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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous results have been mixed regarding the role of the apolipoprotein E e4 (APOE e4) allele in later-life depression: some studies note that carriers experience greater symptoms and increased risk while others find no such association. However, there are few prospective, population-based studies of the APOE e4-depression association and fewer that examine depressive symptom trajectory and depression risk longitudinally. We examined the association between APOE e4 allele status and longitudinal change in depressive symptoms and depression risk in later-life, over a 12-year follow-up period. METHODS: We used data from 690 participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 (aged 11) and were followed-up in later-life over five waves from 2004 to 2019 (aged 70-82). We used APOE e4 allele status to predict longitudinal change in depressive symptom scores and risk of depression (defined by a symptom score threshold or use of depression-related medication). Models were adjusted for sex, childhood cognitive ability, childhood social class, education, adult social class, smoking status and functional limitations at baseline. RESULTS: Depressive symptom scores increased with age. Once adjusted for covariates, APOE e4 allele status did not significantly predict symptom score trajectories or depression risk. Greater functional limitations at baseline significantly predicted poorer symptom score trajectories and increased depression risk (defined by medications). APOE e4 allele status did not significantly moderate the contribution of sex, education or functional limitations. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that APOE e4 carriers experience an increased risk for later-life depression.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the relationship between chronic inflammation and cognitive functioning have produced heterogeneous results. A potential reason for this is the variability of inflammatory mediators which could lead to misclassifications of individuals' persisting levels of inflammation. DNA methylation has shown utility in indexing environmental exposures and could be leveraged to provide proxy signatures of chronic inflammation. METHODS: We conducted an elastic net regression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a cohort of 875 older adults (Lothian Birth Cohort 1936; mean age: 70 years) to develop a DNA methylation-based predictor. The predictor was tested in an independent cohort (Generation Scotland; n=7,028 [417 with measured IL-6], mean age: 51 years). RESULTS: A weighted score from 35 CpG sites optimally predicted IL-6 in the independent test set (Generation Scotland; R 2=4.4%, p=2.1x10 -5). In the independent test cohort, both measured IL-6 and the DNA methylation proxy increased with age (serum IL-6: n=417, ß=0.02, SE=0.004 p=1.3x10 -7; DNAm IL-6 score: n=7,028, ß=0.02, SE=0.0009, p<2x10 -16). Serum IL-6 did not associate with cognitive ability (n=417, ß=-0.06, SE=0.05, p=0.19); however, an inverse association was identified between the DNA methylation score and cognitive functioning (n=7,028, ß=-0.16, SE=0.02, pFDR<2x10 -16). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest methylation-based predictors can be used as proxies for inflammatory markers, potentially allowing for further insight into the relationship between inflammation and pertinent health outcomes.

4.
eNeuro ; 8(2)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531368

RESUMO

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with unique behavioral phenotypes, seizures, and distinctive electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns. Recent studies identified motor, social communication, and learning and memory deficits in a CRISPR engineered rat model with a complete maternal deletion of the Ube3a gene. It is unknown whether this model recapitulates other aspects of the clinical disorder. We report here the effect of Ube3a maternal deletion in the rat on epileptiform activity, seizure threshold, and quantitative EEG. Using video-synchronized EEG (vEEG) monitoring, we assessed spectral power and epileptiform activity early postnatally through adulthood. While EEG power was similar to wild-type (WT) at 1.5 weeks postnatally, at all other ages analyzed, our findings were similar to the AS phenotype in mice and humans with significantly increased δ power. Analysis of epileptiform activity in juvenile and adult rats showed increased time spent in epileptiform activity in AS compared with WT rats. We evaluated seizure threshold using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), audiogenic stimulus, and hyperthermia to provoke febrile seizures (FSs). Behavioral seizure scoring following PTZ induction revealed no difference in seizure threshold in AS rats, however behavioral recovery from the PTZ-induced seizure was longer in the adult group with significantly increased hippocampal epileptiform activity during this phase. When exposed to hyperthermia, AS rat pups showed a significantly lower temperature threshold to first seizure than WT. Our findings highlight an age-dependence for the EEG and epileptiform phenotypes in a preclinical model of AS, and support the use of quantitative EEG and increased δ power as a potential biomarker of AS.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414497

RESUMO

Genomic copy number variants (CNVs) are routinely identified and reported back to patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, but their quantitative effects on essential traits such as cognitive ability are poorly documented. We have recently shown that the effect size of deletions on cognitive ability can be statistically predicted using measures of intolerance to haploinsufficiency. However, the effect sizes of duplications remain unknown. It is also unknown if the effect of multigenic CNVs are driven by a few genes intolerant to haploinsufficiency or distributed across tolerant genes as well. Here, we identified all CNVs > 50 kilobases in 24,092 individuals from unselected and autism cohorts with assessments of general intelligence. Statistical models used measures of intolerance to haploinsufficiency of genes included in CNVs to predict their effect size on intelligence. Intolerant genes decrease general intelligence by 0.8 and 2.6 points of intelligence quotient when duplicated or deleted, respectively. Effect sizes showed no heterogeneity across cohorts. Validation analyses demonstrated that models could predict CNV effect sizes with 78% accuracy. Data on the inheritance of 27,766 CNVs showed that deletions and duplications with the same effect size on intelligence occur de novo at the same frequency. We estimated that around 10,000 intolerant and tolerant genes negatively affect intelligence when deleted, and less than 2% have large effect sizes. Genes encompassed in CNVs were not enriched in any GOterms but gene regulation and brain expression were GOterms overrepresented in the intolerant subgroup. Such pervasive effects on cognition may be related to emergent properties of the genome not restricted to a limited number of biological pathways.

6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517400

RESUMO

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery, and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed-effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on Chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.

8.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1314-1332, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230300

RESUMO

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10-8), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.

9.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 60, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular factors which control circulating levels of inflammatory proteins are not well understood. Furthermore, association studies between molecular probes and human traits are often performed by linear model-based methods which may fail to account for complex structure and interrelationships within molecular datasets. METHODS: In this study, we perform genome- and epigenome-wide association studies (GWAS/EWAS) on the levels of 70 plasma-derived inflammatory protein biomarkers in healthy older adults (Lothian Birth Cohort 1936; n = 876; Olink® inflammation panel). We employ a Bayesian framework (BayesR+) which can account for issues pertaining to data structure and unknown confounding variables (with sensitivity analyses using ordinary least squares- (OLS) and mixed model-based approaches). RESULTS: We identified 13 SNPs associated with 13 proteins (n = 1 SNP each) concordant across OLS and Bayesian methods. We identified 3 CpG sites spread across 3 proteins (n = 1 CpG each) that were concordant across OLS, mixed-model and Bayesian analyses. Tagged genetic variants accounted for up to 45% of variance in protein levels (for MCP2, 36% of variance alone attributable to 1 polymorphism). Methylation data accounted for up to 46% of variation in protein levels (for CXCL10). Up to 66% of variation in protein levels (for VEGFA) was explained using genetic and epigenetic data combined. We demonstrated putative causal relationships between CD6 and IL18R1 with inflammatory bowel disease and between IL12B and Crohn's disease. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may aid understanding of the molecular regulation of the circulating inflammatory proteome as well as causal relationships between inflammatory mediators and disease.

10.
Stem Cell Res ; 46: 101851, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450543

RESUMO

Cognitive decline is among the most feared aspects of ageing. We have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from 24 people from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, whose cognitive ability was tested in childhood and in older age. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were reprogrammed using non-integrating oriP/EBNA1 backbone plasmids expressing six iPSC reprogramming factors (OCT3/4 (POU5F1), SOX2, KLF4, L-Myc, shp53, Lin28, SV40LT). All lines demonstrated STR matched karyotype and pluripotency was validated by multiple methods. These iPSC lines are a valuable resource to study molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in cognitive ageing and resilience to age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

11.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372009

RESUMO

Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, "Some College" (yes/no) and "Graduated College" (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10-8). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 800, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041957

RESUMO

Identifying biological correlates of late life cognitive function is important if we are to ascertain biomarkers for, and develop treatments to help reduce, age-related cognitive decline. Here, we investigated the associations between plasma levels of 90 neurology-related proteins (Olink® Proteomics) and general fluid cognitive ability in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936, N = 798), Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921, N = 165), and the INTERVAL BioResource (N = 4451). In the LBC1936, 22 of the proteins were significantly associated with general fluid cognitive ability (ß between -0.11 and -0.17). MRI-assessed total brain volume partially mediated the association between 10 of these proteins and general fluid cognitive ability. In an age-matched subsample of INTERVAL, effect sizes for the 22 proteins, although smaller, were all in the same direction as in LBC1936. Plasma levels of a number of neurology-related proteins are associated with general fluid cognitive ability in later life, mediated by brain volume in some cases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/patologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteômica
13.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(4): 377-383, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether people with more positive attitudes to ageing are biologically younger as defined by leucocyte telomere length, accelerated DNA methylation GrimAge (AgeAccelGrim) and brain-predicted age difference, and whether these biomarkers explain relationships between attitudes to ageing and mortality. METHODS: We used linear regression to examine cross-sectionally attitudes to ageing (measured using the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire) and the three biomarkers in 758 adults, mean age 72.5 years, from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine longitudinally attitudes to ageing and mortality and the role of the biomarkers. RESULTS: More positive attitude to physical change was associated with younger biological age, as measured by AgeAccelGrim and brain-predicted age difference in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted models: for an SD higher score, AgeAccelGrim was lower by -0.73 (95% CI -1.03 to -0.42) of a year, and brain-predicted age difference was lower by -0.87 (1.51 to 0.23) of a year. Both associations were attenuated by adjustment for covariates and not significant after simultaneous adjustment for all covariates and correction for multiple testing. More positive attitudes to physical change were associated with lower mortality: for an SD higher score the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR (95% CI) was 0.66 (0.56 to 0.78). Adjustment for AgeAccelGrim or brain-predicted age difference attenuated this association slightly. It remained significant after adjustment for all covariates. CONCLUSION: We found partial evidence that attitudes to ageing are linked with ageing biomarkers but they accounted for only a little of the association between attitudes and mortality.

14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(4): 657-661, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793067

RESUMO

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by rickets and low circulating concentrations of total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) caused by mutations in ALPL. Severe HPP presents in childhood but milder forms can present in adulthood. The prevalence and clinical features of adult HPP are poorly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of low serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in a clinic-based population of adult osteoporotic patients. We searched for patients with low ALP in a cohort of 3285 patients referred to an osteoporosis clinic over a 10-year period and performed mutation screening of ALPL in those with low ALP (≤40 U/L) on two or more occasions. These individuals were matched with four clinic controls with a normal ALP. We also evaluated the prevalence of low ALP and ALPL mutations in 639 individuals from the general population from the same region. We identified 16/3285 (0.49%) clinic patients with low ALP and 14 (87.5%) had potentially pathogenic variants in ALPL. Eight of these individuals were heterozygous for mutations previously described in HPP and 2 were heterozygous for novel mutations (p.Arg301Trp and p.Tyr101X). These mutations were not found in clinic controls or in the general population. Eight patients with low ALP, including 4 with ALPL mutations, were treated with bisphosphonates for an average of 6.5 years. In these individuals, the rate of fractures during treatment was comparable to that in normal ALP clinic controls who were treated with bisphosphonates. We conclude that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in ALPL are common in osteoporosis patients with low ALP. Further studies are required to determine how best these individuals should be treated. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(10): 2392-2409, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617275

RESUMO

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.

16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(10): 2584-2598, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760887

RESUMO

Polygenic scores can be used to distil the knowledge gained in genome-wide association studies for prediction of health, lifestyle, and psychological factors in independent samples. In this preregistered study, we used fourteen polygenic scores to predict variation in cognitive ability level at age 70, and cognitive change from age 70 to age 79, in the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. The polygenic scores were created for phenotypes that have been suggested as risk or protective factors for cognitive ageing. Cognitive abilities within older age were indexed using a latent general factor estimated from thirteen varied cognitive tests taken at four waves, each three years apart (initial n = 1091 age 70; final n = 550 age 79). The general factor indexed over two-thirds of the variance in longitudinal cognitive change. We ran additional analyses using an age-11 intelligence test to index cognitive change from age 11 to age 70. Several polygenic scores were associated with the level of cognitive ability at age-70 baseline (range of standardized ß-values = -0.178 to 0.302), and the polygenic score for education was associated with cognitive change from childhood to age 70 (standardized ß = 0.100). No polygenic scores were statistically significantly associated with variation in cognitive change between ages 70 and 79, and effect sizes were small. However, APOE e4 status made a significant prediction of the rate of cognitive decline from age 70 to 79 (standardized ß = -0.319 for carriers vs. non-carriers). The results suggest that the predictive validity for cognitive ageing of polygenic scores derived from genome-wide association study summary statistics is not yet on a par with APOE e4, a better-established predictor.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796892

RESUMO

Individuals of the same chronological age exhibit disparate rates of biological ageing. Consequently, a number of methodologies have been proposed to determine biological age and primarily exploit variation at the level of DNA methylation (DNAm). A novel epigenetic clock, termed 'DNAm GrimAge' has outperformed its predecessors in predicting the risk of mortality as well as many age-related morbidities. However, the association between DNAm GrimAge and cognitive or neuroimaging phenotypes remains unknown. We explore these associations in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 709, mean age 73 years). Higher DNAm GrimAge was strongly associated with all-cause mortality over the eighth decade (Hazard Ratio per standard deviation increase in GrimAge: 1.81, P < 2.0 × 10-16). Higher DNAm GrimAge was associated with lower age 11 IQ (ß = -0.11), lower age 73 general cognitive ability (ß = -0.18), decreased brain volume (ß = -0.25) and increased brain white matter hyperintensities (ß = 0.17). There was tentative evidence for a longitudinal association between DNAm GrimAge and cognitive decline from age 70 to 79. Sixty-nine of 137 health- and brain-related phenotypes tested were significantly associated with GrimAge. Adjusting all models for childhood intelligence attenuated to non-significance a small number of associations (12/69 associations; 6 of which were cognitive traits), but not the association with general cognitive ability (33.9% attenuation). Higher DNAm GrimAge associates with lower cognitive ability and brain vascular lesions in older age, independently of early-life cognitive ability. This epigenetic predictor of mortality associates with different measures of brain health and may aid in the prediction of age-related cognitive decline.

18.
PLoS Genet ; 15(11): e1008480, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765389

RESUMO

Human population isolates provide a snapshot of the impact of historical demographic processes on population genetics. Such data facilitate studies of the functional impact of rare sequence variants on biomedical phenotypes, as strong genetic drift can result in higher frequencies of variants that are otherwise rare. We present the first whole genome sequencing (WGS) study of the VIKING cohort, a representative collection of samples from the isolated Shetland population in northern Scotland, and explore how its genetic characteristics compare to a mainland Scottish population. Our analyses reveal the strong contributions played by the founder effect and genetic drift in shaping genomic variation in the VIKING cohort. About one tenth of all high-quality variants discovered are unique to the VIKING cohort or are seen at frequencies at least ten fold higher than in more cosmopolitan control populations. Multiple lines of evidence also suggest relaxation of purifying selection during the evolutionary history of the Shetland isolate. We demonstrate enrichment of ultra-rare VIKING variants in exonic regions and for the first time we also show that ultra-rare variants are enriched within regulatory regions, particularly promoters, suggesting that gene expression patterns may diverge relatively rapidly in human isolates.


Assuntos
Demografia , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Alelos , Cromatina/genética , Europa (Continente) , Éxons/genética , Efeito Fundador , Deriva Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Escócia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4957, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673082

RESUMO

In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (FROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that FROH is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: FROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of FROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in FROH is independent of all environmental confounding.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Cognição , Consanguinidade , Fertilidade/genética , Nível de Saúde , Depressão por Endogamia/genética , Assunção de Riscos , Alelos , Haplótipos , Homozigoto , Humanos
20.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 248, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591380

RESUMO

Recent advances in genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiling for smoking behaviour have given rise to a new, molecular biomarker of smoking exposure. It is unclear whether a smoking-associated DNAm (epigenetic) score has predictive value for ageing-related health outcomes which is independent of contributions from self-reported (phenotypic) smoking measures. Blood DNA methylation levels were measured in 895 adults aged 70 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) study using the Illumina 450K assay. A DNA methylation score based on 230 CpGs was used as a proxy for smoking exposure. Associations between smoking variables and health outcomes at age 70 were modelled using general linear modelling (ANCOVA) and logistic regression. Additional analyses of smoking with brain MRI measures at age 73 (n = 532) were performed. Smoking-DNAm scores were positively associated with self-reported smoking status (P < 0.001, eta-squared ɳ2 = 0.63) and smoking pack years (r = 0.69, P < 0.001). Higher smoking DNAm scores were associated with variables related to poorer cognitive function, structural brain integrity, physical health, and psychosocial health. Compared with phenotypic smoking, the methylation marker provided stronger associations with all of the cognitive function scores, especially visuospatial ability (P < 0.001, partial eta-squared ɳp2 = 0.022) and processing speed (P < 0.001, ɳp2 = 0.030); inflammatory markers (all P < 0.001, ranges from ɳp2 = 0.021 to 0.030); dietary patterns (healthy diet (P < 0.001, ɳp2 = 0.052) and traditional diet (P < 0.001, ɳp2 = 0.032); stroke (P = 0.006, OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12, 1.96); mortality (P < 0.001, OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.42, 1.79), and at age 73; with MRI volumetric measures (all P < 0.001, ranges from ɳp2 = 0.030 to 0.052). Additionally, education was the most important life-course predictor of lifetime smoking tested. Our results suggest that a smoking-associated methylation biomarker typically explains a greater proportion of the variance in some smoking-related morbidities in older adults, than phenotypic measures of smoking exposure, with some of the accounted-for variance being independent of phenotypic smoking status.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Aptidão Física , Fumar/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Escócia , Autorrelato , Fumar/fisiopatologia
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