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Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 57(11): 1064-1072, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789065


Background: From 1999 to 2010, the annual number of US deaths due to opioid overdose increased about 400% as the number of opioids prescribed yearly also increased by approximately 400%. Over this period, hydrocodone combination products drove the opioid epidemic, as they became the most frequently prescribed medication in the United States. Our objective was to determine if the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA) 2014 policy change - which made it more difficult to prescribe hydrocodone combination products by moving them from Schedule III to Schedule II - reduced the total amount of opioid prescriptions as intended. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of the 10 most populous US states, beginning at the time each state began collecting data on opioid prescribing, and concluding at the end of 2016. The exposure was the DEA-mandated October 6, 2014 hydrocodone combination product schedule change. Results: After the DEA's schedule change for hydrocodone combination products, the total number of opioids prescribed each year per 100 people did not substantially change in California, Florida, Michigan, or New York. Although prescription rates dropped for hydrocodone combination products (CA: 43.2, 35.0; MI: 66.8, 55.6; NY: 20.8, 15.1), the reduction was commensurately counteracted by increased rates for tramadol (CA: 0.2, 9.9; MI: 0.1, 17.3; NY: 0.0, 7.6) and oxycodone (CA: 8.7, 9.7; MI: 10.3, 11.9; NY: 18.1, 18.8). Surprisingly, the other 6 states assessed had no viable mechanism in place for assessing state-wide opioid prescription totals, routinely expunged collected data, or only instituted a reporting mechanism toward the end of our study. Conclusion: Total opioid prescriptions were relatively unchanged following the 2014 DEA-mandated schedule change, however, physicians did change their prescribing habits by substituting tramadol for hydrocodone combination products. This substitution of similar medications for hydrocodone suggests alternative approaches are needed to reduce total US opioid prescription rates. Additionally, the current lack of standardized prescription reporting by states makes detailed opioid prescription analysis alarmingly difficult and insufficient to guide policy or monitor the impact of policy changes.

Analgésicos Opioides , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocodona , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Tramadol , Estados Unidos , United States Office of National Drug Control Policy
West J Emerg Med ; 14(6): 595-7, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24381678


INTRODUCTION: High body mass index (BMI) values generally correlate with a large proportion of intra-peritoneal adipose tissue. Because intra-peritoneal infectious and inflammatory conditions manifest with abnormalities of the adipose tissue adjacent to the inflamed organ, it is presumed that with a larger percentage of adipose surrounding a given organ, visualization of the inflammatory changes would be more readily apparent. Do higher BMI values sufficiently enhance the ability of a radiologist to read a computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis, so that the need for oral contrast to be given is precluded? METHODS: FORTY SIX PATIENTS WERE INCLUDED IN THE STUDY: 27 females, and 19 males. They underwent abdominal/pelvic CTs without oral or intravenous contrast in the emergency department. Two board certified radiologists reviewed their CTs, and assessed them for radiographic evidence of intra-abdominal pathology. The patients were then placed into one of four groups based on their body mass index. Kappa analysis was performed on the CT reads for each group to determine whether there was significant inter-rater agreement regarding contrast use for the patient in question. RESULTS: There was increasingly significant agreement between radiologists, regarding contrast use, as the study subject's BMI increased. In addition, there was an advancing tendency of the radiologists to state that there was no need for oral or intravenous contrast in patients with higher BMIs, as the larger quantity of intra-peritoneal adipose allowed greater visualization and inspection of intra-abdominal organs. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, it appears that there is a decreasing need for oral contrast in emergency department patients undergoing abdominal/pelvic CT, as a patient's BMI increases. Specifically, there was statistically significant agreement, between radiologists, regarding contrast use in patients who had a BMI greater than 25.