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Structure ; 29(12): 1371-1381.e6, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348129


There is considerable interest in developing antibodies as modulators of signaling pathways. One of the most important signaling pathways in higher eukaryotes is the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which plays fundamental roles in growth, metabolism, and immunity. The class IB PI3K, PI3Kγ, is a heterodimeric complex composed of a catalytic p110γ subunit bound to a p101 or p84 regulatory subunit. PI3Kγ is a critical component in multiple immune signaling processes and is dependent on activation by Ras and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to mediate its cellular roles. Here we describe the rapid and efficient characterization of multiple PI3Kγ binding single-chain camelid nanobodies using hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry (MS) for structural and biochemical studies. We identify nanobodies that stimulated lipid kinase activity, block Ras activation, and specifically inhibited p101-mediated GPCR activation. Overall, our work reveals insight into PI3Kγ regulation and identifies sites that may be exploited for therapeutic development.

J Mol Biol ; 433(18): 167145, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229011


Transport Protein Particle complexes (TRAPP) are evolutionarily conserved regulators of membrane trafficking, with this mediated by their guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity towards Rab GTPases. In metazoans evidence suggests that two different TRAPP complexes exist, TRAPPII and TRAPPIII. These two complexes share a common core of subunits, with complex specific subunits (TRAPPC9 and TRAPPC10 in TRAPPII and TRAPPC8, TRAPPC11, TRAPPC12, TRAPPC13 in TRAPPIII). TRAPPII and TRAPPIII have distinct specificity for GEF activity towards Rabs, with TRAPPIII acting on Rab1, and TRAPPII acting on Rab1 and Rab11. The molecular basis for how these complex specific subunits alter GEF activity towards Rab GTPases is unknown. Here we have used a combination of biochemical assays, hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and electron microscopy to examine the regulation of TRAPPII and TRAPPIIII complexes in solution and on membranes. GEF assays revealed that TRAPPIII has GEF activity against Rab1 and Rab43, with no detectable activity against the other 18 Rabs tested. The TRAPPIII complex had significant differences in protein dynamics at the Rab binding site compared to TRAPPII, potentially indicating an important role of accessory subunits in altering the active site of TRAPP complexes. Both the TRAPPII and TRAPPIII complexes had enhanced GEF activity on lipid membranes, with HDX-MS revealing numerous conformational changes that accompany membrane association. HDX-MS also identified a membrane binding site in TRAPPC8. Collectively, our results provide insight into the functions of TRAPP complexes and how they can achieve Rab specificity.

Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Mamíferos/genética , Conformação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/química , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética
Elife ; 102021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661099


Class I Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are master regulators of cellular functions, with the class IB PI3K catalytic subunit (p110γ) playing key roles in immune signalling. p110γ is a key factor in inflammatory diseases and has been identified as a therapeutic target for cancers due to its immunomodulatory role. Using a combined biochemical/biophysical approach, we have revealed insight into regulation of kinase activity, specifically defining how immunodeficiency and oncogenic mutations of R1021 in the C-terminus can inactivate or activate enzyme activity. Screening of inhibitors using HDX-MS revealed that activation loop-binding inhibitors induce allosteric conformational changes that mimic those in the R1021C mutant. Structural analysis of advanced PI3K inhibitors in clinical development revealed novel binding pockets that can be exploited for further therapeutic development. Overall, this work provides unique insights into regulatory mechanisms that control PI3Kγ kinase activity and shows a framework for the design of PI3K isoform and mutant selective inhibitors.

Commun Biol ; 3(1): 735, 2020 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277614


The TRAnsport Protein Particle (TRAPP) complexes act as Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rab GTPases, which are master regulators of membrane trafficking in eukaryotic cells. In metazoans, there are two large multi-protein TRAPP complexes: TRAPPII and TRAPPIII, with the TRAPPII complex able to activate both Rab1 and Rab11. Here we present detailed biochemical characterisation of Rab-GEF specificity of the human TRAPPII complex, and molecular insight into Rab binding. GEF assays of the TRAPPII complex against a panel of 20 different Rab GTPases revealed GEF activity on Rab43 and Rab19. Electron microscopy and chemical cross-linking revealed the architecture of mammalian TRAPPII. Hydrogen deuterium exchange MS showed that Rab1, Rab11 and Rab43 share a conserved binding interface. Clinical mutations in Rab11, and phosphomimics of Rab43, showed decreased TRAPPII GEF mediated exchange. Finally, we designed a Rab11 mutation that maintained TRAPPII-mediated GEF activity while decreasing activity of the Rab11-GEF SH3BP5, providing a tool to dissect Rab11 signalling. Overall, our results provide insight into the GTPase specificity of TRAPPII, and how clinical mutations disrupt this regulation.

Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Insetos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas , Especificidade por Substrato , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética