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1.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 223, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inequitable access to primary health care (PHC) remains a problem for most western countries. Failure to scale up effective interventions has been due, in part, to a failure to share the logic and essential elements of successful programs. The aim of this paper is to describe what we learned about improving access to PHC for vulnerable groups across multiple sites through use of a common theory-based program logic model and a common evaluation approach. This was the IMPACT initiative. METHODS: IMPACT's evaluation used a mixed methods design with longitudinal (pre and post) analysis of six interventions. The analysis for this paper included four of the six sites that met study criteria. These sites were located in Canada (Alberta, Quebec and Ontario) and Australia (New South Wales). Using the overarching logic model, unexpected findings were reviewed, and alternative explanations were considered to understand how the mechanisms of each intervention may have contributed to results. RESULTS: Each site addressed their local access problem with different strategies and from different starting points. All sites observed changes in patient abilities to access PHC and provider access capabilities. The combination of intended and observed consequences for consumers and providers was different at each site, but all sites achieved change in both consumer ability and provider capability, even in interventions where there was no activity targeting provider behaviors. DISCUSSION: The model helped to identify, explore and synthesize intended and unintended consequences of four interventions that appeared to have more differences than similarities. Similar outcomes for different interventions and multiple impacts of each intervention on abilities were observed, implying complex causal pathways. CONCLUSIONS: All the interventions were a low-cost incremental attempt to address unmet health care needs of vulnerable populations. Change is possible; sustaining change may be more challenging. Access to PHC requires attention to both patient abilities and provider characteristics. The logic model proved to be a valuable heuristic tool for defining the objectives of the interventions, evaluating their impacts, and learning from the comparison of 'cases'.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 921, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Language is a barrier to many patients from refugee backgrounds accessing and receiving quality primary health care. This paper examines the way general practices address these barriers and how this changed following a practice facilitation intervention. METHODS: The OPTIMISE study was a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial set within 31 general practices in three urban regions in Australia with high refugee settlement. It involved a practice facilitation intervention addressing interpreter engagement as one of four core intervention areas. This paper analysed quantitative and qualitative data from the practices and 55 general practitioners from these, collected at baseline and after 6 months during which only those assigned to the early group received the intervention. RESULTS: Many practices (71 %) had at least one GP who spoke a language spoken by recent humanitarian entrants. At baseline, 48 % of practices reported using the government funded Translating and Interpreting Service (TIS). The role of reception staff in assessing and recording the language and interpreter needs of patients was well defined. However, they lacked effective systems to share the information with clinicians. After the intervention, the number of practices using the TIS increased. However, family members and friends continued to be used to interpret with GPs reporting patients preferred this approach. The extra time required to arrange and use interpreting services remained a major barrier. CONCLUSIONS: In this study a whole of practice facilitation intervention resulted in improvements in procedures for and engagement of interpreters. However, there were barriers such as the extra time required, and family members continued to be used. Based on these findings, further effort is needed to reduce the administrative burden and GP's opportunity cost needed to engage interpreters, to provide training for all staff on when and how to work with interpreters and discuss and respond to patient concerns about interpreting services.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Refugiados , Austrália , Barreiras de Comunicação , Humanos , Tradução
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 492, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a core skillset for enhancing the quality and safety of patients' care. Online EBM education could improve clinicians' skills in EBM, particularly when it is conducted during vocational training. There are limited studies on the impact of online EBM training on clinical practice among general practitioner (GP) registrars (trainees in specialist general practice). We aimed to describe and evaluate the acceptability, utility, satisfaction and applicability of the GP registrars experience with the online course. The course was developed by content-matter experts with educational designers to encompass effective teaching methods (e.g. it was interactive and used multiple teaching methods). METHODS: Mixed-method data collection was conducted after individual registrars' completion of the course. The course comprised six modules that aimed to increase knowledge of research methods and application of EBM skills to everyday practice. GP registrars who completed the online course during 2016-2020 were invited to complete an online survey about their experience and satisfaction with the course. Those who completed the course within the six months prior to data collection were invited to participate in semi-structured phone interviews about their experience with the course and the impact of the course on clinical practice. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data from qualitative interviews. RESULTS: The data showed the registrars were generally positive towards the course and the concept of EBM. They stated that the course improved their confidence, knowledge, and skills and consequently impacted their practice. The students perceived the course increased their understanding of EBM with a Cohen's d of 1.6. Registrars identified factors that influenced the impact of the course. Of those, some were GP-related including their perception of EBM, and being comfortable with what they already learnt; some were work-place related such as time, the influence of supervisors, access to resources; and one was related to patient preferences. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that GP registrars who attended the online course reported that it improved their knowledge, confidence, skill and practice of EBM over the period of three months. The study highlights the supervisor's role on GP registrars' ability in translating the EBM skills learnt in to practice and suggests exploring the effect of EBM training for supervisors.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Humanos , Médicos de Família , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Med J Aust ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether primary care outreach facilitation improves the quality of care for general practice patients from refugee backgrounds. DESIGN: Pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial, with stepped wedge allocation to early or late intervention groups. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: 31 general practices in three metropolitan areas of Sydney and Melbourne with high levels of refugee resettlement, November 2017 - August 2019. INTERVENTION: Trained facilitators made three visits to practices over six months, using structured action plans to help practice teams optimise routines of refugee care. MAJOR OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in proportion of patients from refugee backgrounds with documented health assessments (Medicare billing). Secondary outcomes were refugee status recording, interpreter use, and clinician-perceived difficulty in referring patients to appropriate dental, social, settlement, and mental health services. RESULTS: Our sample comprised 14 633 patients. The intervention was associated with an increase in the proportion of patients with Medicare-billed health assessments during the preceding six months, from 19.1% (95% CI, 18.6-19.5%) to 27.3% (95% CI, 26.7-27.9%; odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.42-2.50). The impact of the intervention was greater in smaller practices, practices with larger proportions of patients from refugee backgrounds, recent training in refugee health care, or higher baseline provision of health assessments for such patients. There was no impact on refugee status recording, interpreter use increased modestly, and reported difficulties in refugee-specific referrals to social, settlement and dental services were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Low intensity practice facilitation may improve some aspects of primary care for people from refugee backgrounds. Facilitators employed by local health services could support integrated approaches to enhancing the quality of primary care for this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12618001970235 (retrospective).

5.
Health Expect ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Australian Deaf Community face barriers that impede their access to, and communication within, primary health care settings. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to access and communication for deaf individuals and Auslan interpreters in Australian general practice settings. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Auslan interpreters and four deaf participants recruited from interpreter organisations and social media. Transcripts of interviews were coded inductively and deductively based on a model of access to health care. RESULTS: Patient, provider and contextual factors were reported. Patient barriers included English and Auslan fluency levels within the Australian Deaf Community. GP clinics varied in the degree of accommodation to the needs of deaf people. There were barriers related to the communication methods used by health care providers and their use of interpreters. Visual aids and flexibility in terms of the GP clinics' appointment systems facilitated access. Contextual barriers included the shortage of Auslan interpreters and the complexity of the National Disability Insurance Scheme. CONCLUSION: The main barriers identified concerned the availability of interpreters, accommodation by health providers, cultural sensitivity and the adequacy of communication methods. Research is needed to explore the limitations of the National Disability Insurance Scheme and interventions to improve GPs' skills in communicating with Deaf individuals. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: A researcher with a hearing impairment and experience in working with people with hearing impairments was consulted on study design and interview questions. Recruitment was assisted by Auslan interpreter agencies and a Deaf Community Facebook group.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burgeoning burden of non-communicable disease among older adults is one of the emerging public health problems. In the COVID-19 pandemic, health services in low- and middle-income countries, including Bangladesh, have been disrupted. This may have posed challenges for older adults with non-communicable chronic conditions in accessing essential health care services in the current pandemic. The present study aimed at exploring the challenges experienced by older Bangladeshi adults with non-communicable chronic conditions in receiving regular health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study followed a cross-sectional design and was conducted among 1032 Bangladeshi older adults aged 60 years and above during October 2020 through telephone interviews. Self-reported information on nine non-communicable chronic conditions (osteoarthritis, hypertension, heart disease, stroke, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, chronic kidney disease, cancer) was collected. Participants were asked if they faced any difficulties in accessing medicine and receiving routine medical care for their medical conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The association between non-communicable chronic conditions and accessing medication and health care was analysed using binary logic regression model. RESULTS: Most of the participants aged 60-69 years (77.8%), male (65.5%), married (81.4%), had no formal schooling (58.3%) and resided in rural areas (73.9%). Although more than half of the participants (58.9%) reported having a single condition, nearly one-quarter (22.9%) had multimorbidity. About a quarter of the participants reported difficulties accessing medicine (23%) and receiving routine medical care (27%) during the pandemic, and this was significantly higher among those suffering from multimorbidity. In the adjusted analyses, participants with at least one condition (AOR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.33-2.85) and with multimorbidity (AOR: 4.75, 95% CI: 3.17-7.10) had a higher likelihood of experiencing difficulties accessing medicine. Similarly, participants with at least one condition (AOR: 3.08, 95% CI: 2.11-4.89) and with multimorbidity (AOR: 6.34, 95% CI: 4.03-9.05) were significantly more likely to face difficulties receiving routine medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that a sizeable proportion of the older adults had difficulties in accessing medicine and receiving routine medical care during the pandemic. The study findings highlight the need to develop an appropriate health care delivery pathway and strategies to maintain essential health services during any emergencies and beyond. We also argue the need to prioritise the health of older adults with non-communicable chronic conditions in the centre of any emergency response plan and policies of Bangladesh.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade
7.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 5(3): e201-e207, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260320

RESUMO

Experiencing migration can create or exacerbate vulnerability to ill health, particularly during pregnancy and new motherhood. Providing a culturally appropriate health literacy intervention to new migrant families may increase social support and the skills and confidence to access health care services and information. This study developed and piloted a health literacy intervention, in the form of culturally redesigned new parent classes, in a culturally diverse location in Australia. The intervention was delivered over a 4-week period by Child and Family Health Nurses, with the help of interpreters and Bilingual Community Researchers, to Bangladeshi and Mandarin-speaking Chinese mothers and grandmothers with a baby age 0 to 1 year. A mixed-methods evaluation was conducted to measure (1) recruitment and attendance of participants, (2) feasibility of the intervention, (3) health literacy of participants, and (4) provider understanding of barriers to health care access. Thirty participants were recruited, and 18 women attended at least three of the four group sessions. Nurses viewed the program as being within the scope of their usual role, demonstrating intervention feasibility. Health literacy scores were higher post-intervention than pre-intervention. Nurses described having increased awareness of barriers to health care access after facilitating the intervention. The program has potential to be scaled up to other areas and languages. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2021;5(3):e201-e207.].

8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 666753, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239854

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has been the most challenging public health issue which not only affected the physical health of the global population but also aggravated the mental health conditions such as stress, anxiety, fear, depression and anger. While mental health services are seriously hampered amid this COVID-19 pandemic, health services, particularly those of Low- and Middle- Income Countries (LMICs) are looking for alternatives to provide psychosocial support to the people amid this COVID-19 and beyond. Community Health Workers (CHWs) are an integral part of the health systems in many LMICs and played significant roles such as health education, contact tracing, isolation and mobilization during past emergencies and amid COVID-19 in many LMICs. However, despite their potentials in providing psychosocial support to the people amid this COVID-19 pandemic, they have been underutilized in most health systems in LMICs. The CHWs can be effectively engaged to provide psychosocial support at the community level. Engaging them can also be cost-saving as they are already in place and may cost less compared to other health professionals. However, they need training and supervision and their safety and security needs to be protected during this COVID-19. While many LMICs have mental health policies but their enactment is limited due to the fragility of health systems and limited health care resources. CHWs can contribute in this regard and help to address the psychosocial vulnerabilities of affected population in LMICs during COVID-19 and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Med J Aust ; 215(3): 130-136, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between changing general practitioner after entering residential aged care and overall medicines prescribing (including polypharmacy) and that of psychotropic medicines in particular. DESIGN: Retrospective data linkage study. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: 45 and Up Study participants in New South Wales with dementia who were PBS concession card holders and entered permanent residential aged care during January 2010 - June 2014 and were alive six months after entry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Inverse probability of treatment-weighted numbers of medicines dispensed to residents and proportions of residents dispensed antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants in the six months after residential care entry, by most frequent residential care GP category: usual (same as during two years preceding entry), known (another GP, but known to the resident), or new GP. RESULTS: Of 2250 new residents with dementia (mean age, 84.1 years; SD, 7.0 years; 1236 women [55%]), 625 most frequently saw their usual GPs (28%), 645 saw known GPs (29%), and 980 saw new GPs (44%). The increase in mean number of dispensed medicines after residential care entry was larger for residents with new GPs (+1.6 medicines; 95% CI, 1.4-1.9 medicines) than for those attended by their usual GPs (+0.7 medicines; 95% CI, 0.4-1.1 medicines; adjusted rate ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.59-3.70). The odds of being dispensed antipsychotics (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18-2.12) or benzodiazepines (aOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.25-2.30), but not antidepressants (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.98-1.77), were also higher for the new GP group. Differences between the known and usual GP groups were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in medicine use and rates of psychotropic dispensing were higher for people with dementia who changed GP when they entered residential care. Facilitating continuity of GP care for new residents and more structured transfer of GP care may prevent potentially inappropriate initiation of psychotropic medicines.


Assuntos
Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimedicação , Psicotrópicos/provisão & distribuição , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antidepressivos/provisão & distribuição , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/provisão & distribuição , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/provisão & distribuição , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(2)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the process of developing a shared cancer care approach in follow-up, and identifies the e-health options that support an interactive e-care plan shared between a public cancer service, general practitioners (GPs) and cancer survivors. Type of program/service: The cancer service improvement initiative for shared care in follow-up targets colorectal cancer patients who have completed active treatment and who agree to shared care between specialists, GPs and other care team members. The intiative is supported by an agreed shared care pathway and an interactive e-care plan that is dynamic, can be shared and has functionalities that support collaboration. Design and development: A consultative process with stakeholders (local and state health services, a Primary Health Network, GPs and a consumer) was undertaken. Responses from individual consultations (25 stakeholders) were collated and commonalities identified to inform a workshop with 13 stakeholders to obtain consensus on the care pathway and e-health solution. Implications for policy and practice were identified throughout the process. OUTCOMES: The stakeholders agreed to a shared care pathway, which included assessment and consent, GP engagement, tailoring the care plan and communicating results and information as tasks are completed. The nurse coordinator monitored care. No interactive e-care plans were available at national, state or local health service levels. A web-based GP interactive e-care plan was selected. The main concerns raised were uncertainty about the security of e-health systems not controlled by the local health service and sharing clinical information with external health providers, engaging GPs, and patient anxiety about the capacity of general practice to provide care. The e-care plan provided a low-risk solution to sharing patient information and supported collaborative care. Challenges to share e-care plans have implications for policy and practice. LESSONS LEARNT: Stakeholders and the project team agreed that finding an e-health system that supported shared cancer care in follow-up and addressed the security and information sharing concerns could not all be adequately addressed at the local level. A GP interactive e-care plan provides a promising solution to a number of the barriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Telemedicina/métodos , Austrália , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Seguimentos , Clínicos Gerais , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Participação dos Interessados
12.
Global Health ; 17(1): 47, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to assess the perceived fear of COVID-19 and its associated factors among older adults in Bangladesh. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2020 among 1032 older Bangladeshi adults aged ≥60 years. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on participants' characteristics and COVID-19 related information. Perceived fear of COVID-19 was measured using the seven-item Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), where the cumulative score ranged from 7 to 35. Multiple linear regression was performed to identify factors associated with perceived fear of COVID-19. RESULTS: The mean fear score was 19.4. Participants who were concerned about COVID-19 (ß: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.71 to 3.78) and overwhelmed by COVID-19 (ß: 3.31, 95% CI: 2.33 to 4.29) were significantly more likely to be fearful of COVID-19. Moreover, older adults who felt themselves isolated from others and whose close friends and family members were diagnosed with COVID-19 were more fearful. However, the participants who received COVID-19 related information from the health workers had a lower level of fear (ß: -1.90, 95% CI: - 3.06 to - 0.73). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of overwhelming fear of COVID-19 among the older adults of Bangladesh underlines the psychological needs of these vulnerable groups. Health workers have a key role in addressing these needs and further research is needed to identify the effective strategies for them to use.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Medo , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Acesso à Informação/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 259, 2020 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of primary care practitioners in refugee resettlement countries are providing care to refugees. Access to trained interpreters is a priority for these practitioners, but there are many barriers to the implementation of interpreted consultations in routine care. There is a lack of international, theoretically informed research. The purpose of this paper is to understand barriers to interpreter use in primary care consultations in four resettlement countries using Normalisation Process Theory. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with networks of primary care practitioners (PCPs) who care for refugees in Australia, Canada, Ireland and the US (n = 314). We analysed qualitative data from the survey about barriers to interpreter use (n = 178). We completed an inductive thematic analysis, iteratively developed a Normalisation Process Theory (NPT)-informed coding frame and then mapped the emergent findings onto the theory's construct about enacting interpreted consultations. RESULTS: In all four countries, the use of an interpreter presented communication and interaction challenges between providers and patients, which can impede the goals of primary care consultations. Primary care practitioners did not always have confidence in interpreted consultations and described poor professional practice by some interpreters. There was variation across countries, and inconsistency within countries, in the availability of trained interpreters and funding sources. CONCLUSION: There are shared and differential barriers to implementation of interpreted consultations in a consistent and sustained way in the four countries studied. These findings can be used to inform country-specific and international level policies and interventions focusing on improving skills and resources for interpreted consultations to improve implementation of interpreted primary care consultations.

16.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 67: 101773, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the prevalence of cancer survivors increasing, their unique needs must be better understood. We examined the health, lifestyles and social circumstances of adults with and without a history of cancer. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study, using exposure and outcome data from the baseline survey (2006-2009) of participants in the 45 and Up Study, a prospective cohort study in New South Wales, Australia. We compared 20,811 cancer registry-verified adult cancer survivors with 207,148 participants without a history of cancer using propensity score weighting and accounting for multiple testing. The propensity weighting included age, sociodemographic factors and number of self-reported co-morbidities. RESULTS: Cancer survivors were more likely to report poorer physical and psychological health and quality of life compared to those without a cancer history, with most deficits still evident more than 10 years after cancer diagnosis. Cancer survivors were more likely to have a higher body mass index, but were less likely to smoke. Cancer survivors had greater functional limitations, including sexual, and were less likely to work full time, volunteer and spend time outdoors. Their social connectedness was, however, similar. Those with haematological cancer, lung cancer, or distant metastases, and those diagnosed at an older age, had the greatest health deficits and functional limitations. CONCLUSIONS: A history of cancer is associated with poorer health and less paid and unpaid work. Our findings reinforce the importance of routine long-term, integrated multidisciplinary care for cancer survivors and indicate the subgroups with the greatest unmet needs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Austrália , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato
17.
Med J Aust ; 213(2): 73-78, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of a computer-guided quality improvement intervention for primary health care management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people at high risk. DESIGN: Modelled cost-effectiveness analysis of the HealthTracker intervention and usual care for people with high CVD risk, based on TORPEDO trial data on prescribing patterns, changes in intermediate risk factors (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure), and Framingham risk scores. PARTICIPANTS: Hypothetical population of people with high CVD risk attending primary health care services in a New South Wales primary health network (PHN) of mean size. INTERVENTION: HealthTracker, integrated into health care provider electronic health record systems, provides real time decision support, risk communication, a clinical audit tool, and a web portal for performance feedback. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs): difference in costs of the intervention and usual care divided by number of CVD events averted with HealthTracker. RESULTS: The estimated numbers of major CVD events over five years per 1000 patients at high CVD risk were lower in PHNs using HealthTracker, both for patients with prior CVD events (secondary prevention; 259 v 267 with usual care) and for those without prior events (primary prevention; 168 v 176). Medication costs were higher and hospitalisation costs lower with HealthTracker than with usual care for both primary and secondary prevention. The estimated ICER for one averted CVD event was $7406 for primary prevention and $17 988 for secondary prevention. CONCLUSION: Modelled cost-effectiveness analyses provide information that can assist decisions about investing in health care quality improvement interventions. We estimate that HealthTracker could prevent major CVD events for less than $20 000 per event averted. TRIAL REGISTRATION (TORPEDO): Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12611000478910.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Humanos , New South Wales , Prevenção Primária/economia , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Software
18.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720935292, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538255

RESUMO

Objective: The English version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) measure is the most frequently used self-reporting instrument assessing diabetes self-management. This study is aimed at translating English SDSCA into the Urdu version and validating and evaluating its psychometric properties. Methods: The Urdu version of SDSCA was developed based on the guidelines provided by the World Health Organization for translation and adaptation of instruments. The panel of experts examined the content validity, reliability, and internal consistency of the instrument. The translation process from the English version to the Urdu version revealed excellent results at all the stages. Results: The instrument showed promising and acceptable results. Of particular mention are the results related to split-half reliability coefficient 0.90, test-retest reliability (r = 0.918, P < .001), intraclass coefficient (0.912), and Cronbach's alpha (.79). The factor analysis (exploratory and confirmatory) was not performed in this study due to the small sample size (n = 30) as the objective was to validate the Urdu version of the SDSCA instrument. Conclusions: This study provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the Urdu Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (U-SDSCA) instrument, which may be used in the future for the patients of diabetes in order to assess type 2 diabetes self-management activities in the rural area of Pakistan and other Urdu-speaking countries.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autocuidado , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Humanos , Paquistão , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Public Health Res Pract ; 29(4)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800646

RESUMO

Objectives and importance of the study: The bulk of care for people with type 2 diabetes occurs in primary health care. This rapid review evaluated the effectiveness of primary health care provider-focused interventions in improving biochemical, clinical, psychological and health-related quality-of-life outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, All EBM Reviews, CINAHL, PsycINFO and grey literature focusing on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries. We selected studies that targeted adults with type 2 diabetes, described a provider-focused intervention conducted in primary health care, and included an evaluation component. Four researchers extracted data and each included study was assessed for quality by two researchers. RESULTS: Of the 15 studies identified, there was one systematic review (high quality), four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (two strong quality, one each moderate and weak) and 10 cluster RCTs (two strong quality, five moderate, three weak). The range of follow-up periods was 3-32 months. In all but one study, the intervention was compared against usual care. The applied interventions included: computerised and noncomputerised decision support; culturally tailored interventions; feedback to the healthcare provider on quality of diabetes care; practice nurse involvement; and integrated primary and specialist care. All interventions aimed to improve the biochemical outcomes of interest; 13 studies also included clinical, psychological and/or health-related quality-of-life outcomes. Outcome results were mixed. CONCLUSIONS: All interventions had mixed impacts on the outcomes of interest except the one study testing a decision aid, which did not show any improvement. A number of interventions are already available in Australia but need wider adoption. Other effective interventions are yet to be broadly adopted, and need to be evaluated for their applicability, feasibility and sustainability in the Australian context.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 218, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variable and poor care quality are important causes of preventable patient harm. Many patients receive less than recommended care, but the extent of the problem remains largely unknown. The CareTrack Kids (CTK) research programme sought to address this evidence gap by developing a set of indicators to measure the quality of care for common paediatric conditions. In this study, we focus on one clinical area, 'preventive care' for pre-school aged children. Our objectives were two-fold: (i) develop and validate preventive care quality indicators and (ii) apply them in general medical practice to measure adherence. METHODS: Clinical experts (n = 6) developed indicator questions (IQs) from clinical practice guideline (CPG) recommendations using a multi-stage modified Delphi process, which were pilot tested in general practice. The medical records of Australian children (n = 976) from general practices (n = 80) in Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia identified as having a consultation for one of 17 CTK conditions of interest were retrospectively reviewed by trained paediatric nurses. Statistical analyses were performed to estimate percentage compliance and its 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: IQs (n = 43) and eight care 'bundles' were developed and validated. Care was delivered in line with the IQs in 43.3% of eligible healthcare encounters (95% CI 30.5-56.7). The bundles of care with the highest compliance were 'immunisation' (80.1%, 95% CI 65.7-90.4), 'anthropometric measurements' (52.7%, 95% CI 35.6-69.4) and 'nutrition assessments' (38.5%, 95% CI 24.3-54.3), and lowest for 'visual assessment' (17.9%, 95% CI 8.2-31.9), 'musculoskeletal examinations' (24.4%, 95% CI 13.1-39.1) and 'cardiovascular examinations' (30.9%, 95% CI 12.3-55.5). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first known attempt to develop specific preventive care quality indicators and measure their delivery to Australian children in general practice. Our findings that preventive care is not reliably delivered to all Australian children and that there is substantial variation in adherence with the IQs provide a starting point for clinicians, researchers and policy makers when considering how the gap between recommended and actual care may be narrowed. The findings may also help inform the development of specific improvement interventions, incentives and national standards.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Medicina Geral/normas , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Austrália , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos
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