Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
1.
JAMA Pediatr ; : e193336, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589247

RESUMO

Importance: National longitudinal studies that examine the linkages between early family experiences and sex-specific development of depression across the life course are lacking despite the urgent need for interventions in family settings to prevent adult depression. Objective: To examine whether positive adolescent family relationships are associated with reduced depressive symptoms among women and men as they enter midlife. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, which used a multistage, stratified school-based design to select a prospective cohort of 20 745 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 from January 3, 1994, to December 26, 1995 (wave 1). Respondents were followed up during 4 additional waves from April 14 to September 9, 1996 (wave 2); April 2, 2001, to May 9, 2002 (wave 3); April 3, 2007, to February 1, 2009 (wave 4); and March 3, 2016, to May 8, 2017 (sample 1, wave 5), when the cohort was aged 32 to 42 years. The study sample of 8952 male adolescents and 9233 female adolescents that were analyzed was a US national representation of all population subgroups by sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography. Exposures: Adolescent family cohesion and low parent-child conflict. Main Outcomes and Measures: Levels of depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D]) from ages 12 to 42 years were used to estimate propensity score-weighted growth curve models to assess sex differences in trajectories of depression by levels of positive adolescent family relationships. Results: A total of 18 185 individuals (mean [SD] age at wave 1, 15.42 [0.12] years; 9233 [50.8%] female) participated in the study. Females and males who experienced positive adolescent family relationships had significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms from early adolescence to midlife than did those who experienced less positive adolescent family relationships. For example, depressive symptoms were lower among those with high levels of family cohesion compared with those with low cohesion between 12 (1.26 lower CES-D score; 95% CI, 1.10-1.42) and 40 (0.78 lower CES-D score; 95% CI, 0.50-1.06) years of age among females and between 12 (0.72 lower CES-D score; 95% CI, 0.57-0.86) and 37 (0.21 lower CES-D score; 95% CI, 0.00-0.41) years of age among males. The reduction in depressive symptoms associated with positive adolescent family relationships was greater for females than males during the adolescent and early adulthood years (ie, early 20s) (eg, low-high cohesion difference in mean CES-D score, -1.26 [95% CI, -1.42 to -1.10] for females and -0.72 [95% CI, -0.86 to -0.57] for males at 12 years of age; low-high cohesion difference in mean CES-D score, -0.61 [95% CI, -0.69 to -0.53] for females and -0.40 [95% CI, -0.48 to -0.31] for males at 20 years of age), after which females and males benefited equally from positive adolescent relationships throughout young adulthood to midlife. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that positive adolescent family relationships are associated with better mental health among females and males from early adolescence to midlife. Interventions in early family life to foster healthy mental development throughout the life course appear to be important.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(33): 16302-16307, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363050

RESUMO

Recent scholarship suggests that the genomes of those around us affect our own phenotypes. Much of the empirical evidence for such "metagenomic" effects comes from animal studies, where the socio-genetic environment can be easily manipulated. Among humans, it is more difficult to identify such effects given the nonrandom distribution of genes and environments. Here we leverage the as-if-random distribution of grade-mates' genomes conditional on school-level variation in a nationally representative sample. Specifically, we evaluate whether one's peers' genetic propensity to smoke affects one's own smoking behavior net of one's own genotype. Results show that peer genetic propensity to smoke has a substantial effect on an individual's smoking outcome. This is true not only when the peer group includes direct friends, and therefore where the individual plays an active role in shaping the metagenomic context but also when the peer group includes all grade-mates and thus in cases where the individual does not select the metagenomic environment. We explore these effects further and show that a small minority with high genetic risk to smoke ('bad apples') can greatly affect the smoking behavior of an entire grade. The methodology used in this paper offers a potential solution to many of the challenges inherent in estimating peer effects in nonexperimental settings and can be utilized to study a wide range of outcomes with a genetic basis. On a policy level, our results suggest that efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should take into account metagenomic effects, especially bad apples, within social networks.

3.
Science ; 365(6456)2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467194

RESUMO

Twin and family studies have shown that same-sex sexual behavior is partly genetically influenced, but previous searches for specific genes involved have been underpowered. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 477,522 individuals, revealing five loci significantly associated with same-sex sexual behavior. In aggregate, all tested genetic variants accounted for 8 to 25% of variation in same-sex sexual behavior, only partially overlapped between males and females, and do not allow meaningful prediction of an individual's sexual behavior. Comparing these GWAS results with those for the proportion of same-sex to total number of sexual partners among nonheterosexuals suggests that there is no single continuum from opposite-sex to same-sex sexual behavior. Overall, our findings provide insights into the genetics underlying same-sex sexual behavior and underscore the complexity of sexuality.

5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(6): 576-586, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962612

RESUMO

Young people's life chances can be predicted by characteristics of their neighbourhood1. Children growing up in disadvantaged neighbourhoods exhibit worse physical and mental health and suffer poorer educational and economic outcomes than children growing up in advantaged neighbourhoods. Increasing recognition that aspects of social inequalities tend, in fact, to be geographical inequalities2-5 is stimulating research and focusing policy interest on the role of place in shaping health, behaviour and social outcomes. Where neighbourhood effects are causal, neighbourhood-level interventions can be effective. Where neighbourhood effects reflect selection of families with different characteristics into different neighbourhoods, interventions should instead target families or individuals directly. To test how selection may affect different neighbourhood-linked problems, we linked neighbourhood data with genetic, health and social outcome data for >7,000 European-descent UK and US young people in the E-Risk and Add Health studies. We tested selection/concentration of genetic risks for obesity, schizophrenia, teen pregnancy and poor educational outcomes in high-risk neighbourhoods, including genetic analysis of neighbourhood mobility. Findings argue against genetic selection/concentration as an explanation for neighbourhood gradients in obesity and mental health problems. By contrast, modest genetic selection/concentration was evident for teen pregnancy and poor educational outcomes, suggesting that neighbourhood effects for these outcomes should be interpreted with care.

6.
Am J Public Health ; 109(5): 774-780, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test whether indicators of despair are rising among US adults as they age toward midlife and whether this rise is concentrated among low-educated Whites and in rural areas. METHODS: We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative study of US adolescents in 1994. Our sample was restricted to individuals who participated in 1 or more of 5 waves (1994-2017) and self-identified as non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic (n = 18 446). We examined change in indicators of despair from adolescence to adulthood using multilevel regression analysis, testing for differences by race/ethnicity, education, and rurality. RESULTS: We found evidence of rising despair among this cohort over the past decade. This increase was not restricted to low-educated Whites or to rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that generally rising despair among the young adult cohort now reaching midlife that cuts across racial/ethnic, educational, and geographic groups may presage rising midlife mortality for these subgroups in the next decade.

7.
J Hum Genet ; 64(6): 597-598, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940889

RESUMO

In the original paper, we used the variable "URBRUR08," from the 2008 survey wave as a measure of childhood urbanicity. Upon further investigation we realized that this variable actually measured Beale urban-rural code during the respondent's adulthood.  Thus, we reran our analysis of the pseudo-heritability of childhood urbanicity using the variable. The original results hold such that even with the first 20 principal components held constant, childhood urban-rural status appears to be ~20% "heritable" in GREML models-a figure that is actually higher than the original estimate reported in the paper (14% controlling for 25 PCs, 15% controlling for 10 PCs, and 29% controlling for two PCs). Meanwhile, the heritabilities of the other phenotypes-height, BMI and education-still do not change when they are residualized on childhood urbanicity. In other words, the original results of the paper do not change.

8.
Health Place ; 57: 131-138, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035097

RESUMO

This study investigates the association between neighborhood disadvantage from adolescence to young adulthood and metabolic syndrome using a life course epidemiology framework. Data from the United States-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 9500) and a structural equation modeling approach were used to test neighborhood disadvantage across adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood in relation to metabolic syndrome. Adolescent neighborhood disadvantage was directly associated with metabolic syndrome in young adulthood. Evidence supporting an indirect association between adolescent neighborhood disadvantage and adult metabolic syndrome was not supported. Efforts to improve cardiometabolic health may benefit from strategies earlier in life.

9.
Am J Public Health ; 109(6): 854-858, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998413

RESUMO

Two seemingly associated demographic trends have generated considerable interest: income stagnation and rising premature mortality from suicides, drug poisoning, and alcoholic liver disease among US non-Hispanic Whites with low education. Economists interpret these population-level trends to indicate that despair induced by financial stressors is a shared pathway to these causes of death. Although we now have the catchy term "deaths of despair," we have yet to study its central empirical claim: that conceptually defined and empirically assessed "despair" is indeed a common pathway to several causes of death. At the level of the person, despair consists of cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and biological domains. Despair can also permeate social relationships, networks, institutions, and communities. Extant longitudinal data sets feature repeated measures of despair-before, during, and after the Great Recession-offering resources to test the role that despair induced by economic decline plays in premature morbidity and mortality. Such tests must also focus on protective factors that could shield individuals. Deaths of despair is more than a phrase; it constitutes a hypothesis that deserves conceptual mapping and empirical study with longitudinal, multilevel data.

10.
Demography ; 56(2): 753-762, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627966

RESUMO

In this research note, we use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to determine whether darker skin tone predicts hypertension among siblings using a family fixed-effects analytic strategy. We find that even after we account for common family background and home environment, body mass index, age, sex, and outdoor activity, darker skin color significantly predicts hypertension incidence among siblings. In a supplementary analysis using newly released genetic data from Add Health, we find no evidence that our results are biased by genetic pleiotropy, whereby differences in alleles among siblings relate to coloration and directly to cardiovascular health simultaneously. These results add to the extant evidence on color biases that are distinct from those based on race alone and that will likely only heighten in importance in an increasingly multiracial environment as categorization becomes more complex.

11.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 245-257, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643258

RESUMO

Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genética Comportamental/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
12.
SSM Popul Health ; 5: 249-256, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094320

RESUMO

Widening educational differences in overall health and recent stagnation in cardiovascular disease mortality rates highlight the critical need to describe and understand educational disparities in cardiovascular health (CVH) among U.S. young adults. We use two data sets representative of the U.S. population to examine educational disparities in CVH among young adults (24-34) coming of age in the 21st century: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2010; N= 689) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (2007-2008; N=11,200). We employ descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results show that fewer than one in four young adults had good CVH (at least 5 out of 7 ideal cardiovascular indicators). Young adults who had not attained a college degree demonstrate particularly disadvantaged CVH compared with their college-educated peers. Such educational disparities persist after accounting for a range of confounders, including individuals' genetic propensity to develop coronary artery disease. The results indicate that the CVH of today's young adults is troubling and especially compromised for individuals with lower levels of educational attainment. These results generate substantial concern about the future CVH of the US population, particularly for young adults with a low level of education.

13.
Demography ; 55(4): 1245-1267, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978338

RESUMO

Girls who experience father absence in childhood also experience accelerated reproductive development in comparison with peers with present fathers. One hypothesis advanced to explain this empirical pattern is genetic confounding, wherein gene-environment correlation (rGE) causes a spurious relationship between father absence and reproductive timing. We test this hypothesis by constructing polygenic scores for age at menarche and first birth using recently available genome-wide association study results and molecular genetic data on a sample of non-Hispanic white females from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We find that young women's accelerated menarche polygenic scores are unrelated to their exposure to father absence. In contrast, polygenic scores for earlier age at first birth tend to be higher in young women raised in homes with absent fathers. Nevertheless, father absence and the polygenic scores independently and additively predict reproductive timing. We find no evidence in support of the rGE hypothesis for accelerated menarche and only limited evidence in support of the rGE hypothesis for earlier age at first birth.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(31): E7275-E7284, 2018 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987013

RESUMO

A summary genetic measure, called a "polygenic score," derived from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of education can modestly predict a person's educational and economic success. This prediction could signal a biological mechanism: Education-linked genetics could encode characteristics that help people get ahead in life. Alternatively, prediction could reflect social history: People from well-off families might stay well-off for social reasons, and these families might also look alike genetically. A key test to distinguish biological mechanism from social history is if people with higher education polygenic scores tend to climb the social ladder beyond their parents' position. Upward mobility would indicate education-linked genetics encodes characteristics that foster success. We tested if education-linked polygenic scores predicted social mobility in >20,000 individuals in five longitudinal studies in the United States, Britain, and New Zealand. Participants with higher polygenic scores achieved more education and career success and accumulated more wealth. However, they also tended to come from better-off families. In the key test, participants with higher polygenic scores tended to be upwardly mobile compared with their parents. Moreover, in sibling-difference analysis, the sibling with the higher polygenic score was more upwardly mobile. Thus, education GWAS discoveries are not mere correlates of privilege; they influence social mobility within a life. Additional analyses revealed that a mother's polygenic score predicted her child's attainment over and above the child's own polygenic score, suggesting parents' genetics can also affect their children's attainment through environmental pathways. Education GWAS discoveries affect socioeconomic attainment through influence on individuals' family-of-origin environments and their social mobility.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Classe Social , Mobilidade Social , Escolaridade , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ocupações , Irmãos
15.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1112-1121, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038396

RESUMO

Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.

16.
J Health Soc Behav ; 59(3): 371-390, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949717

RESUMO

American children live in a variety of family structures throughout their childhoods. Such instability in family arrangements is common and has important demonstrated implications for short-term child outcomes. However, it is not known whether family instability experienced in childhood has enduring health consequences across the life course. Using demographic, social, and biological data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we investigate the family stress model, testing the relationship between parental family instability in childhood and four biological markers of health in young adulthood. This is the first study to examine whether the accumulation of family change in childhood leaves a lasting physiological residue. While family instability is associated with poorer short-term behavioral and socioeconomic outcomes as documented in previous research, we find no evidence of deleterious young adult health consequences. These findings are robust across different measures of physiological health risk and types of family transitions.

17.
Soc Sci Med ; 207: 89-96, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29734059

RESUMO

Adverse birth outcomes can lead to problematic long-term outcomes for children, and are also known to transmit socioeconomic disadvantage across generations, thereby amplifying the importance of identifying their social determinants. However, the full set of factors causing adverse birth outcomes remains unknown. Drawing together theory describing intragenerational (life course) processes linking early life adversity to adult health, and intergenerational transmissions of inequality via birthweight, this study tests a chain of risk that originates within early adolescence, impacts young women's risky health behaviors in late adolescence/early adulthood and risky health behaviors during pregnancy, and ultimately decreases offspring's birthweight. We do so using structural equation models and prospective, population-level data on a racially and socioeconomically diverse cohort of young adults (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health). Results (a) reveal four pathways that fully mediate the association between a young woman's family-of-origin socioeconomic status in adolescence and her offspring's birthweight, and (b) identify a trigger effect-a place in the chain of risk where prevention efforts could be targeted, thereby breaking the chain of risk leading to poor offspring health at birth for vulnerable individuals.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychol Men Masc ; 19(1): 145-155, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479292

RESUMO

Substance use is prevalent among adolescents in the U.S., especially males. Understanding the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between gender norms and substance use is necessary to tailor substance use prevention messages and efforts appropriately. This study investigates the relationship between adherence to gender-typical behavior (AGB) and substance use from adolescence into young adulthood. Participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health completed self-report measures on the frequency of binge drinking, cigarette smoking and marijuana use as well as various behaviors and emotional states that captured the latent construct of AGB. Sex-stratified logistic regression models revealed cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between AGB and high frequency substance use. For example, an adolescent male who is more gender-adherent, compared to less adherent males, has 75% higher odds of high frequency binge drinking in adolescence and 22% higher odds of high frequency binge drinking in young adulthood. Sex-stratified multinomial logistic regression models also revealed cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between AGB and patterns of use. For example, a more gender-adherent adolescent male, compared to one who is less adherent, is 256% more likely to use all three substances in adolescence and 66% more likely to use all three in young adulthood. Cross-sectional and longitudinal results for females indicate greater gender-adherence is associated with lower odds of high frequency substance use. These findings indicate adherence to gender norms may influence substance use behaviors across the developmental trajectory, and inform strategies for prevention efforts.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(4): 702-707, 2018 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317533

RESUMO

Humans tend to form social relationships with others who resemble them. Whether this sorting of like with like arises from historical patterns of migration, meso-level social structures in modern society, or individual-level selection of similar peers remains unsettled. Recent research has evaluated the possibility that unobserved genotypes may play an important role in the creation of homophilous relationships. We extend this work by using data from 5,500 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine genetic similarities among pairs of friends. Although there is some evidence that friends have correlated genotypes, both at the whole-genome level as well as at trait-associated loci (via polygenic scores), further analysis suggests that meso-level forces, such as school assignment, are a principal source of genetic similarity between friends. We also observe apparent social-genetic effects in which polygenic scores of an individual's friends and schoolmates predict the individual's own educational attainment. In contrast, an individual's height is unassociated with the height genetics of peers.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Sociobiologia/métodos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(1): 109-114, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255040

RESUMO

Individuals with higher educational attainment live healthier and longer lives. However, not everyone benefits equally from higher education. In particular, the black-white gap in life expectancy is greater at higher levels of educational attainment. Furthermore, recent research suggests that disadvantaged African Americans in the rural Southeast who attend college have worse physical health than their similarly disadvantaged peers who do not attend college. The extent to which this pattern generalizes to a nationally representative, mixed-race sample is unknown. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we test whether the health benefits associated with college completion vary by level of childhood disadvantage for depression and metabolic syndrome in young adulthood, across race/ethnicity. We find uniform lower depression associated with college completion regardless of childhood disadvantage, and across non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic young adults. College completion is associated with lower metabolic syndrome for whites across all levels of childhood disadvantage. In contrast, college completion is associated with higher metabolic syndrome among black and Hispanic young adults from disadvantaged childhood environments. Our findings suggest that, for minorities from disadvantaged backgrounds, finishing college pays substantial dividends for mental health but simultaneously exacts costs with regard to physical health. This pattern contrasts starkly with whites and minorities from more privileged backgrounds, for whom college completion is associated with benefits to both mental and physical health. These results suggest that racial disparities in health may persist in part because the health of upwardly mobile minorities is compromised in young adulthood.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Educação Profissionalizante , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Grupos Minoritários , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA