Patient characteristics, diagnosis, operative times, length of stay, and reoperations were extracted from the registry. The data set was divided into patients with and without BMP. Further analysis was made of the different types of non-BMP grafts as well as the instrumentation used. RESULTS: In our cohort, we found 58 patients (53.7%) with BMP and 50 patients (46.3%) without with an average follow-up time of 5 years (interquartile range, 2.04-8.49). The BMP versus non-BMP groups differed in admitting diagnosis, operative times, length of stay, and follow-up times. There were no reoperations for symptomatic nonunions in both groups. The non-BMP group included iliac crest graft (with or without allograft [+/-] allograft); lamina (+/- allograft); and allograft alone. CONCLUSIONS: Using one of the largest retrospective studies on C1-C2 fusions with and without BMP, we found no difference in reoperation rates for symptomatic nonunions. For the non-BMP group, we found that lamina (+/- allograft) or allograft alone may also be just as effective as iliac crest graft (+/- allograft) in having no reoperations for symptomatic nonunions.


Assuntos
Articulação Atlantoaxial/anormalidades , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Anormalidades Congênitas/metabolismo , Anormalidades Congênitas/cirurgia , Reoperação/métodos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Articulação Atlantoaxial/metabolismo , Articulação Atlantoaxial/cirurgia , Transplante Ósseo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia
10.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(1): 57-64, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191644

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is caused by autosomal dominant mutations in one of 13 confirmed genes. Estimates of MODY prevalence vary widely, as genetic screening is usually restricted based on clinical features, even in population studies. We aimed to determine prevalence of MODY variants in a large and unselected pediatric diabetes cohort. METHODS: MODY variants were assessed using massively parallel sequencing in the population-based diabetes cohort (n = 1363) of the sole tertiary pediatric diabetes service for Western Australia (population 2.6 million). All individuals were screened, irrespective of clinical features. MODY variants were also assessed in a control cohort (n = 993). RESULTS: DNA and signed consent were available for 821 children. Seventeen children had pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in MODY genes, two diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, four diagnosed with antibody-negative type 1 diabetes (T1DM), three diagnosed with antibody-positive T1DM, and eight previously diagnosed with MODY. Prevalence of MODY variants in the sequenced cohort was 2.1%, compared to 0.3% of controls. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive study of MODY variants in an unselected population-based pediatric diabetes cohort. The observed prevalence, increasing access to rapid and affordable genetic screening, and significant clinical implications suggest that genetic screening for MODY could be considered for all children with diabetes, irrespective of other clinical features.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0203750, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with reperfused ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) both invasive and non-invasive assessments of microvascular dysfunction, the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), and microvascular obstruction (MVO) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), independently predict poor long-term outcomes. AIMS: The aims of this study were to investigate whether an invasive parameter (IMR), assessed at the time of primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI), could predict the extent of MVO in proportion to infarct size (MVO index). METHODS: 50 patients presenting with STEMI and TIMI flow ≤ I in the infarct related artery were prospectively recruited to the study, before undergoing PPCI. All patients underwent invasive IMR assessment at maximal hyperaemia using adenosine, and following stent insertion. CMR was performed on day 2 following STEMI, MVO was assessed both on first-pass rest perfusion (early MVO) and in the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images (late MVO) along with infarct size. The MVO index was calculated as the ratio of late MVO/infarct size. Differences between IMR quartiles and the MVO index were investigated. RESULTS: The median IMR was 38.5 (range 9 to 202). The median size of late MVO was 1.9% LV (range 0 to 21.0% LV). IMR predicted late MVO (p<0.01) and as IMR increased, the MVO index increased (r = 0.70, [95% CI 0.53, 0.82], p<0.001). An IMR cut-off of 40 significantly predicted the presence of late MVO on CMR (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: IMR measured at the time of PPCI in acutely reperfused STEMI is associated with the presence and severity of infarct damage as measured by the MVO index. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Microcirculation in Acute Myocardial Infarction (MICRO-AMI). Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01552564. Registered 9th March 2012.


Assuntos
Circulação Coronária , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Microcirculação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Resistência Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Gadolínio/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 16(1): 191, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is the recommended preventative treatment for secondary ischaemic events, but increases the risk of bleeding, potentially affecting patients' health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Varied utility decrements have been used in cost-effectiveness models assessing alternative DAPT regimens, but it is unclear which of these decrements are most appropriate. Therefore, we reviewed existing sources of utility decrements for bleeds in patients receiving DAPT and undertook primary research to estimate utility decrements through a patient elicitation exercise using vignettes and the EuroQol EQ-5D. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed and references of included studies were searched. Primary research and decision analytic modelling studies reporting utility decrements for bleeds related to DAPT were considered. For the primary research study, 21 participants completed an elicitation exercise involving vignettes describing minor and major bleeds and the EQ-5D-3 L and EQ-5D-5 L. Utility decrements were derived using linear regression and compared to existing estimates. RESULTS: Four hundred forty-two citations were screened, of which 12 studies were included for review. Reported utility decrements ranged from - 0.002 to - 0.03 for minor bleeds and - 0.007 to - 0.05 for major bleeds. Data sources used to estimate the decrements, however, lacked relevance to our population group and few studies adequately reported details of their measurement and valuation approaches. No study completely adhered to reimbursement agency requirements in the UK according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence reference case. Our primary research elicited utility decrements overlapped existing estimates, ranging from - 0.000848 to - 0.00828 for minor bleeds and - 0.0187 to - 0.0621 for major bleeds. However, the magnitude of difference depended on the instrument, estimation method and valuation approach applied. CONCLUSIONS: Several sources of utility decrements for bleeds are available for use in cost-effectiveness analyses, but are of limited quality and relevance. Our elicitation exercise has derived utility decrements from a relevant patient population, based on standardised definitions of minor and major bleeding events, using a validated HRQoL instrument and have been valued using general population tariffs. We suggest that our utility decrements be used in future cost-effectiveness analyses of DAPT.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/prevenção & controle , Preferência do Paciente , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/economia , Risco
13.
Dermatol Ther ; 31(5): e12660, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152569

RESUMO

Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis most often manifests 1-2 days following exposure to a characteristic drug, such as aminopenicillins, calcium-channel blockers, or terbinafine. Recovery is usually rapid following drug withdrawal, and systemic corticosteroids represent the historic treatment of choice. Herein, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis incited by hydroxychloroquine is briefly reviewed: a prolonged latency and recalcitrance to corticosteroids are noteworthy. In this unique context, cyclosporine tapered over several months is an effective therapeutic option.


Assuntos
Pustulose Exantematosa Aguda Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Pustulose Exantematosa Aguda Generalizada/etiologia , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Retratamento
14.
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e018987, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether it is feasible to set up a national registry, linking routinely collected data from hospital information systems (HIS), to investigate the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients who activate the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) pathway. DESIGN: Feasibility prospective cohort study, to establish whether: (1) consent can be implemented; (2) data linkage and extraction from multiple HIS can be achieved for >90% of consented patients; (3) local data can be successfully linked with hospital episode data (Hospital Episode Statistics, HES; Patient Episode Database for Wales, PEDW) for >90% of consented patients and (4) the proportion of patients activating the PPCI pathway who get a CMR scan is ≥10% in hospitals with dedicated CMR facilities. PARTICIPANTS: Patients from four 24/7 PPCI hospitals in England and Wales (two with and two without a dedicated CMR facility) who activated the PPCI pathway and underwent an emergency coronary angiogram. RESULTS: Consent was successfully implemented at all hospitals (consent rates ranged from 59% to 74%) and 1670 participants were recruited. Data submission was variable: all hospitals submitted clinical data (for ≥82% of patients); only three hospitals submitted biochemistry data (for ≥98% of patients) and echocardiography data (for 34%-87% of patients); only one hospital submitted medications data (for 97% of patients). At the two CMR centres, 14% and 20% of patients received a CMR scan. Data submitted by hospitals were linked with HES and PEDW for 99% of all consented patients. CONCLUSION: We successfully consented patients but obtaining individual, opt-in consent would not be feasible for a national registry. Linkage of data from HIS with hospital episode data was feasible. However, data from HIS are not uniformly available/exportable and, in centres with a dedicated CMR facility, some referrals for CMR were for research rather than clinical purposes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 43(1): 22-27, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29019805

RESUMO

MINI: The outcome of interest was ≥ 5% weight change 1 year postoperative from baseline. Seven thousand three hundred three lumbar fusions in the Kaiser Permanente Spine Registry between 2009 and 2013 were analyzed. Weight loss occurred in: body mass index < 30, 11.1%; obese, BMI 30 to 39, 16.6%, odds ratio = 1.42; extremely obese, body mass index ≥40, 21.1%, odds ratio = 1.73. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study from the Kaiser Permanente Spine Registry. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether obese and extremely obese patients with lumbar spine fusions lost a clinically significant amount of weight (≥5%) 1 year after their surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Obesity in the United States has a prevalence of 35% and is a global health issue. Obesity is associated with lumbar spine disease. There is limited evidence regarding postsurgical weight loss after spine surgery. METHODS: Adult patients in the Kaiser Permanente Spine Registry with lumbar fusions performed between 2009 and 2013 were included in the study sample (n = 7303). The outcome of interest was ≥5% weight change 1 year postoperative from baseline. Three body mass index (BMI) groups were analyzed (BMI < 30; 30-39 obese; ≥40 extremely obese). Covariate analysis, multivariable logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) are provided. RESULTS: At the time of spine surgery, 4456 (61%) had a BMI < 30, 2519 (34.5%) had a BMI between 30 and 39, 232 (3.2%) had a BMI ≥40, and 96 (1.3%) were missing their intraoperative BMI. We observed the following weight loss pattern: BMI < 30, 11.1%; BMI 30 to 39, 16.6%; BMI ≥40, 21.1%. We observed the following weight gain pattern: BMI < 30, 15.6%; BMI 30 to 39, 12.7%; BMI ≥40, 9.5%. After risk-adjustment, obese and extremely obese patients were more likely to lose a clinically significant amount of weight 1 year after surgery (BMI 30-39: OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.22-1.65; BMI ≥40: OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.21-2.47) compared with nonobese patients. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort of patients with lumbar spinal fusions, we observed more significant weight loss in obese and extremely obese patients than nonobese patients. Additional research is needed to determine whether this weight loss is due to improvements in back pain and increased physical activity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Obesidade/complicações , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Fusão Vertebral , Perda de Peso , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/complicações
16.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(6): 918-926.e1, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is not clear whether digital single-operator cholangioscopy (D-SOC) with electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy is effective in removal of difficult biliary stones. We investigated the safety and efficacy of D-SOC with electrohydraulic and laser lithotripsy in an international, multicenter study of patients with difficult biliary stones. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 407 patients (60.4% female; mean age, 64.2 years) who underwent D-SOC for difficult biliary stones at 22 tertiary centers in the United States, United Kingdom, or Korea from February 2015 through December 2016; 306 patients underwent electrohydraulic lithotripsy and 101 (24.8%) underwent laser lithotripsy. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with technical failure and the need for more than 1 D-SOC electrohydraulic or laser lithotripsy session to clear the bile duct. RESULTS: The mean procedure time was longer in the electrohydraulic lithotripsy group (73.9 minutes) than in the laser lithotripsy group (49.9 minutes; P < .001). Ducts were completely cleared (technical success) in 97.3% of patients (96.7% of patients with electrohydraulic lithotripsy vs 99% patients with laser lithotripsy; P = .31). Ducts were cleared in a single session in 77.4% of patients (74.5% by electrohydraulic lithotripsy and 86.1% by laser lithotripsy; P = .20). Electrohydraulic or laser lithotripsy failed in 11 patients (2.7%); 8 patients were treated by surgery. Adverse events occurred in 3.7% patients and the stone was incompletely removed from 6.6% of patients. On multivariable analysis, difficult anatomy or cannulation (duodenal diverticula or altered anatomy) correlated with technical failure (odds ratio, 5.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-21.2; P = .02). Procedure time increased odds of more than 1 session of D-SOC electrohydraulic or laser lithotripsy (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.03; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In a multicenter, international, retrospective analysis, we found D-SOC with electrohydraulic or laser lithotripsy to be effective and safe in more than 95% of patients with difficult biliary stones. Fewer than 5% of patients require additional treatment with surgery and/or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy to clear the duct.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Cálculos Biliares/terapia , Litotripsia/efeitos adversos , Litotripsia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Dermatol Online J ; 24(8)2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677852

RESUMO

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of circulating autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris and foliaceus. Herein, pemphigus erythematosus with equivocal immunofluorescence and non-diagnostic histology, but confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is described. As a non-invasive, sensitive, and specific assay with additional utility for monitoring disease activity, this case adds to growing evidence supporting ELISA as the diagnostic method of choice for common and less common variants of pemphigus.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Pênfigo/diagnóstico , Idoso , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Desmogleína 1/imunologia , Desmogleína 3/imunologia , Distonina/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Colágenos não Fibrilares/imunologia , Pênfigo/imunologia , Pênfigo/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 97, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29149916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurological disease characterised by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are responsible for voluntary movement. There remains limited understanding of disease aetiology, with median survival of ALS of three years and no effective treatment. Identifying genes that contribute to ALS susceptibility is an important step towards understanding aetiology. The vast majority of published human genetic studies, including for ALS, have used samples of European ancestry. The importance of trans-ethnic studies in human genetic studies is widely recognised, yet a dearth of studies of non-European ancestries remains. Here, we report analyses of novel whole-exome sequencing (WES) data from Chinese ALS and control individuals. METHODS: WES data were generated for 610 ALS cases and 460 controls drawn from Chinese populations. We assessed evidence for an excess of rare damaging mutations at the gene level and the gene set level, considering only singleton variants filtered to have allele frequency less than 5 × 10-5 in reference databases. To meta-analyse our results with a published study of European ancestry, we used a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to compare gene-level variant counts in cases vs controls. RESULTS: No gene passed the genome-wide significance threshold with ALS in Chinese samples alone. Combining rare variant counts in Chinese with those from the largest WES study of European ancestry resulted in three genes surpassing genome-wide significance: TBK1 (p = 8.3 × 10-12), SOD1 (p = 8.9 × 10-9) and NEK1 (p = 1.1 × 10-9). In the Chinese data alone, SOD1 and NEK1 were nominally significantly associated with ALS (p = 0.04 and p = 7 × 10-3, respectively) and the case/control frequencies of rare coding variants in these genes were similar in Chinese and Europeans (SOD1: 1.5%/0.2% vs 0.9%/0.1%, NEK1 1.8%/0.4% vs 1.9%/0.8%). This was also true for TBK1 (1.2%/0.2% vs 1.4%/0.4%), but the association with ALS in Chinese was not significant (p = 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: While SOD1 is already recognised as an ALS-associated gene in Chinese, we provide novel evidence for association of NEK1 with ALS in Chinese, reporting variants in these genes not previously found in Europeans.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Quinase 1 Relacionada a NIMA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
J Spine Surg ; 3(3): 349-357, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflicting findings exist on the effect of obesity on outcomes of lumbar spine surgery; results depend on the diagnosis studied, procedure evaluated, definition of obesity, and specific outcomes measured. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study is to examine the effect of increasing body mass index (BMI) on surgical-related, health-related, and long-term outcomes of lumbar spine surgery in a single representative patient sample. METHODS: Using a surgical registry from an integrated health care system, 8,049 instrumented lumbar spine cases were identified between 1/1/2009 and 09/30/2013. The sample was stratified into five BMI categories. Outcomes of interest included: (I) surgical-related factors and complications; (II) health-related complications; and (III) long-term complications. Mixed linear models, conditional logistic regressions, and survival analysis using a Cox regression model were conducted controlling for surgeon effects. Age, gender, diabetes status, smoking status, admitting diagnosis, and surgical approach were included as covariates. RESULTS: Every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with a significant increase in surgical time (7.8 minutes), estimated blood loss (EBL) (36.5 mL), risk of deep infection (OR =1.7 times), and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (OR =1.5). BMI was not associated with increased incidence of other intraoperative or health-related complications. Rate of re-operation was 1.1 times higher with every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, but rate of re-operation due to adjacent segment disease (ASD) was not associated with BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity had an adverse effect on certain surgical-related, health-related and long-term surgical outcomes. The magnitude of this effect increased with increasing levels of obesity, which increases the medical burden associated with obesity.

20.
Case Rep Dermatol ; 9(2): 60-64, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868002

RESUMO

Scabies is a relatively common parasitic infection, which has sometimes been associated with the formation of granuloma annulare. We report the case of an 86-year-old female who developed a non-necrotizing granulomatous dermatitis after a scabies infestation. This case highlights the importance of considering scabies in the differential diagnosis when granulomatous dermatitis is noted histologically that cannot be explained by other causes.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA