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1.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(7): 673-678, 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034599

RESUMO

Screening of a small set of nonselective lipase inhibitors against endothelial lipase (EL) identified a potent and reversible inhibitor, N-(3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)propyl)-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamide (5; EL IC50 = 61 nM, ELHDL IC50 = 454 nM). Deck mining identified a related hit, N-(3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)propyl)-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide (6a; EL IC50 = 41 nM, ELHDL IC50 = 1760 nM). Both compounds were selective against lipoprotein lipase (LPL) but nonselective versus hepatic lipase (HL). Optimization of compound 6a for EL inhibition using HDL as substrate led to N-(4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)butan-2-yl)-1-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide (7c; EL IC50 = 148 nM, ELHDL IC50 = 218 nM) having improved PK over compound 6a, providing a tool molecule to test for the ability to increase HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in vivo using a reversible EL inhibitor. Compound 7c did not increase HDL-C in vivo despite achieving plasma exposures targeted on the basis of enzyme activity and protein binding demonstrating the need to develop more physiologically relevant in vitro assays to guide compound progression for in vivo evaluation.

2.
J Med Chem ; 60(12): 4932-4948, 2017 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537398

RESUMO

BMS-816336 (6n-2), a hydroxy-substituted adamantyl acetamide, has been identified as a novel, potent inhibitor against human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) enzyme (IC50 3.0 nM) with >10000-fold selectivity over human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2). 6n-2 exhibits a robust acute pharmacodynamic effect in cynomolgus monkeys (ED50 0.12 mg/kg) and in DIO mice. It is orally bioavailable (%F ranges from 20 to 72% in preclinical species) and has a predicted pharmacokinetic profile of a high peak to trough ratio and short half-life in humans. This ADME profile met our selection criteria for once daily administration, targeting robust inhibition of 11ß-HSD1 enzyme for the first 12 h period after dosing followed by an "inhibition holiday" so that the potential for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation might be mitigated. 6n-2 was found to be well-tolerated in phase 1 clinical studies and represents a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and other human diseases modulated by glucocorticoid control.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Actinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/química , Adamantano/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Obesos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(6): 590-4, 2016 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27326332

RESUMO

BMS-711939 (3) is a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α agonist, with an EC50 of 4 nM for human PPARα and >1000-fold selectivity vs human PPARγ (EC50 = 4.5 µM) and PPARδ (EC50 > 100 µM) in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Compound 3 also demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy and safety profiles in preclinical studies and thus was chosen for further preclinical evaluation. The synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, and in vivo pharmacology of 3 in preclinical animal models as well as its ADME profile are described.

4.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 25(6): 1196-205, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25686852

RESUMO

The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of 3,4-disubstituted pyrrolidine acid analogs as PPAR ligands is outlined. In both the 1,3- and 1,4-oxybenzyl pyrrolidine acid series, the preferred stereochemistry was shown to be the cis-3R,4S isomer, as exemplified by the potent dual PPARα/γ agonists 3k and 4i. The N-4-trifluoromethyl-pyrimidinyl pyrrolidine acid analog 4i was efficacious in lowering fasting glucose and triglyceride levels in diabetic db/db mice.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pirrolidinas/química , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Drogas , Feminino , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pirrolidinas/síntese química , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
5.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 5(7): 803-8, 2014 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25050169

RESUMO

Small alkyl groups and spirocyclic-aromatic rings directly attached to the left side and right side of the 1,2,4-triazolopyridines (TZP), respectively, were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 1 (11ß-HSD-1) enzyme. 3-(1-(4-Chlorophenyl)cyclopropyl)-8-cyclopropyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine (9f) was identified as a potent inhibitor of the 11ß-HSD-1 enzyme with reduced Pregnane-X receptor (PXR) transactivation activity. The binding orientation of this TZP series was revealed by X-ray crystallography structure studies.

6.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e53192, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23383297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic glucocorticoid excess has been linked to increased atherosclerosis and general cardiovascular risk in humans. The enzyme 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ßHSD1) increases active glucocorticoid levels within tissues by catalyzing the conversion of cortisone to cortisol. Pharmacological inhibition of 11ßHSD1 has been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in murine models. However, the cellular and molecular details for this effect have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the role of 11ßHSD1 in atherogenesis, 11ßHSD1 knockout mice were created on the pro-atherogenic apoE⁻/⁻ background. Following 14 weeks of Western diet, aortic cholesterol levels were reduced 50% in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice vs. 11ßHSD1⁺/⁺/apoE⁻/⁻ mice without changes in plasma cholesterol. Aortic 7-ketocholesterol content was reduced 40% in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice vs. control. In the aortic root, plaque size, necrotic core area and macrophage content were reduced ∼30% in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻mice. Bone marrow transplantation from 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice into apoE⁻/⁻ recipients reduced plaque area 39-46% in the thoracic aorta. In vivo foam cell formation was evaluated in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from 11ßHSD1⁺/⁺/apoE⁻/⁻ and 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice fed a Western diet for ∼5 weeks. Foam cell cholesterol levels were reduced 48% in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice vs. control. Microarray profiling of peritoneal macrophages revealed differential expression of genes involved in inflammation, stress response and energy metabolism. Several toll-like receptors (TLRs) were downregulated in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice including TLR 1, 3 and 4. Cytokine release from 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻-derived peritoneal foam cells was attenuated following challenge with oxidized LDL. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that 11ßHSD1 inhibition may have the potential to limit plaque development at the vessel wall and regulate foam cell formation independent of changes in plasma lipids. The diminished cytokine response to oxidized LDL stimulation is consistent with the reduction in TLR expression and suggests involvement of 11ßHSD1 in modulating binding of pro-atherogenic TLR ligands.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/genética , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Pressão Sanguínea , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Aterogênica , Cetocolesteróis/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
7.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 21(22): 6693-8, 2011 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21983444

RESUMO

Derived from the HTS hit 1, a series of hydroxyisoquinolines was discovered as potent and selective 11ß-HSD1 inhibitors with good cross species activity. Optimization of substituents at the 1 and 4 positions of the isoquinoline group in addition to the core modifications, with a special focus on enhancing metabolic stability and aqueous solubility, resulted in the identification of several compounds as potent advanced leads.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
J Med Chem ; 53(15): 5620-8, 2010 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20684603

RESUMO

Continued structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration within our previously disclosed azolopyrimidine containing dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors led us to focus on an imidazolopyrimidine series in particular. Further study revealed that by replacing the aryl substitution on the imidazole ring with a more polar carboxylic ester or amide, these compounds displayed not only increased DPP4 binding activity but also significantly reduced human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) and sodium channel inhibitory activities. Additional incremental adjustment of polarity led to permeable molecules which exhibited favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in preclinical animal species. The active site binding mode of these compounds was determined by X-ray crystallography as exemplified by amide 24c. A subsequent lead molecule from this series, (+)-6-(aminomethyl)-5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-ethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-7-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine-2-carboxamide (24s), emerged as a potent, selective DPP4 inhibitor that displayed excellent PK profiles and in vivo efficacy in ob/ob mice.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Imidazóis/síntese química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Cães , Canal de Potássio ERG1 , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacocinética , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Modelos Moleculares , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 20(15): 4395-8, 2010 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20598534

RESUMO

Several pyrazolo-, triazolo-, and imidazolopyrimidines were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of DPP4. Of these three classes of compounds, the imidazolopyrimidines displayed the greatest potency and demonstrated excellent selectivity over the other dipeptidyl peptidases. SAR evaluation for these scaffolds was described as they may represent potential treatments for type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteases/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
J Med Chem ; 53(7): 2854-64, 2010 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20218621

RESUMO

An 1,3-oxybenzylglycine based compound 2 (BMS-687453) was discovered to be a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist, with an EC(50) of 10 nM for human PPARalpha and approximately 410-fold selectivity vs human PPARgamma in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Similar potencies and selectivity were also observed in the full length receptor co-transfection assays. Compound 2 has negligible cross-reactivity against a panel of human nuclear hormone receptors including PPARdelta. Compound 2 demonstrated an excellent pharmacological and safety profile in preclinical studies and thus was chosen as a development candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The X-ray cocrystal structures of the early lead compound 12 and compound 2 in complex with PPARalpha ligand binding domain (LBD) were determined. The role of the crystal structure of compound 12 with PPARalpha in the development of the SAR that ultimately resulted in the discovery of compound 2 is discussed.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Oxazóis/química , Oxazóis/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/agonistas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cricetinae , Cristalografia por Raios X , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Glicina/síntese química , Glicina/química , Glicina/farmacologia , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Oxazóis/síntese química , Oxazóis/toxicidade , PPAR alfa/química , PPAR alfa/genética , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 19(5): 1451-6, 2009 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19201606

RESUMO

The design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a novel series of N-phenyl-substituted pyrrole, 1,2-pyrazole and 1,2,3-triazole acid analogs as PPAR ligands are outlined. The triazole acid analogs 3f and 4f were identified as potent dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists both in binding and functional assays in vitro. The 3-oxybenzyl triazole acetic acid analog 3f showed excellent glucose and triglyceride lowering in diabetic db/db mice.


Assuntos
Azóis/síntese química , Desenho de Drogas , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Animais , Azóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular/enzimologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
J Med Chem ; 51(9): 2722-33, 2008 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18412317

RESUMO

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase (HMGR) inhibitors, more commonly known as statins, represent the gold standard in treating hypercholesterolemia. Although statins are regarded as generally safe, they are known to cause myopathy and, in rare cases, rhabdomyolysis. Statin-dependent effects on plasma lipids are mediated through the inhibition of HMGR in the hepatocyte, whereas evidence suggests that myotoxicity is due to inhibition of HMGR within the myocyte. Thus, an inhibitor with increased selectivity for hepatocytes could potentially result in an improved therapeutic window. Implementation of a strategy that focused on in vitro potency, compound polarity, cell selectivity, and oral absorption, followed by extensive efficacy and safety modeling in guinea pig and rat, resulted in the identification of compound 1b (BMS-644950). Using this discovery pathway, we compared 1b to other marketed statins to demonstrate its outstanding efficacy and safety profile. With the potential to generate an excellent therapeutic window, 1b was advanced into clinical development.


Assuntos
Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/síntese química , Pirimidinas/síntese química , Triazóis/síntese química , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Colesterol/biossíntese , Colesterol/sangue , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Feminino , Cobaias , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/química , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/toxicidade , Técnicas In Vitro , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Células Musculares/citologia , Células Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/farmacologia , Triazóis/toxicidade
13.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 18(6): 1939-44, 2008 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18291645

RESUMO

A novel class of azetidinone acid-derived dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists has been synthesized for the treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. The preferred stereochemistry in this series for binding and functional agonist activity against both PPARalpha and PPARgamma receptors was shown to be 3S,4S. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo activities of compounds in this series are described. A high-yielding method for N-arylation of azetidinone esters is also described.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/química , Azetidinas/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/síntese química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cobre/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450 , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Canal de Potássio ERG1 , Canais de Potássio Éter-A-Go-Go/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Estrutura Molecular , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 324(2): 576-86, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17986646

RESUMO

Statins, because of their excellent efficacy and manageable safety profile, represent a key component in the current armamentarium for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Nonetheless, myopathy remains a safety concern for this important drug class. Cerivastatin was withdrawn from the market for myotoxicity safety concerns. BMS-423526 [{(3R,5S)-7-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6,7-dihydro-2-(1-methylethyl)-5H-benzo[6,7]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridin-3-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptenoic acid} sodium salt], similar to cerivastatin in potency and lipophilicity, was terminated in early clinical development due to an unacceptable myotoxicity profile. In this report, we describe the guinea pig as a model of statin-induced cholesterol lowering and myotoxicity and show that this model can distinguish statins with unacceptable myotoxicity profiles from statins with acceptable safety profiles. In our guinea pig model, both cerivastatin and BMS-423526 induced myotoxicity at doses near the ED(50) for total cholesterol (TC) lowering in plasma. In contrast, wide differences between myotoxic and TC-lowering doses were established for the currently marketed, more hydrophilic statins, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and atorvastatin. This in vivo model compared favorably to an in vitro model, which used statin inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in rat hepatocytes and L6 myoblasts as surrogates of potential efficacy and toxicity, respectively. Our conclusion is that the guinea pig is a useful preclinical in vivo model for demonstrating whether a statin is likely to have an acceptable therapeutic safety margin.


Assuntos
Cobaias/metabolismo , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Cobaias/sangue , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 321(1): 107-15, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17259449

RESUMO

There are two major defects in type 2 diabetes: 1) insulin resistance and 2) insulin deficiency due to loss of beta-cell function. Here we demonstrated that treatment with muraglitazar (a dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma activator), when initiated before or after the onset of diabetes in mice, is effective against both defects. In study 1, prediabetic db/db mice were treated for 12 weeks. The control mice developed diabetes, as evidenced by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, reduced insulin levels in the pancreas, blunted insulin response to glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance. The muraglitazar-treated mice had normal plasma glucose, and insulin levels, equivalent or higher pancreatic insulin content than normal mice, showed a robust insulin response to glucose and exhibited greater glucose tolerance. In study 2, diabetic db/db mice were treated for 4 weeks. The control mice displayed increased glucose levels, severe loss of islets, and their isolated islets secreted reduced amounts of insulin in response to glucose and exendin-4 compared with baseline. In muraglitazar-treated mice, glucose levels were reduced to normal. These mice showed reduced loss of islets, and their isolated islets secreted insulin at levels comparable to baseline. Thus, muraglitazar treatment decreased both insulin resistance and preserved beta-cell function. As a result, muraglitazar treatment, when initiated before the onset of diabetes, prevented development of diabetes and, when initiated after the onset of diabetes, prevented worsening of diabetes in db/db mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Oxazóis/farmacologia , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo C/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Progressão da Doença , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Diabetes ; 55(1): 240-8, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16380499

RESUMO

Muraglitazar, a novel dual (alpha/gamma) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activator, was investigated for its antidiabetic properties and its effects on metabolic abnormalities in genetically obese diabetic db/db mice. In db/db mice and normal mice, muraglitazar treatment modulates the expression of PPAR target genes in white adipose tissue and liver. In young hyperglycemic db/db mice, muraglitazar treatment (0.03-50 mg . kg(-1) . day(-1) for 2 weeks) results in dose-dependent reductions of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. In older hyperglycemic db/db mice, longer-term muraglitazar treatment (30 mg . kg(-1) . day(-1) for 4 weeks) prevents time-dependent deterioration of glycemic control and development of insulin deficiency. In severely hyperglycemic db/db mice, muraglitazar treatment (10 mg . kg(-1) . day(-1) for 2 weeks) improves oral glucose tolerance and reduces plasma glucose and insulin levels. In addition, treatment increases insulin content in the pancreas. Finally, muraglitazar treatment increases abnormally low plasma adiponectin levels, increases high-molecular weight adiponectin complex levels, reduces elevated plasma corticosterone levels, and lowers elevated liver lipid content in db/db mice. The overall conclusions are that in db/db mice, the novel dual (alpha/gamma) PPAR activator muraglitazar 1) exerts potent and efficacious antidiabetic effects, 2) preserves pancreatic insulin content, and 3) improves metabolic abnormalities such as hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, low adiponectin levels, and elevated corticosterone levels.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxazóis/uso terapêutico , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/agonistas , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Corticosterona/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta , Feminino , Glicina/farmacologia , Glicina/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado , Camundongos , Obesidade , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Rosiglitazona , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico
19.
J Med Chem ; 48(6): 2248-50, 2005 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15771468

RESUMO

Muraglitazar/BMS-298585 (2) has been identified as a non-thiazolidinedione PPAR alpha/gamma dual agonist that shows potent activity in vitro at human PPARalpha (EC(50) = 320 nM) and PPARgamma(EC(50) = 110 nM). Compound 2 shows excellent efficacy for lowering glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and free fatty acids in genetically obese, severely diabetic db/db mice and has a favorable ADME profile. Compound 2 is currently in clinical development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipolipemiantes/síntese química , Oxazóis/síntese química , PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR gama/agonistas , Adipócitos/citologia , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Glicina/química , Glicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Oxazóis/química , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Ativação Transcricional , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 14(20): 5067-70, 2004 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15380200

RESUMO

5-Carboxamido-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinanes have been identified as potent inhibitors of microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein. The 1,3,2-dioxaphosphorine functionality acted as a neutral and stable replacement for piperidine and piperidine N-oxide.


Assuntos
Amidas/síntese química , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxidos P-Cíclicos/síntese química , Amidas/química , Amidas/farmacologia , Animais , Benzimidazóis/química , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Cricetinae , Óxidos P-Cíclicos/química , Óxidos P-Cíclicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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