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1.
Brain ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511193

RESUMO

Cerebral small vessel disease is a leading cause of stroke and a major contributor to cognitive decline and dementia, but our understanding of specific genes underlying the cause of sporadic cerebral small vessel disease is limited. We report a genome-wide association study and a whole-exome association study on a composite extreme phenotype of cerebral small vessel disease derived from its most common MRI features: white matter hyperintensities and lacunes. Seventeen population-based cohorts of older persons with MRI measurements and genome-wide genotyping (n = 41 326), whole-exome sequencing (n = 15 965), or exome chip (n = 5249) data contributed 13 776 and 7079 extreme small vessel disease samples for the genome-wide association study and whole-exome association study, respectively. The genome-wide association study identified significant association of common variants in 11 loci with extreme small vessel disease, of which the chr12q24.11 locus was not previously reported to be associated with any MRI marker of cerebral small vessel disease. The whole-exome association study identified significant associations of extreme small vessel disease with common variants in the 5' UTR region of EFEMP1 (chr2p16.1) and one probably damaging common missense variant in TRIM47 (chr17q25.1). Mendelian randomization supports the causal association of extensive small vessel disease severity with increased risk of stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Combined evidence from summary-based Mendelian randomization studies and profiling of human loss-of-function allele carriers showed an inverse relation between TRIM47 expression in the brain and blood vessels and extensive small vessel disease severity. We observed significant enrichment of Trim47 in isolated brain vessel preparations compared to total brain fraction in mice, in line with the literature showing Trim47 enrichment in brain endothelial cells at single cell level. Functional evaluation of TRIM47 by small interfering RNAs-mediated knockdown in human brain endothelial cells showed increased endothelial permeability, an important hallmark of cerebral small vessel disease pathology. Overall, our comprehensive gene-mapping study and preliminary functional evaluation suggests a putative role of TRIM47 in the pathophysiology of cerebral small vessel disease, making it an important candidate for extensive in vivo explorations and future translational work.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536696

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Methylation integrates factors present at birth and modifiable across life that can influence pulmonary function. Studies are limited in scope and replication. OBJECTIVES: To conduct large-scale epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation and pulmonary function. METHODS: Twelve cohorts analyzed associations of methylation at cytosine-phosphate-guanine probes (CpGs), using Illumina450K or EPIC/850K arrays, with FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC. We performed multi-ancestry epigenome-wide meta-analyses (17,503 individuals: 14,761 European; 2,549 African; and 193 Hispanic/Latino ancestries) and interpreted results using integrative epigenomics. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified 1,267 CpGs (1,042 genes) differentially methylated (FDR<0.025) in relation to FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, including 1,240 novel and 73 also related to COPD (1,787 cases). We found 294 CpGs unique to European or African ancestry and 395 CpGs unique to never or ever smokers. The majority of significant CpGs correlated with nearby gene expression in blood. Findings were enriched in key regulatory elements for gene function, including accessible chromatin elements, in both blood and lung. Sixty-nine implicated genes are targets of investigational or approved drugs. One example novel gene highlighted by integrative epigenomic and druggable target analysis is TNFRSF4. Mendelian randomization and colocalization analyses suggest that EWAS signals capture causal regulatory genomic loci. CONCLUSIONS: We identified numerous novel loci differentially methylated in relation to pulmonary function; few were detected in large genome-wide association studies. Integrative analyses highlight functional relevance and potential therapeutic targets. This comprehensive discovery of potentially modifiable, novel lung function loci expands knowledge gained from genetic studies providing insights into lung pathogenesis.

3.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362642

RESUMO

Inflammation and ageing-related DNA methylation patterns in the blood have been linked to a variety of morbidities, including cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is unclear how these blood-based patterns relate to patterns within the brain and how each associates with central cellular profiles. In this study, we profiled DNA methylation in both the blood and in five post mortem brain regions (BA17, BA20/21, BA24, BA46 and hippocampus) in 14 individuals from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Microglial burdens were additionally quantified in the same brain regions. DNA methylation signatures of five epigenetic ageing biomarkers ('epigenetic clocks'), and two inflammatory biomarkers (methylation proxies for C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were compared across tissues and regions. Divergent associations between the inflammation and ageing signatures in the blood and brain were identified, depending on region assessed. Four out of the five assessed epigenetic age acceleration measures were found to be highest in the hippocampus (ß range = 0.83-1.14, p ≤ 0.02). The inflammation-related DNA methylation signatures showed no clear variation across brain regions. Reactive microglial burdens were found to be highest in the hippocampus (ß = 1.32, p = 5 × 10-4 ); however, the only association identified between the blood- and brain-based methylation signatures and microglia was a significant positive association with acceleration of one epigenetic clock (termed DNAm PhenoAge) averaged over all five brain regions (ß = 0.40, p = 0.002). This work highlights a potential vulnerability of the hippocampus to epigenetic ageing and provides preliminary evidence of a relationship between DNA methylation signatures in the brain and differences in microglial burdens.

4.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 36, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a disabling and highly prevalent condition where genetic and epigenetic, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), differences contribute to disease risk. DNA methylation is influenced by genetic variation but the association between polygenic risk of depression and DNA methylation is unknown. METHODS: We investigated the association between polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression and DNAm by conducting a methylome-wide association study (MWAS) in Generation Scotland (N = 8898, mean age = 49.8 years) with replication in the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 and adults in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (Ncombined = 2049, mean age = 79.1, 69.6 and 47.2 years, respectively). We also conducted a replication MWAS in the ALSPAC children (N = 423, mean age = 17.1 years). Gene ontology analysis was conducted for the cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) probes significantly associated with depression PRS, followed by Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis to infer the causal relationship between depression and DNAm. RESULTS: Widespread associations (NCpG = 71, pBonferroni < 0.05, p < 6.3 × 10-8) were found between PRS constructed using genetic risk variants for depression and DNAm in CpG probes that localised to genes involved in immune responses and neural development. The effect sizes for the significant associations were highly correlated between the discovery and replication samples in adults (r = 0.79) and in adolescents (r = 0.82). Gene Ontology analysis showed that significant CpG probes are enriched in immunological processes in the human leukocyte antigen system. Additional MWAS was conducted for each lead genetic risk variant. Over 47.9% of the independent genetic risk variants included in the PRS showed associations with DNAm in CpG probes located in both the same (cis) and distal (trans) locations to the genetic loci (pBonferroni < 0.045). Subsequent MR analysis showed that there are a greater number of causal effects found from DNAm to depression than vice versa (DNAm to depression: pFDR ranged from 0.024 to 7.45 × 10-30; depression to DNAm: pFDR ranged from 0.028 to 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: PRS for depression, especially those constructed from genome-wide significant genetic risk variants, showed methylome-wide differences associated with immune responses. Findings from MR analysis provided evidence for causal effect of DNAm to depression.


Assuntos
Apresentação do Antígeno , Epigenoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Depressão/genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(3): 511-529, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uromodulin, the most abundant protein excreted in normal urine, plays major roles in kidney physiology and disease. The mechanisms regulating the urinary excretion of uromodulin remain essentially unknown. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for raw (uUMOD) and indexed to creatinine (uUCR) urinary levels of uromodulin in 29,315 individuals of European ancestry from 13 cohorts. We tested the distribution of candidate genes in kidney segments and investigated the effects of keratin-40 (KRT40) on uromodulin processing. RESULTS: Two genome-wide significant signals were identified for uUMOD: a novel locus (P 1.24E-08) over the KRT40 gene coding for KRT40, a type 1 keratin expressed in the kidney, and the UMOD-PDILT locus (P 2.17E-88), with two independent sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms spread over UMOD and PDILT. Two genome-wide significant signals for uUCR were identified at the UMOD-PDILT locus and at the novel WDR72 locus previously associated with kidney function. The effect sizes for rs8067385, the index single nucleotide polymorphism in the KRT40 locus, were similar for both uUMOD and uUCR. KRT40 colocalized with uromodulin and modulating its expression in thick ascending limb (TAL) cells affected uromodulin processing and excretion. CONCLUSIONS: Common variants in KRT40, WDR72, UMOD, and PDILT associate with the levels of uromodulin in urine. The expression of KRT40 affects uromodulin processing in TAL cells. These results, although limited by lack of replication, provide insights into the biology of uromodulin, the role of keratins in the kidney, and the influence of the UMOD-PDILT locus on kidney function.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Rim , Creatinina , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/genética , Uromodulina/genética
6.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35204676

RESUMO

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has long been used to produce alcohol from glucose and other sugars. While much is known about glucose metabolism, relatively little is known about the receptors and signaling pathways that indicate glucose availability. Here, we compare the two glucose receptor systems in S. cerevisiae. The first is a heterodimer of transporter-like proteins (transceptors), while the second is a seven-transmembrane receptor coupled to a large G protein (Gpa2) that acts in coordination with two small G proteins (Ras1 and Ras2). Through comprehensive measurements of glucose-dependent transcription and metabolism, we demonstrate that the two receptor systems have distinct roles in glucose signaling: the G-protein-coupled receptor directs carbohydrate and energy metabolism, while the transceptors regulate ancillary processes such as ribosome, amino acids, cofactor and vitamin metabolism. The large G-protein transmits the signal from its cognate receptor, while the small G-protein Ras2 (but not Ras1) integrates responses from both receptor pathways. Collectively, our analysis reveals the molecular basis for glucose detection and the earliest events of glucose-dependent signal transduction in yeast.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
7.
Elife ; 112022 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023833

RESUMO

Protein biomarkers have been identified across many age-related morbidities. However, characterising epigenetic influences could further inform disease predictions. Here, we leverage epigenome-wide data to study links between the DNA methylation (DNAm) signatures of the circulating proteome and incident diseases. Using data from four cohorts, we trained and tested epigenetic scores (EpiScores) for 953 plasma proteins, identifying 109 scores that explained between 1% and 58% of the variance in protein levels after adjusting for known protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) genetic effects. By projecting these EpiScores into an independent sample (Generation Scotland; n = 9537) and relating them to incident morbidities over a follow-up of 14 years, we uncovered 137 EpiScore-disease associations. These associations were largely independent of immune cell proportions, common lifestyle and health factors, and biological aging. Notably, we found that our diabetes-associated EpiScores highlighted previous top biomarker associations from proteome-wide assessments of diabetes. These EpiScores for protein levels can therefore be a valuable resource for disease prediction and risk stratification.


Although our genetic code does not change throughout our lives, our genes can be turned on and off as a result of epigenetics. Epigenetics can track how the environment and even certain behaviors add or remove small chemical markers to the DNA that makes up the genome. The type and location of these markers may affect whether genes are active or silent, this is, whether the protein coded for by that gene is being produced or not. One common epigenetic marker is known as DNA methylation. DNA methylation has been linked to the levels of a range of proteins in our cells and the risk people have of developing chronic diseases. Blood samples can be used to determine the epigenetic markers a person has on their genome and to study the abundance of many proteins. Gadd, Hillary, McCartney, Zaghlool et al. studied the relationships between DNA methylation and the abundance of 953 different proteins in blood samples from individuals in the German KORA cohort and the Scottish Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. They then used machine learning to analyze the relationship between epigenetic markers found in people's blood and the abundance of proteins, obtaining epigenetic scores or 'EpiScores' for each protein. They found 109 proteins for which DNA methylation patterns explained between at least 1% and up to 58% of the variation in protein levels. Integrating the 'EpiScores' with 14 years of medical records for more than 9000 individuals from the Generation Scotland study revealed 137 connections between EpiScores for proteins and a future diagnosis of common adverse health outcomes. These included diabetes, stroke, depression, Alzheimer's dementia, various cancers, and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Age-related chronic diseases are a growing issue worldwide and place pressure on healthcare systems. They also severely reduce quality of life for individuals over many years. This work shows how epigenetic scores based on protein levels in the blood could predict a person's risk of several of these diseases. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the EpiScore results replicated previous research linking protein levels in the blood to future diagnosis of diabetes. Protein EpiScores could therefore allow researchers to identify people with the highest risk of disease, making it possible to intervene early and prevent these people from developing chronic conditions as they age.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Epigenômica/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Proteoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Escócia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Circulation ; 145(14): 1040-1052, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH), identified on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the human brain as areas of enhanced brightness, are a major risk factor of stroke, dementia, and death. There are no large-scale studies testing associations between WMH and circulating metabolites. METHODS: We studied up to 9290 individuals (50.7% female, average age 61 years) from 15 populations of 8 community-based cohorts. WMH volume was quantified from T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images or as hypointensities on T1-weighted images. Circulating metabolomic measures were assessed with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Associations between WMH and metabolomic measures were tested by fitting linear regression models in the pooled sample and in sex-stratified and statin treatment-stratified subsamples. Our basic models were adjusted for age, sex, age×sex, and technical covariates, and our fully adjusted models were also adjusted for statin treatment, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, smoking, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Population-specific results were meta-analyzed using the fixed-effect inverse variance-weighted method. Associations with false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted P values (PFDR)<0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis of results from the basic models, we identified 30 metabolomic measures associated with WMH (PFDR<0.05), 7 of which remained significant in the fully adjusted models. The most significant association was with higher level of hydroxyphenylpyruvate in men (PFDR.full.adj=1.40×10-7) and in both the pooled sample (PFDR.full.adj=1.66×10-4) and statin-untreated (PFDR.full.adj=1.65×10-6) subsample. In men, hydroxyphenylpyruvate explained 3% to 14% of variance in WMH. In men and the pooled sample, WMH were also associated with lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholines and hydroxysphingomyelins and a larger diameter of low-density lipoprotein particles, likely arising from higher triglyceride to total lipids and lower cholesteryl ester to total lipids ratios within these particles. In women, the only significant association was with higher level of glucuronate (PFDR=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating metabolomic measures, including multiple lipid measures (eg, lysophosphatidylcholines, hydroxysphingomyelins, low-density lipoprotein size and composition) and nonlipid metabolites (eg, hydroxyphenylpyruvate, glucuronate), associate with WMH in a general population of middle-aged and older adults. Some metabolomic measures show marked sex specificities and explain a sizable proportion of WMH variance.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Substância Branca , Idoso , Encéfalo/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 26, 2022 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood-based markers of cognitive functioning might provide an accessible way to track neurodegeneration years prior to clinical manifestation of cognitive impairment and dementia. RESULTS: Using blood-based epigenome-wide analyses of general cognitive function, we show that individual differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) explain 35.0% of the variance in general cognitive function (g). A DNAm predictor explains ~4% of the variance, independently of a polygenic score, in two external cohorts. It also associates with circulating levels of neurology- and inflammation-related proteins, global brain imaging metrics, and regional cortical volumes. CONCLUSIONS: As sample sizes increase, the ability to assess cognitive function from DNAm data may be informative in settings where cognitive testing is unreliable or unavailable.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Cognição , Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos
10.
RNA ; 28(4): 523-540, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35082143

RESUMO

Alternative splicing transitions occur during organ development, and, in numerous diseases, splicing programs revert to fetal isoform expression. We previously found that extensive splicing changes occur during postnatal mouse heart development in genes encoding proteins involved in vesicle-mediated trafficking. However, the regulatory mechanisms of this splicing-trafficking network are unknown. Here, we found that membrane trafficking genes are alternatively spliced in a tissue-specific manner, with striated muscles exhibiting the highest levels of alternative exon inclusion. Treatment of differentiated muscle cells with chromatin-modifying drugs altered exon inclusion in muscle cells. Examination of several RNA-binding proteins revealed that the poly-pyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) and quaking regulate splicing of trafficking genes during myogenesis, and that removal of PTBP1 motifs prevented PTBP1 from binding its RNA target. These findings enhance our understanding of developmental splicing regulation of membrane trafficking proteins which might have implications for muscle disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas , Animais , Éxons , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Regiões Ricas em Polipirimidinas/metabolismo
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7173, 2021 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887389

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels, a complex trait and major risk factor for incident gout, are correlated with cardiometabolic traits via incompletely understood mechanisms. DNA methylation in whole blood captures genetic and environmental influences and is assessed in transethnic meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum urate (discovery, n = 12,474, replication, n = 5522). The 100 replicated, epigenome-wide significant (p < 1.1E-7) CpGs explain 11.6% of the serum urate variance. At SLC2A9, the serum urate locus with the largest effect in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), five CpGs are associated with SLC2A9 gene expression. Four CpGs at SLC2A9 have significant causal effects on serum urate levels and/or gout, and two of these partly mediate the effects of urate-associated GWAS variants. In other genes, including SLC7A11 and PHGDH, 17 urate-associated CpGs are associated with conditions defining metabolic syndrome, suggesting that these CpGs may represent a blood DNA methylation signature of cardiometabolic risk factors. This study demonstrates that EWAS can provide new insights into GWAS loci and the correlation of serum urate with other complex traits.


Assuntos
Epigenoma , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Gota/genética , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Gota/sangue , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7174, 2021 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887417

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is a major public health burden. Elevated urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a measure of kidney damage, and used to diagnose and stage chronic kidney disease. To extend the knowledge on regulatory mechanisms related to kidney function and disease, we conducted a blood-based epigenome-wide association study for estimated glomerular filtration rate (n = 33,605) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (n = 15,068) and detected 69 and seven CpG sites where DNA methylation was associated with the respective trait. The majority of these findings showed directionally consistent associations with the respective clinical outcomes chronic kidney disease and moderately increased albuminuria. Associations of DNA methylation with kidney function, such as CpGs at JAZF1, PELI1 and CHD2 were validated in kidney tissue. Methylation at PHRF1, LDB2, CSRNP1 and IRF5 indicated causal effects on kidney function. Enrichment analyses revealed pathways related to hemostasis and blood cell migration for estimated glomerular filtration rate, and immune cell activation and response for urinary albumin-to-creatinineratio-associated CpGs.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
HGG Adv ; 2(1)2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734193

RESUMO

Psychological and social factors are known to influence blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. To identify novel BP loci, we carried out genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial BP taking into account the interaction effects of genetic variants with three psychosocial factors: depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and social support. Analyses were performed using a two-stage design in a sample of up to 128,894 adults from 5 ancestry groups. In the combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 59 loci (p value <5e-8), including nine novel BP loci. The novel associations were observed mostly with pulse pressure, with fewer observed with mean arterial pressure. Five novel loci were identified in African ancestry, and all but one showed patterns of interaction with at least one psychosocial factor. Functional annotation of the novel loci supports a major role for genes implicated in the immune response (PLCL2), synaptic function and neurotransmission (LIN7A, PFIA2), as well as genes previously implicated in neuropsychiatric or stress-related disorders (FSTL5, CHODL). These findings underscore the importance of considering psychological and social factors in gene discovery for BP, especially in non-European populations.

14.
Neurology ; 97(23): e2340-e2352, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate chronic inflammation in relation to cognitive aging by comparison of an epigenetic and serum biomarker of C-reactive protein and their associations with neuroimaging and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: At baseline, participants (n = 521) were cognitively normal, around 73 years of age (mean 72.4, SD 0.716), and had inflammation, vascular risk (cardiovascular disease history, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index), and neuroimaging (structural and diffusion MRI) data available. Baseline inflammatory status was quantified by a traditional measure of peripheral inflammation-serum C-reactive protein (CRP)-and an epigenetic measure (DNA methylation [DNAm] signature of CRP). Linear models were used to examine the inflammation-brain health associations; mediation analyses were performed to interrogate the relationship between chronic inflammation, brain structure, and cognitive functioning. RESULTS: We demonstrate that DNAm CRP shows significantly (on average 6.4-fold) stronger associations with brain health outcomes than serum CRP. DNAm CRP is associated with total brain volume (ß = -0.197, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.28 to -0.12, p FDR = 8.42 × 10-6), gray matter volume (ß = -0.200, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.12, p FDR = 1.66 × 10-5), and white matter volume (ß = -0.150, 95% CI -0.23 to -0.07, p FDR = 0.001) and regional brain atrophy. We also find that DNAm CRP has an inverse association with global and domain-specific (speed, visuospatial, and memory) cognitive functioning and that brain structure partially mediates this CRP-cognitive association (up to 29.7%), dependent on lifestyle and health factors. DISCUSSION: These results support the hypothesis that chronic inflammation may contribute to neurodegenerative brain changes that underlie differences in cognitive ability in later life and highlight the potential of DNAm proxies for indexing chronic inflammatory status. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that a DNAm signature of CRP levels is more strongly associated with brain health outcomes than serum CRP levels.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Metilação de DNA , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19365, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588469

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic variants associated with spirometric measures of pulmonary function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, and their ratio. However, variants with lower minor allele frequencies are less explored. We conducted a large-scale gene-smoking interaction meta-analysis on exonic rare and low-frequency variants involving 44,429 individuals of European ancestry in the discovery stage and sought replication in the UK BiLEVE study with 45,133 European ancestry samples and UK Biobank study with 59,478 samples. We leveraged data on cigarette smoking, the major environmental risk factor for reduced lung function, by testing gene-by-smoking interaction effects only and simultaneously testing the genetic main effects and interaction effects. The most statistically significant signal that replicated was a previously reported low-frequency signal in GPR126, distinct from common variant associations in this gene. Although only nominal replication was obtained for a top rare variant signal rs142935352 in one of the two studies, interaction and joint tests for current smoking and PDE3B were significantly associated with FEV1. This study investigates the utility of assessing gene-by-smoking interactions and underscores their effects on potential pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Éxons/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Fatores de Risco
16.
PLoS Genet ; 17(7): e1009640, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214075

RESUMO

Heterotrimeric G proteins were originally discovered through efforts to understand the effects of hormones, such as glucagon and epinephrine, on glucose metabolism. On the other hand, many cellular metabolites, including glucose, serve as ligands for G protein-coupled receptors. Here we investigate the consequences of glucose-mediated receptor signaling, and in particular the role of a Gα subunit Gpa2 and a non-canonical Gß subunit, known as Asc1 in yeast and RACK1 in animals. Asc1/RACK1 is of particular interest because it has multiple, seemingly unrelated, functions in the cell. The existence of such "moonlighting" operations has complicated the determination of phenotype from genotype. Through a comparative analysis of individual gene deletion mutants, and by integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics measurements, we have determined the relative contributions of the Gα and Gß protein subunits to glucose-initiated processes in yeast. We determined that Gpa2 is primarily involved in regulating carbohydrate metabolism while Asc1 is primarily involved in amino acid metabolism. Both proteins are involved in regulating purine metabolism. Of the two subunits, Gpa2 regulates a greater number of gene transcripts and was particularly important in determining the amplitude of response to glucose addition. We conclude that the two G protein subunits regulate distinct but complementary processes downstream of the glucose-sensing receptor, as well as processes that lead ultimately to changes in cell growth and metabolism.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Mutação , Purinas/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 194, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological aging estimators derived from DNA methylation data are heritable and correlate with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identification of genetic and environmental contributors to the variation in these measures in populations has become a major goal in the field. RESULTS: Leveraging DNA methylation and SNP data from more than 40,000 individuals, we identify 137 genome-wide significant loci, of which 113 are novel, from genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of four epigenetic clocks and epigenetic surrogate markers for granulocyte proportions and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels, respectively. We find evidence for shared genetic loci associated with the Horvath clock and expression of transcripts encoding genes linked to lipid metabolism and immune function. Notably, these loci are independent of those reported to regulate DNA methylation levels at constituent clock CpGs. A polygenic score for GrimAge acceleration showed strong associations with adiposity-related traits, educational attainment, parental longevity, and C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: This study illuminates the genetic architecture underlying epigenetic aging and its shared genetic contributions with lifestyle factors and longevity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Loci Gênicos , Herança Multifatorial , Adiposidade/genética , Adiposidade/imunologia , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Ilhas de CpG , Escolaridade , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Granulócitos/citologia , Granulócitos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/imunologia , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/imunologia
18.
Neurology ; 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031201

RESUMO

ObjectiveTo test the genetic contribution of rare missense variants in COL4A1 and COL4A2 in which common variants are genetically associated with sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we performed rare variant analysis in multiple sequencing data for the risk for sporadic ICH.MethodsWe performed sequencing across 559Kbp at 13q34 including COL4A1 and COL4A2 among 2,133 individuals (1,055 ICH cases; 1,078 controls) in US-based and 1,492 individuals (192 ICH cases; 1,189 controls) from Scotland-based cohorts, followed by sequence annotation, functional impact prediction, genetic association testing, and in silico thermodynamic modeling.ResultsWe identified 107 rare nonsynonymous variants in sporadic ICH, of which two missense variants, rs138269346 (COL4A1I110T) and rs201716258 (COL4A2H203L), were predicted to be highly functional and occurred in multiple ICH cases but not in controls from the US-based cohort. The minor allele of rs201716258 was also present in Scottish ICH patients, and rs138269346 was observed in two ICH-free controls with a history of hypertension and myocardial infarction. Rs138269346 was nominally associated with non-lobar ICH risk (P=0.05), but not with lobar ICH (P=0.08), while associations between rs201716258 and ICH subtypes were non-significant (P>0.12). Both variants were considered pathogenic based on minor allele frequency (<0.00035 in EUR), predicted functional impact (deleterious or probably damaging), and in silico modeling studies (substantially altered physical length and thermal stability of collagen).ConclusionsWe identified rare missense variants in COL4A1/A2 in association with sporadic ICH. Our annotation and simulation studies suggest that these variants are highly functional and may represent targets for translational follow-up.

19.
Brain Commun ; 3(2): fcab082, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041477

RESUMO

Modifiable lifestyle factors influence the risk of developing many neurological diseases. These factors have been extensively linked with blood-based genome-wide DNA methylation, but it is unclear if the signatures from blood translate to the target tissue of interest-the brain. To investigate this, we apply blood-derived epigenetic predictors of four lifestyle traits to genome-wide DNA methylation from five post-mortem brain regions and the last blood sample prior to death in 14 individuals in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Using these matched samples, we found that correlations between blood and brain DNA methylation scores for smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alcohol and body mass index were highly variable across brain regions. Smoking scores in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had the strongest correlations with smoking scores in blood (r = 0.5, n = 14, P = 0.07) and smoking behaviour (r = 0.56, n = 9, P = 0.12). This was also the brain region which exhibited the largest correlations for DNA methylation at site cg05575921 - the single strongest correlate of smoking in blood-in relation to blood (r = 0.61, n = 14, P = 0.02) and smoking behaviour (r = -0.65, n = 9, P = 0.06). This suggested a particular vulnerability to smoking-related differential methylation in this region. Our work contributes to understanding how lifestyle factors affect the brain and suggest that lifestyle-related DNA methylation is likely to be both brain region dependent and in many cases poorly proxied for by blood. Though these pilot data provide a rarely-available opportunity for the comparison of methylation patterns across multiple brain regions and the blood, due to the limited sample size available our results must be considered as preliminary and should therefore be used as a basis for further investigation.

20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(11): 6293-6304, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859359

RESUMO

Long and short sleep duration are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), possibly through effects on molecular pathways that influence neuroendocrine and vascular systems. To gain new insights into the genetic basis of sleep-related BP variation, we performed genome-wide gene by short or long sleep duration interaction analyses on four BP traits (systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure) across five ancestry groups in two stages using 2 degree of freedom (df) joint test followed by 1df test of interaction effects. Primary multi-ancestry analysis in 62,969 individuals in stage 1 identified three novel gene by sleep interactions that were replicated in an additional 59,296 individuals in stage 2 (stage 1 + 2 Pjoint < 5 × 10-8), including rs7955964 (FIGNL2/ANKRD33) that increases BP among long sleepers, and rs73493041 (SNORA26/C9orf170) and rs10406644 (KCTD15/LSM14A) that increase BP among short sleepers (Pint < 5 × 10-8). Secondary ancestry-specific analysis identified another novel gene by long sleep interaction at rs111887471 (TRPC3/KIAA1109) in individuals of African ancestry (Pint = 2 × 10-6). Combined stage 1 and 2 analyses additionally identified significant gene by long sleep interactions at 10 loci including MKLN1 and RGL3/ELAVL3 previously associated with BP, and significant gene by short sleep interactions at 10 loci including C2orf43 previously associated with BP (Pint < 10-3). 2df test also identified novel loci for BP after modeling sleep that has known functions in sleep-wake regulation, nervous and cardiometabolic systems. This study indicates that sleep and primary mechanisms regulating BP may interact to elevate BP level, suggesting novel insights into sleep-related BP regulation.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipertensão , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sono/genética
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