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1.
Environ Res ; 203: 111929, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a critical environmental factor for dermal conversion of vitamin D, which is suggested to support reproductive health. However, current epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results on the associations between vitamin D levels and ovarian reserve. Further, few studies have considered UV exposure and reproductive aging, which is closely related to declined ovarian reserve. OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the associations of long-term UV exposure and age at natural menopause in a large, nationwide, prospective cohort. METHODS: Participants in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) who were premenopausal at age 40 were included and followed through 2015. Erythemal UV radiation from a high-resolution geospatial model was linked to the participants' residential histories. Early-life UV was estimated using the reported state of residence at birth, age 15, and age 30. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for natural menopause, adjusting for potential confounders and predictors of menopause. RESULTS: A total of 63,801 women reported natural menopause across the 1,051,185 person-years of follow-up among 105,631 eligible participants. We found very modest associations with delayed menopause for long-term UV exposure (adjusted HR comparing highest to lowest quartile of cumulative average UV: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94, 0.99). There was a suggestive inverse association between UV at age 30 with menopause (adjusted HR comparing highest to lowest quartile: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.00) but not with UV at birth and age 15. CONCLUSIONS: Solar UV exposure in adulthood was modestly associated with later onset of menopause. Although consistent with previous findings on vitamin D intake and menopause in the same population, these weak associations found in this study may not be of clinical relevance.

2.
Environ Int ; 158: 106957, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737152

RESUMO

Exposure to traffic-related pollutants, including diesel exhaust, is associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary disease and mortality; however, the precise biochemical pathways underlying these effects are not known. To investigate biological response mechanisms underlying exposure to traffic related pollutants, we used an integrated molecular response approach that included high-resolution metabolomic profiling and peripheral blood gene expression to identify biological responses to diesel exhaust exposure. Plasma samples were collected from 73 non-smoking males employed in the US trucking industry between February 2009 and October 2010, and analyzed using untargeted high-resolution metabolomics to characterize metabolite associations with shift- and week-averaged levels of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5). Metabolic associations with EC, OC and PM2.5 were evaluated for biochemical processes known to be associated with disease risk. Annotated metabolites associated with exposure were then tested for relationships with the peripheral blood transcriptome using multivariate selection and network correlation. Week-averaged EC and OC levels, which were averaged across multiple shifts during the workweek, resulted in the greatest exposure-associated metabolic alterations compared to shift-averaged exposure levels. Metabolic changes associated with EC exposure suggest increased lipid peroxidation products, biomarkers of oxidative stress, thrombotic signaling lipids, and metabolites associated with endothelial dysfunction from altered nitric oxide metabolism, while OC exposures were associated with antioxidants, oxidative stress biomarkers and critical intermediates in nitric oxide production. Correlation with whole blood RNA gene expression provided additional evidence of changes in processes related to endothelial function, immune response, inflammation, and oxidative stress. We did not detect metabolic associations with PM2.5. This study provides an integrated molecular assessment of human exposure to traffic-related air pollutants that includes diesel exhaust. Metabolite and transcriptomic changes associated with exposure to EC and OC are consistent with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and the adverse health effects of traffic-related air pollution.

3.
Environ Res ; : 112195, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aircraft noise can affect populations living near airports. Chronic exposure to aircraft noise has been associated with cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. However, previous studies have been limited in their ability to characterize noise exposures over time and to adequately control for confounders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association between aircraft noise and incident hypertension in two cohorts of female nurses, using aircraft noise exposure estimates with high spatial resolution over a 20-year period. METHODS: We obtained contour maps of modeled aircraft noise levels over time for 90 U.S. airports and linked them with geocoded addresses of participants in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) to assign noise exposure for 1994-2014 and 1995-2013, respectively. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hypertension risk associated with time-varying noise exposure (dichotomized at 45 and 55 dB(A)), adjusting for fixed and time-varying confounders. Results from both cohorts were pooled via random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: In meta-analyses of parsimonious and fully-adjusted models with aircraft noise dichotomized at 45 dB(A), hazard ratios (HR) for hypertension incidence were 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07) and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.07), respectively. When dichotomized at 55 dB(A), HRs were 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.19) and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.15), respectively. After conducting fully-adjusted sensitivity analyses limited to years in which particulate matter (PM) was obtained, we observed similar findings. In NHS, the PM-unadjusted HR was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.14) and PM-adjusted HR was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.14); in NHS II, the PM-unadjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.22) and the PM-adjusted HR was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.21). Overall, in these cohorts, we found marginally suggestive evidence of a positive association between aircraft noise exposure and hypertension.

4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(9): 97007, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Short-term exposures to air pollution have been associated with AF triggering; less is known regarding associations between long-term air pollution exposures and AF incidence. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the association between long-term exposures to air pollution and distance to road on incidence of AF in a cohort of U.S. women. METHODS: We assessed the association of high resolution spatiotemporal model predictions of long-term exposures to particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and distance to major roads with incidence of AF diagnosis, identified through Medicare linkage, among 83,117 women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative cohort, followed from enrollment in Medicare through December 2012, incidence of AF, or death. Using time-varying Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, study component, body mass index, physical activity, menopausal hormone therapy, smoking, diet quality, alcohol consumption, educational attainment, and neighborhood socioeconomic status, we estimated the relative risk of incident AF in association with each pollutant. RESULTS: A total of 16,348 incident AF cases were observed over 660,236 person-years of follow-up. Most exposure-response associations were nonlinear. NO2 was associated with risk of AF in multivariable adjusted models [Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 1.24, comparing the top to bottom quartile, p-for-trend=<0.0001]. Women living closer to roadways were at higher risk of AF (e.g., HR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.13 for living within 50m of A3 roads, compared with ≥1,000 m, p-for-trend=0.02), but we did not observe adverse associations with exposures to PM10, PM2.5, or SO2. There were adverse associations with PM10 (top quartile HR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.16, p-for-trend=<0.0001) and PM2.5 (top quartile HR=1.09; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.14, p-for-trend=0.002) in sensitivity models adjusting for census region. DISCUSSION: In this study of postmenopausal women, NO2 and distance to road were consistently associated with higher risk of AF. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7683.

5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(11): 913-920, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify adequacy of personal protective equipment (PPE) for U.S. healthcare personnel (HCP) at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with infection risk. METHODS: March-May 2020 survey of the national Nurses' Health Studies and the Growing Up Today study regarding self-reported PPE access, use, and reuse. COVID-19 endpoints included SARS-CoV-2 tests and COVID-19 status predicted from symptoms. RESULTS: Nearly 22% of 22,232 frontline HCP interacting with COVID-19 patients reported sometimes or always lacking PPE. Fifty percent of HCP reported not needing respirators, including 13% of those working in COVID-19 units. Lack of PPE was cross-sectionally associated with two-fold or greater odds of COVID-19 among those who interacted with infected patients. CONCLUSION: These data show the need to improve the U.S. infection prevention culture of safety when confronting a novel pathogen.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pessoal de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Environ Int ; 156: 106715, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have observed associations between long-term air pollution and cardiovascular disease hospitalization. Little is known, however, about effect modification of these associations by greenness, temperature and humidity. METHODS: We constructed an open cohort consisting of all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, aged ≥ 65, living in the contiguous US from 2000 through 2016 (~63 million individuals). We assigned annual average PM2.5, NO2 and ozone zip code concentrations. Cox-equivalent Poisson models were used to estimate associations with first cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBV) hospitalization. RESULTS: PM2.5 and NO2 were both positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization, after adjustment for potential confounders. Associations were substantially stronger at the lower end of the exposure distributions. For CVD hospitalization, the hazard ratio (HR) of PM2.5 was 1.041 (1.038, 1.045) per IQR increase (4.0 µg/m3) in the full study population and 1.327 (1.305, 1.350) per IQR increase for a subgroup with annual exposures always below 10 µg/m3 PM2.5. Ozone was only positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization for the low-exposure subgroup (<40 ppb). Associations of PM2.5 were stronger in areas with higher greenness, lower ozone and Ox, lower summer and winter temperature and lower summer and winter specific humidity. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 and NO2 were positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization. Associations were more pronounced at low exposure levels. Associations of PM2.5 were stronger with higher greenness, lower ozone and Ox, lower temperature and lower specific humidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Umidade , Medicare , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Temperatura , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Environ Int ; 156: 106744, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventionally grown fruits and vegetables (FVs) are the main source of general population exposure to pesticide residues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation of intake of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with cancer risk. METHODS: We followed 150,830 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1998-2016, and Nurses' Health Study II, 1999-2017) and 29,486 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1998-2016) without a history of cancer. We ascertained FV intake via validated food frequency questionnaires and categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residue levels based on USDA surveillance data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total and site-specific cancer related to quintiles of high- and low-pesticide-residue FV intake. RESULTS: We documented 23,678 incident cancer cases during 2,862,118 person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable analysis, neither high- nor low-pesticide-residue FV intake was associated with cancer. The HRs (95% CI) per 1 serving/day increase in intake were 0.99 (0.97-1.01) for high- and 1.01 (0.99-1.02) for low-pesticide-residue FVs. Additionally, we found no association between high-pesticide-residue FV intake and risk of specific sites, including malignancies previously linked to occupational pesticide exposure ([HR, 95% CI comparing extreme quintiles of intake] lung [1.17 (0.95-1.43)], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [0.89 (0.72-1.09)], prostate [1.31 (0.88-1.93)]) or inversely related to intake of organic foods (breasts [1.03 (0.94-1.31)]). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that overall exposure to pesticides through FV intake is not related to cancer risk, although they do not rule out associations with specific chemicals or sub-types of specific cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Dieta , Seguimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Verduras
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3737, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145289

RESUMO

Given the continued burden of COVID-19 worldwide, there is a high unmet need for data on the effect of social distancing and face mask use to mitigate the risk of COVID-19. We examined the association of community-level social distancing measures and individual face mask use with risk of predicted COVID-19 in a large prospective U.S. cohort study of 198,077 participants. Individuals living in communities with the greatest social distancing had a 31% lower risk of predicted COVID-19 compared with those living in communities with poor social distancing. Self-reported 'always' use of face mask was associated with a 62% reduced risk of predicted COVID-19 even among individuals living in a community with poor social distancing. These findings provide support for the efficacy of mask-wearing even in settings of poor social distancing in reducing COVID-19 transmission. Despite mass vaccination campaigns in many parts of the world, continued efforts at social distancing and face mask use remain critically important in reducing the spread of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Distanciamento Físico , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Fertil Steril ; 116(4): 1052-1060, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between ambient temperature and antral follicle count (AFC), a standard measure of ovarian reserve. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Fertility center at an academic hospital in the northeastern United States. PATIENT(S): 631 women attending the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center (2005-2015) who participated in the Environment and Reproductive Health Study. INTERVENTION(S): Daily temperature at the women's residential address was estimated for the 90 days before their antral follicle scan using a spatially refined gridded climate data set. We evaluated the associations between temperature and AFC using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, adjusting for relative humidity, fine particulate matter exposure, age, education, smoking status, year and month of AFC, and diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve and ovulation disorders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Antral follicle count as measured with transvaginal ultrasonography. RESULT(S): A 1°C increase in average maximum temperature during the 90 days before ovarian reserve testing was associated with a -1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8, -0.4) lower AFC. Associations remained negative, but were attenuated, for average maximum temperature exposure in the 30 days (-0.9%, 95% CI, -1.8, 0.1) and 14 days (-0.8%, 95% CI, -1.6, 0.0) before AFC. The negative association between average maximum temperature and AFC was stronger in November through June than during the summer months, suggesting that timing of heat exposure and acclimatization to heat may be important factors to consider in future research. CONCLUSION(S): Exposure to higher temperatures was associated with lower ovarian reserve. These results raise concern that rising ambient temperatures worldwide may result in accelerated reproductive aging among women.


Assuntos
Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Reserva Ovariana , Ovário/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Adulto , Boston , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/fisiopatologia , Folículo Ovariano/diagnóstico por imagem , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia
10.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e154, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131615

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested noise, especially at night time, and light at night (LAN) could cause neuroendocrine disturbance and circadian disruption, which may lead to ovarian follicle atresia and earlier onset of menopause. However, no study to date has directly investigated the associations of exposure to these factors and menopausal age. Methods: Premenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II) were followed from age 40 through 2015. Median daytime and nighttime anthropogenic noise and outdoor LAN exposure were measured from a geospatial prediction model and satellite images, respectively, at residential addresses throughout the follow-up. Time-varying Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for individual lifestyle, reproductive history, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors. Possible effect modification by region, smoking status, body mass index, race/ethnicity, history of rotating shift work, and census tract population density and median income was examined. Results: A total of 63,380 of 105,326 women self-reported natural menopause during 1,043,298 person-years of follow-up. No associations were found for noise (both daytime and nighttime) and outdoor LAN exposure with age at natural menopause (hazard ratios = 0.99-1.00) in the fully adjusted models. Sensitivity analyses showed similar null associations. No meaningful effect modification was found for region, smoking status, body mass index, race/ethnicity, history of rotating shift work, and census tract socioeconomic measures in stratified analyses. Conclusion: No associations were found between environmental noise and outdoor LAN exposure in mid-adulthood and menopausal age in this cohort of US women.

11.
Environ Res ; 199: 111331, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an infectious disease that has killed more than 555,000 people in the US. During a time of social distancing measures and increasing social isolation, green spaces may be a crucial factor to maintain a physically and socially active lifestyle while not increasing risk of infection. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether greenness was related to COVID-19 incidence and mortality in the US. METHODS: We downloaded data on COVID-19 cases and deaths for each US county up through June 7, 2020, from Johns Hopkins University, Center for Systems Science and Engineering Coronavirus Resource Center. We used April-May 2020 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, to represent the greenness exposure during the initial COVID-19 outbreak in the US. We fitted negative binomial mixed models to evaluate associations of NDVI with COVID-19 incidence and mortality, adjusting for potential confounders such as county-level demographics, epidemic stage, and other environmental factors. We evaluated whether the associations were modified by population density, proportion of Black residents, median home value, and issuance of stay-at-home orders. RESULTS: An increase of 0.1 in NDVI was associated with a 6% (95% Confidence Interval: 3%, 10%) decrease in COVID-19 incidence rate after adjustment for potential confounders. Associations with COVID-19 incidence were stronger in counties with high population density and in counties with stay-at-home orders. Greenness was not associated with COVID-19 mortality in all counties; however, it was protective in counties with higher population density. DISCUSSION: Exposures to NDVI were associated with reduced county-level incidence of COVID-19 in the US as well as reduced county-level COVID-19 mortality rates in densely populated counties.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Incidência , Densidade Demográfica , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946197

RESUMO

There is extensive empirical literature on the association between exposure to nature and health. In this narrative review, we discuss the strength of evidence from recent (i.e., the last decade) experimental and observational studies on nature exposure and health, highlighting research on children and youth where possible. We found evidence for associations between nature exposure and improved cognitive function, brain activity, blood pressure, mental health, physical activity, and sleep. Results from experimental studies provide evidence of protective effects of exposure to natural environments on mental health outcomes and cognitive function. Cross-sectional observational studies provide evidence of positive associations between nature exposure and increased levels of physical activity and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, and longitudinal observational studies are beginning to assess long-term effects of nature exposure on depression, anxiety, cognitive function, and chronic disease. Limitations of current knowledge include inconsistent measures of exposure to nature, the impacts of the type and quality of green space, and health effects of duration and frequency of exposure. Future directions include incorporation of more rigorous study designs, investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the association between green space and health, advancement of exposure assessment, and evaluation of sensitive periods in the early life-course.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924490

RESUMO

While many studies suggest evidence for the health benefits of nature, there is currently no standardized method to measure time spent in nature or nature contact, nor agreement on how best to define nature contact in research. The purpose of this review is to summarize how nature contact has been measured in recent health research and provide insight into current metrics of exposure to nature at individual and population scales. The most common methods include surrounding greenness, questionnaires, and global positioning systems (GPS) tracking. Several national-level surveys exist, though these are limited by their cross-sectional design, often measuring only a single component of time spent in nature, and poor links to measures of health. In future research, exposure assessment combining the quantifying (e.g., time spent in nature and frequency of visits to nature) and qualifying (e.g., greenness by the normalized difference of vegetation index (NDVI) and ratings on perception by individuals) aspects of current methods and leveraging innovative methods (e.g., experience sampling methods, ecological momentary assessment) will provide a more comprehensive understanding of the health effects of nature exposure and inform health policy and urban planning.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924821

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health emergency. Social distancing is a key approach to slowing disease transmission. However, more evidence is needed on its efficacy, and little is known on the types of areas where it is more or less effective. We obtained county-level data on COVID-19 incidence and mortality during the first wave, smartphone-based average social distancing (0-5, where higher numbers indicate more social distancing), and census data on demographics and socioeconomic status. Using generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson distribution, we modeled associations between social distancing and COVID-19 incidence and mortality, and multiplicative interaction terms to assess effect modification. In multivariable models, each unit increase in social distancing was associated with a 26% decrease (p < 0.0001) in COVID-19 incidence and a 31% decrease (p < 0.0001) in COVID-19 mortality. Percent crowding, minority population, and median household income were all statistically significant effect modifiers. County-level increases in social distancing led to reductions in COVID-19 incidence and mortality but were most effective in counties with lower percentages of black residents, higher median household incomes, and with lower levels of household crowding.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aglomeração , Características da Família , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Classe Social
15.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(9): e12781, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are concerns that fruit juice and milk contribute to childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: Determine the relationship between fruit juice and milk intakes and body mass index (BMI) change among preadolescents/adolescents. METHODS: Participants aged 9 to 16 years old from the Growing Up Today Study II completed surveys including validated food frequency questionnaires in 2004, 2006 and 2008. The contributions of one serving of juice or milk to total energy intake and 2-year change in BMI were evaluated using multiple linear regression. Additional analyses were conducted with subgroups of juice (orange juice and other fruit juice) and milk (low fat and high fat). Missing values for BMI were imputed using a multiple imputation approach, after which data from 8173 participants and 13 717 2-year interval observations were analysed. RESULTS: Baseline fruit juice consumption was inversely associated with BMI change in girls (ß = -.102 kg/m2 , SE = 0.038, P value = .008) but not boys after controlling for race, age, baseline BMI, and baseline and 2-year changes in total energy intake and physical activity. Orange juice was inversely associated with BMI change among girls (ß = -.137 kg/m2 , SE = 0.053, P value = .010) while other fruit juice, low fat and high fat milk were not associated with BMI change. CONCLUSION: Orange juice was inversely associated with 2-year BMI change among preadolescent/adolescent girls but not boys and there were no significant associations with other juices or milk among either gender.

16.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(1): e125, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778358

RESUMO

Anemia is highly prevalent in India, especially in children. Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a potential risk factor for anemia via. systemic inflammation. Using health data from the National Family and Health Survey 2015-2016, we examined the association between ambient PM2.5 exposure and anemia in children under five across India through district-level ecological and individual-level analyses. Methods: The ecological analysis assessed average hemoglobin levels and anemia prevalence (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL considered anemic) by district using multiple linear regression models. The individual-level analysis assessed average individual hemoglobin level and anemia status (yes/no) using generalized linear mixed models to account for clustering by district. Ambient PM2.5 exposure data were derived from the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) level 2 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data and averaged from birth date to date of interview. Results: The district-level ecological analysis found that, for every 10 µg m-3 increase in ambient PM2.5 exposure, average anemia prevalence increased by 1.90% (95% CI = 1.43, 2.36) and average hemoglobin decreased by 0.07 g/dL (95% CI = 0.09, 0.05). At the individual level, for every 10 µg m-3 increase in ambient PM2.5 exposure, average hemoglobin decreased by 0.14 g/dL (95% CI = 0.12, 0.16). The odds ratio associated with a 10-µg m-3 increase in ambient PM2.5 exposure was 1.09 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.11). There was evidence of effect modification by wealth index, maternal anemia status, and child BMI. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ambient PM2.5 exposure could be linked to anemia in Indian children, although additional research on the underlying biologic mechanisms is needed. Future studies on this association should specifically consider interactions with dietary iron deficiency, maternal anemia status, and child BMI.Keywords: Anemia; Children; Ambient PM2.5 exposure; India; Association.

17.
Environ Int ; 151: 106445, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618328

RESUMO

Iraq and Kuwait are in a region of the world known to be impacted by high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) attributable to sources that include desert dust and ambient pollution, but historically have had limited pollution monitoring networks. The inability to assess PM2.5 concentrations have limited the assessment of the health impact of these exposures, both in the native populations and previously deployed military personnel. As part of a Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program health study of land-based U.S. military personnel who were previously deployed to these countries, we developed a novel approach to estimate spatially and temporarily resolved daily PM2.5 exposures 2001-2018. Since visibility is proportional to ground-level particulate matter concentrations, we were able to take advantage of extensive airport visibility data that became available as a result of regional military operations over this time period. First, we combined a random forest machine learning and a generalized additive mixed model to estimate daily high resolution (1 km × 1 km) visibility over the region using satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) and airport visibility data. The spatially and temporarily resolved visibility data were then used to estimate PM2.5 concentrations from 2001 to 2018 by converting visibility to PM2.5 using empirical relationships derived from available regional PM2.5 monitoring stations. We adjusted for spatially resolved meteorological parameters, land use variables, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and satellite-derived estimates of surface dust as a measure of sandstorm activity. Cross validation indicated good model predictive ability (R2 = 0.71), and there were considerable spatial and temporal differences in PM2.5 across the region. Annual average PM2.5 predictions for Iraq and Kuwait were 37 and 41 µg/m3, respectively, which are greater than current U.S. and WHO standards. PM2.5 concentrations in many U.S. bases and large cities (e.g. Bagdad, Balad, Kuwait city, Karbala, Najaf, and Diwaniya) had annual average PM2.5 concentrations above 45 µg/m3 with weekly averages as high as 150 µg/m3 depending on calendar year. The highest annual PM2.5 concentration for both Kuwait and Iraq were observed in 2008, followed by 2009, which was associated with extreme drought in these years. The lowest PM2.5 values were observed in 2014. On average, July had the highest concentrations, and November had the lowest values, consistent with seasonal patterns of air pollution in this region. This is the first study that estimates long-term PM2.5 exposures in Iraq and Kuwait at a high resolution based on measurements data that will allow the study of health effects and contribute to the development of regional environmental policies. The novel approach demonstrated may be used in other parts of the world with limited monitoring networks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Iraque , Kuweit , Aprendizado de Máquina , Material Particulado/análise , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
18.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 31(4): 727-735, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015432

RESUMO

Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) radioactivity is an important pathway of ionizing radiation exposure. We investigated the associations between short-term exposures to PM gamma radioactivity with oxidative stress in COPD patients. Urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) of 81 COPD patients from Eastern Massachusetts were measured 1-4 times during 2012-2014. Daily ambient and indoor PM gamma activities (gamma-3 through gamma-9) were calculated based on EPA RadNet data and indoor-outdoor infiltration ratios. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the associations between biomarkers with PM gamma activities for moving averages from urine collection day to 7 days before. Our results indicate that ambient and indoor PM gamma activities were positively associated with 8-OHdG, with stronger effects for exposure windows closer to urine collection day. For per interquartile range increase in indoor PM gamma activities averaged over urine collection day and 1 day before, 8-OHdG increased from 3.41% (95% CI: -0.88, 7.88) to 8.87% (95% CI: 2.98, 15.1), adjusted for indoor black carbon. For MDA, the timing of greatest effects across the exposure week varied but was nearly all positive. These findings provide insight into the toxigenic properties associated with PM radioactivity and suggest that these exposures promote systemic oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomarcadores , Raios gama , Humanos , Massachusetts , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116216, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316492

RESUMO

Evidence has shown associations between air pollution and traffic-related exposure with accelerated aging, but no study to date has linked the exposure with age at natural menopause, an important indicator of reproductive aging. In this study, we sought to examine the associations of residential exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and distance to major roadways with age at natural menopause in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II), a large, prospective female cohort in US. A total of 105,996 premenopausal participants in NHS II were included at age 40 and followed through 2015. Time-varying residential exposures to PM10, PM2.5-10, and PM2.5 and distance to roads was estimated. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for natural menopause using Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders and predictors of age at menopause. We also examined effect modification by region, smoking, body mass, physical activity, menstrual cycle length, and population density. There were 64,340 reports of natural menopause throughout 1,059,229 person-years of follow-up. In fully adjusted models, a 10 µg/m3 increase in the cumulative average exposure to PM10 (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04), PM2.5-10 (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05), and PM2.5 (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.06) and living within 50 m to a major road at age 40 (HR: 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.06) were associated with slightly earlier menopause. No statistically significant effect modification was found, although the associations of PM were slightly stronger for women who lived in the West and for never smokers. To conclude, we found exposure to ambient PM and traffic in midlife was associated with slightly earlier onset of natural menopause. Our results support previous evidence that exposure to air pollution and traffic may accelerate reproductive aging.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Menopausa , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260804

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth has health implications both in childhood and adulthood. Birthweight is partially determined by prenatal environmental exposures. We aim to identify important predictors of birthweight out of a set of environmental, built environment exposures, and socioeconomic environment variables during pregnancy (i.e., fine particulate matter (PM2.5), temperature, greenness, walkability, noise, and economic indices). We included all singleton live births of mothers who resided in urban census block-groups and delivered in Massachusetts between 2001 and 2011 (n = 640,659). We used an elastic-net model to select important predictors of birthweight and constructed a multivariate model including the selected predictors, with adjustment for confounders. We additionally used a weighted quantile sum regression to assess the contribution of each exposure to differences in birthweight. All exposures were selected as important predictors of birthweight. In the multivariate model, lower birthweight was significantly associated with lower greenness and with higher temperature, walkability, noise, and segregation of the "high income" group. Treating the exposures individually, nighttime noise had the highest weight in its contribution to lower birthweight. In conclusion, after accounting for individual confounders, maternal environmental exposures, built environment exposures, and socioeconomic environment during pregnancy were important predictors of birthweight, emphasizing the role of these exposures in fetal growth and development.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Peso ao Nascer , Ambiente Construído , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , População Urbana , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Gravidez
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