Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 184
Filtrar
1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120030420, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423514
2.
Circulation ; 142(24): 2371-2388, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315494

RESUMO

Ischemic strokes related to atrial fibrillation are highly prevalent, presenting with severe neurologic syndromes and associated with high risk of recurrence. Although advances have been made in both primary and secondary stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation, the long-term risks for stroke recurrence and bleeding complications from antithrombotic treatment remain substantial. We summarize the major advances in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation during the past 30 years and focus on novel diagnostic and treatment approaches currently under investigation in ongoing clinical trials. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants have been proven to be safer and equally effective compared with warfarin in stroke prevention for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are being investigated for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation and rheumatic heart disease, for the treatment of patients with recent embolic stroke of undetermined source and indirect evidence of cardiac embolism, and in the prevention of vascular-mediated cognitive decline in patients with atrial fibrillation. Multiple clinical trials are assessing the optimal timing of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant initiation after a recent ischemic stroke and the benefit:harm ratio of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation and history of previous intracranial bleeding. Ongoing trials are addressing the usefulness of left atrial appendage occlusion in both primary and secondary stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation, including those with high risk of bleeding. The additive value of prolonged cardiac monitoring for subclinical atrial fibrillation detection through smartphone applications or implantable cardiac devices, together with the optimal medical management of individuals with covert paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, is a topic of intensive research interest. Colchicine treatment and factor XIa inhibition constitute 2 novel pharmacologic approaches that might provide future treatment options in the secondary prevention of cardioembolic stroke attributable to atrial fibrillation.

3.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 22(Suppl I): I13-I21, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093818

RESUMO

The aims of this article are to review the evidence regarding the use of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for secondary stroke prevention as compared to vitamin K antagonists in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and in patients with embolic strokes of uncertain source (ESUS), and when to initiate or resume anticoagulation after an ischaemic stroke or intracranial haemorrhage. Four large trials compared NOACs with warfarin in patients with AF. In our meta-analyses, the rate of all stroke or systemic embolism (SE) was 4.94% with NOACs vs. 5.73% with warfarin. Among the patients with AF and previous transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke, the rate of haemorrhagic stroke was halved with a NOAC vs. warfarin, and the rate of major bleeding was 5.7% with a NOAC vs. 6.4% with warfarin. There was no significant difference in mortality. In a trial comparing apixaban with aspirin in patients with AF, the rate of stroke or SE was 2.4% at 1 year with apixaban vs. 9.2% at 1 year with aspirin and the rates of major bleeding were 4.1% with apixaban vs. 2.9% with aspirin. Data from registries confirmed the results from the randomized trials. Initiation or resumption of anticoagulation after ischaemic stroke or cerebral haemorrhage depends on the size and severity of stroke and the risk of recurrent bleeding. Two large trials tested the hypothesis that NOACs are more effective than 100 mg aspirin in patients with ESUS. Neither trial showed a significant benefit of the NOAC over aspirin. In the meta-analysis, the rate all stroke or SE was 4.94% with NOACs vs. 5.73% with warfarin and the rate of haemorrhagic stroke was halved with a NOAC. The four NOACs had broadly similar efficacy for the major outcomes in secondary stroke prevention.

4.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074284

RESUMO

Importance: The reported associations of cerebral microbleeds with recurrent stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage have raised concerns regarding antithrombotic treatment in patients with a history of stroke and microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. Objective: To characterize microbleeds in embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS) and report interactions between microbleeds and the effects of random assignment to anticoagulant vs antiplatelet therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Subgroup analyses of the New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial vs Aspirin to Prevent Embolism in ESUS (NAVIGATE ESUS) international, double-blind, randomized, event-driven phase 3 clinical trial. Participants were enrolled between December 2014 and September 2017 and followed up for a median of 11 months. The study setting included 459 stroke recruitment centers in 31 countries. Patients aged 50 years or older who had neuroimaging-confirmed ESUS between 7 days and 6 months before screening were eligible. Of these 7213 NAVIGATE ESUS participants, 3699 (51%) had information on cerebral microbleeds reported on their baseline clinical magnetic resonance imaging and were eligible for these analyses. Patients with a prior history of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded from the NAVIGATE ESUS trial. Interventions: Rivaroxaban, 15 mg, compared with aspirin, 100 mg, daily. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was recurrent stroke. Secondary outcomes were ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and all-cause mortality. Results: Microbleeds were present in 395 of 3699 participants (11%). Of patients with cerebral microbleeds, mean (SD) age was 69.5 (9.4) years, 241 were men (61%), and 201 were White (51%). Advancing age (odds ratio [OR] per year, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), East Asian race/ethnicity (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.04-2.37), hypertension (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.54-3.15), multiterritorial infarcts (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.42-2.67), chronic infarcts (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.42-2.23), and occult intracerebral hemorrhage (OR, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.76-9.90) were independently associated with microbleeds. The presence of microbleeds was associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk of recurrent stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.3), a 4-fold risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.3-13.9), a 2-fold risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3), and strictly lobar microbleeds with an approximately 2.5-fold risk of ischemic stroke (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3). There were no interactions between microbleeds and treatment assignments for recurrent stroke, ischemic stroke, or all-cause mortality. The HR of intracerebral hemorrhage on rivaroxaban was similar between persons with microbleeds (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 0.3-30.0) and persons without microbleeds (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.6-14.7; interaction P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance: Microbleeds mark an increased risk of recurrent stroke, ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and mortality in ESUS but do not appear to influence effects of rivaroxaban on clinical outcomes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313909.

5.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2901-2909, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Covert brain infarcts are associated with cognitive decline. It is not known whether therapies that prevent symptomatic stroke prevent covert infarcts. COMPASS compared rivaroxaban with and without aspirin with aspirin for the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in participants with stable vascular disease and was terminated early because of benefits of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin over aspirin. We obtained serial magnetic resonance imagings and cognitive tests in a consenting subgroup of COMPASS patients to examine treatment effects on infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were completed in 1445 participants with a mean (SD) interval of 2.0 (0.7) years. Whole-brain T1, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2* sequences were centrally interpreted by blinded, trained readers. Participants had serial measurements of cognition and function. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with incident covert infarcts. Secondary end points were the composite of clinical stroke and covert brain infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. RESULTS: At baseline, 493 (34.1%) participants had infarcts. Incident covert infarcts occurred in 55 (3.8%) participants. In the overall trial rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced ischemic stroke by 49% (0.7% versus 1.4%; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.51 [0.38-0.68]). In the magnetic resonance imaging substudy the effects of rivaroxaban+aspirin versus aspirin were: covert infarcts: 2.7% versus 3.5% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.77 [0.37-1.60]); Covert infarcts or ischemic stroke: 2.9% versus 5.3% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.27-1.03]). Incident microbleeds occurred in 6.6% of participants and 65.7% of participants had an increase in white matter hyperintensities volume with no effect of treatment for either end point. There was no effect on cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Covert infarcts were not significantly reduced by treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin but estimates for the combination of ischemic stroke and covert infarcts were consistent with the effect on ischemic stroke in the overall trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Infarto Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Neurology ; 95(5): e480-e487, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Subdural hematomas (SDHs) are an uncommon, but important, complication of anticoagulation therapy. We hypothesized that the risks of SDH would be similar during treatment with oral factor Xa inhibitors compared with aspirin. METHODS: We assessed the frequency and the effects of antithrombotic treatments on SDHs in the recent international Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) randomized trial comparing aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, and rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin. A systematic review/meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing oral factor Xa inhibitors vs aspirin on SDH risk was undertaken. RESULTS: Among 27,395 COMPASS participants, 28 patients with SDHs were identified (mean age 72 years). SDH-associated mortality was 7%. Incidence was 0.06 per 100 patient-years (11 SDH/17,492 years observation) during the mean 23-month follow-up among aspirin-assigned patients and did not differ significantly between treatments. Three additional randomized controlled trials including 16,177 participants reported a total of 14 SDHs with an incidence ranging from 0.06 to 0.1 per 100 patient-years. Factor Xa inhibitor use was not associated with an increased risk of SDH compared to aspirin (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.81; I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: The frequency of SDH was similar in all 3 treatment arms of the COMPASS trial. The COMPASS trial results markedly increase the available evidence from randomized comparisons of oral factor Xa inhibitors with aspirin regarding SDH. From available, albeit limited, evidence from 4 randomized trials, therapeutic dosages of factor Xa inhibitors do not appear to increase the risk of SDH compared with aspirin. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER NUMBER: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/induzido quimicamente , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104936, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis are associated with ischemic stroke. We report frequency and response to anticoagulant vs. antiplatelet prophylaxis of patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) who have non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of the international NAVIGATE ESUS randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15mg daily with aspirin 100mg daily in 7213 patients with recent ESUS. Among participants with results of intracranial arterial imaging with either computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), the frequency and predictors of non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis and responses to antithrombotic therapy were assessed. RESULTS: Among 4723 participants with available intracranial CTA or MRA results (65% of the trial cohort), the prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis was 16% (n=739). Patient features independently associated with intracranial atherosclerosis included East Asian region (odds ratio 2.7, 95%CI 2.2,3.3) and cervical carotid plaque (odds ratio 2.3, 95%CI 1.9,2.7), among others. The rate of recurrent ischemic stroke averaged 4.8%/year among those with intracranial atherosclerosis vs. 5.0.%/year for those without (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.65, 1.4). Among those with intracranial atherosclerosis, the recurrent ischemic stroke rate was higher if assigned to rivaroxaban (5.8%/year) vs. aspirin (3.7%/year), but the difference was not statistically significant (HR 1.6, 95%CI 0.78, 3.3). There was trend for the effect of antithrombotic treatments to be different according to the presence or absence of intracranial atherosclerosis (pinteraction=0.09). Among participants with evidence of systemic atherosclerosis by either history or imaging (n=3820), recurrent ischemic stroke rates were similar among those assigned to rivaroxaban (5.5%/year) vs. aspirin (4.9%/year)(HR 1.1, 95%CI 0.84, 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: East Asia region was the strongest factor associated with intracranial atherosclerosis. There were no statistically significant differences between rivaroxaban and aspirin prophylaxis for recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628266

RESUMO

Importance: The concept of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) unifies a subgroup of cryptogenic strokes based on neuroimaging, a defined minimum set of diagnostic tests, and exclusion of certain causes. Despite an annual stroke recurrence rate of 5%, little is known about the etiology underlying recurrent stroke after ESUS. Objective: To identify the stroke subtype of recurrent ischemic strokes after ESUS, to explore the interaction with treatment assignment in each category, and to examine the consistency of cerebral location of qualifying ESUS and recurrent ischemic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: The NAVIGATE-ESUS trial was a randomized clinical trial conducted from December 23, 2014, to October 5, 2017. The trial compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban and aspirin in patients with recent ESUS (n = 7213). Ischemic stroke was validated in 309 of the 7213 patients by adjudicators blinded to treatment assignment and classified by local investigators into the categories ESUS or non-ESUS (ie, cardioembolic, atherosclerotic, lacunar, other determined cause, or insufficient testing). Five patients with recurrent strokes that could not be defined as ischemic or hemorrhagic in absence of neuroimaging or autopsy were excluded. Data for this secondary post hoc analysis were analyzed from March to June 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban, 15 mg/d, or aspirin, 100 mg/d. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of recurrent ESUS with stroke characteristics. Results: A total of 309 patients (205 men [66%]; mean [SD] age, 68 [10] years) had ischemic stroke identified during the median follow-up of 11 (interquartile range [IQR], 12) months (annualized rate, 4.6%). Diagnostic testing was insufficient for etiological classification in 39 patients (13%). Of 270 classifiable ischemic strokes, 156 (58%) were ESUS and 114 (42%) were non-ESUS (37 [32%] cardioembolic, 26 [23%] atherosclerotic, 35 [31%] lacunar, and 16 [14%] other determined cause). Atrial fibrillation was found in 27 patients (9%) with recurrent ischemic stroke and was associated with higher morbidity (median change in modified Rankin scale score 2 [IQR, 3] vs 0 (IQR, 1]) and mortality (15% vs 1%) than other causes. Risk of recurrence did not differ significantly by subtype between treatment groups. For both the qualifying and recurrent strokes, location of infarct was more often in the left (46% and 54%, respectively) than right hemisphere (40% and 37%, respectively) or brainstem or cerebellum (14% and 9%, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of randomized clinical trial data, most recurrent strokes after ESUS were embolic and of undetermined source. Recurrences associated with atrial fibrillation were a minority but were more often disabling and fatal. More extensive investigation to identify the embolic source is important toward an effective antithrombotic strategy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02313909.

9.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716473

RESUMO

Importance: Even with currently available therapies and lifestyle modifications following an ischemic stroke, there remains a substantial residual lifetime risk of stroke recurrence and cardiovascular morbidity. This review summarizes emerging novel therapeutic approaches that have demonstrated signals of efficacy for prevention of noncardioembolic stroke from phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and provides an overview of drug regimens that have had promising results in primary stroke prevention and could be considered for further evaluation. Observations: After a minor acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, patients bear a high cardiovascular risk that is insufficiently addressed by long-term antiplatelet treatment. The potent combination of low-dose rivaroxaban with aspirin as an antithrombotic option for the secondary prevention in patients with clinical atherosclerosis and a history of previous stroke warrants further study. Two international RCTs are currently evaluating the utility of oral factor XI inhibitors combined with antiplatelets for secondary, noncardioembolic ischemic stroke prevention. Aggressive lipid management with statins has been shown to ameliorate ischemic stroke recurrence and total cardiovascular risk. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors are drug regimens that researchers have suggested confer additional protection against stroke recurrence, while antisense oligonucleotide therapies targeting lipoprotein(a) have been reported to hold great promise as a future therapeutic strategy to decrease the residual cardiovascular risk mediated through lipoprotein(a). Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are newer antidiabetic medications, recently highlighted because of their consistently greater benefit on stroke reduction compared with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: There are currently several exciting emerging opportunities in secondary stroke prevention, with RCTs investigating novel antithrombotic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic agents with novel mechanisms that are likely to reduce the future burden of recurrent stroke.

10.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2139-2147, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Risks, sites, and predictors of major bleeding during antithrombotic therapies have not been well defined for patients with recent embolic stroke of undetermined source. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of major bleeds defined by International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis criteria occurring among 7213 participants in international NAVIGATE (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial) embolic stroke of undetermined source randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15 mg daily with aspirin 100 mg daily. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 months, 85 major bleeds occurred. The most frequent site was gastrointestinal (38%), followed by intracranial (29%). Assignment to rivaroxaban (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7 [95% CI, 1.7-4.3]), East Asia region (HR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.6-3.9]), systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg (HR, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.2-3.8]), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (HR, 1.2 per 10 mL/min per 1.73 m2 decrease, [95% CI, 1.0-1.3]) were independently associated with presence of major bleeds. Five (6%) were fatal. Among 15 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 (13%) were fatal. There was no evidence of an early high-risk period following initiation of rivaroxaban. The annualized rate of intracerebral hemorrhage was 6-fold higher among East Asian participants (0.67%) versus all other regions (0.11%; HR, 6.3 [95% CI, 2.2-18.0]). Distribution of bleeding sites was similar for rivaroxaban and aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Among embolic stroke of undetermined source patients participating in an international randomized trial, independent predictors of major bleeding were assignment to rivaroxaban, East Asia region, increased systolic blood pressure, and impaired renal function. East Asia as a region was strongly associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Estimated glomerular filtration rate should be a consideration for stratifying bleeding risk. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Método Duplo-Cego , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
11.
Stroke ; 51(6): 1797-1804, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295509

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Emboli in embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) may originate from various potential embolic sources (PES), some of which may respond better to anticoagulation, whereas others to antiplatelets. We analyzed whether rivaroxaban is associated with reduction of recurrent stroke compared with aspirin in patients with ESUS across different PES and by number of PES. Methods- We assessed the presence/absence of each PES (atrial cardiopathy, atrial fibrillation, arterial atherosclerosis, left ventricular dysfunction, cardiac valvulopathy, patent foramen ovale, cancer) in NAVIGATE-ESUS (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source) participants. Prevalence of each PES, as well as treatment effect and risk of event for each PES were determined. Results by number of PES were also determined. The outcomes were ischemic stroke, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and myocardial infarction. Results- In 7213 patients (38% women, mean age 67years) followed for a median of 11 months, the 3 most prevalent PES were atrial cardiopathy (37%), left ventricular disease (36%), and arterial atherosclerosis (29%). Forty-one percent of all patients had multiple PES, with 15% having ≥3 PES. None or a single PES was present in 23% and 36%, respectively. Recurrent ischemic stroke risk was similar for rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients for each PES, except for those with cardiac valvular disease which was marginally higher in rivaroxaban-assigned patients (hazard ratio, 1.8 [95% CI, 1.0-3.0]). All-cause mortality risks were similar across treatment groups for each PES while too few myocardial infarctions and cardiovascular deaths occurred for meaningful assessment. Increasing number of PES was not associated with increased stroke recurrence nor all-cause mortality, and outcomes did not vary between rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients by number of PES. Conclusions- A large proportion of patients with ESUS had multiple PES which could explain the neutral results of NAVIGATE-ESUS. Recurrence rates between rivaroxaban- and aspirin-assigned patients were similar across the spectrum of PES. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Embolia Intracraniana , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraniana/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Stroke ; 51(4): 1190-1198, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098609

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and minor ischemic stroke are at risk for early recurrent cerebral ischemia. Anticoagulants are associated with reduced recurrence but also increased hemorrhagic transformation (HT). The safety of the novel oral anticoagulant dabigatran in acute stroke has not been evaluated. Methods- DATAS II (Dabigatran Treatment of Acute Stroke II) was a phase II prospective, randomized open label, blinded end point trial. Patients with noncardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, ≤9; infarct volume, ≤25 mL) were randomized to dabigatran or aspirin. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed before randomization and repeated at day 30. Imaging end points were ascertained centrally by readers blinded to treatment. The primary end point was symptomatic HT within 37 days of randomization. Results- A total of 305 patients, mean age 66.59±13.21 years, were randomized to dabigatran or aspirin a mean of 42.00±17.31 hours after symptom onset. The qualifying event was a transient ischemic attack in 21%, and ischemic stroke in 79% of patients. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (interquartile range) was 1 (0-2), and mean infarct volume 3.2±6.5 mL. No symptomatic HT occurred. Asymptomatic petechial HT developed in 11/142 (7.8%) of dabigatran-assigned patients and 5/142 (3.5%) of aspirin-assigned patients (relative risk, 2.301 [95% CI, 0.778-6.802]). Baseline infarct volume predicted incident HT (odds ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.03-1.12]; P=0.0026). Incident covert infarcts on day 30 imaging occurred in 9/142 (6.3%) of dabigatran-assigned and 14/142 (9.8%) of aspirin-assigned patients (relative risk, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.26, 1.48]). Conclusions- Dabigatran was associated with a risk of HT similar to aspirin in acute minor noncardioembolic ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02295826.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Stroke ; 51(3): 938-943, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893985

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Atrial cardiopathy and atherosclerotic plaque are two potential mechanisms underlying embolic strokes of undetermined source (ESUS). The relationship between these two mechanisms among ESUS patients remains unclear. A better understanding of their association may inform targeted secondary prevention strategies. Methods- We examined the association between atrial cardiopathy and atherosclerotic plaque in the NAVIGATE ESUS trial (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source), which enrolled 7213 patients with recent ESUS during 2014 to 2017. For this analysis, we included patients with data on left atrial dimension, location of brain infarction, and cervical large artery plaque. The variables of primary interest were left atrial diameter and cervical plaque ipsilateral to brain infarction. Secondary markers of atrial cardiopathy were premature atrial contractions on Holter monitoring and newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation. For descriptive purposes, left atrial enlargement was defined as ≥4.7 cm. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between atrial cardiopathy markers and ipsilateral plaque after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, and hyperlipidemia. Results- Among 3983 eligible patients, 235 (5.9%) had left atrial enlargement, 939 (23.6%) had ipsilateral plaque, and 94 (2.4%) had both. Shared risk factors for left atrial enlargement and ipsilateral plaque were male sex, white race, hypertension, tobacco use, and coronary artery disease. Despite shared risk factors, increasing left atrial dimension was not associated with ipsilateral plaque after adjustment for covariates (odds ratio per cm, 1.1 [95% CI, 1.0-1.2]; P=0.08). We found no consistent associations between secondary markers of atrial cardiopathy and ipsilateral plaque. Conclusions- In a large population of patients with ESUS, we did not observe a notable association between atrial cardiopathy and atherosclerotic plaque, and few patients had both conditions. These findings suggest that atrial cardiopathy and atherosclerotic plaque may be distinct, nonoverlapping risk factors for stroke among ESUS patients.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico , Cardiomegalia , Embolia Intracraniana , Placa Aterosclerótica , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infarto Encefálico/sangue , Infarto Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Cardiomegalia/sangue , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomegalia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/sangue , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Aterosclerótica/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
14.
Disabil Rehabil ; 42(22): 3172-3181, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924713

RESUMO

Purpose: To establish proof-of-concept of a novel rehabilitation self-management program that aims to optimize walking recovery after stroke through engaging patients in independent walking-related practice outside of supervised physiotherapy sessions.Materials and Methods: The Independent Mobility-related Physical ACTivity (IMPACT) Program is a coach-supported intervention that uses self-management strategies to empower patients to engage in additional autonomous walking-related activities after stroke during and after inpatient rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to assess whether implementation of this intervention would be associated with targeted patient behaviors; goal setting, negotiation and completion of a walking-related practice plan outside of formal therapy sessions. Using a pre-intervention/post-intervention design, the Independent Mobility-related Physical Activity program was implemented with a convenience sample of 10 adults (mean age 62.3; SD 11.7 years) within an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit (mean stroke onset 25.3 [SD 10.5] days).Results: All participants were able to set a personal goal, negotiate an autonomous walking-related activity practice plan, and partially or completely adhere to that plan. Patients completed an average of 36 min/day of practice outside of supervised physiotherapy, practicing on weekdays and weekend days. All patients indicated that the Independent Mobility-related Physical Activity program helped them increase their activity, and indicated they would continue to practice walking-related activities beyond the coaching period.Implications for rehabilitationThe IMPACT program is a feasible self-management strategy to facilitate walking-related practice outside of supervised therapy time during inpatient stroke rehabilitation.Patients were able to engage in goal-setting and practice plan development with support of a therapist-coach.Patients who are able to stand and walk with minimal assist were able to practice walking-related activities outside of formal therapy sessions.Therapists may benefit from specific training and support to adopt self-management strategies into practice.

16.
JAMA Neurol ; 77(1): 43-48, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524941

RESUMO

Importance: The COMPASS (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) randomized clinical trial was stopped early owing to the efficacy of low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin in preventing major cardiovascular events. The main reason for early trial termination was the effect of combination therapy on reducing ischemic strokes. Objective: To analyze the association between low-dose rivaroxaban with or without aspirin and different ischemic stroke subtypes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study that was performed in 33 countries from March 12, 2013, to May 10, 2016. Patients with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease were eligible, and a total of 27 395 participants were randomized and followed up to February 6, 2017. All first ischemic strokes and uncertain strokes that occurred by this date were adjudicated using TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. The analysis of ischemic stroke subtypes was evaluated using an intention-to-treat principle. Statistical analysis was performed from March 12, 2013, to February 6, 2017. Interventions: Participants received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice a day), or aspirin (100 mg once a day). Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk of ischemic stroke subtypes during follow-up. Results: A total of 291 patients (66 women; mean [SD] age, 69.4 [8.5] years; 43 [14.8%] had a previous nonlacunar stroke) experienced an ischemic stroke. During the study, 49 patients (16.8%) received a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Applying TOAST criteria, 59 strokes (20.3%) were cardioembolic, 54 strokes (18.6%) were secondary to greater than 50% stenosis of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery, 42 strokes (14.4%) had a negative evaluation that met criteria for embolic stroke of undetermined source, and 21 strokes (7.2%) were secondary to small vessel disease. There were significantly fewer cardioembolic strokes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20-0.78]; P = .005) and embolic strokes of undetermined source (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.12-0.74]; P = .006) in the combination therapy group compared with the aspirin-only group. A trend for reduction in strokes secondary to small vessel disease (HR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.12-1.14]; P = .07) was not statistically significant. No significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in strokes secondary to greater than 50% carotid artery stenosis (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.45-1.60]; P = .61). Rivaroxaban, 5 mg, twice daily showed a trend for reducing cardioembolic strokes compared with aspirin (HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.31-1.03]; P = .06) but was not associated with reducing other stroke subtypes. Conclusions and Relevance: For patients with systemic atherosclerosis, low-dose rivaroxaban plus aspirin was associated with large, significant reductions in cardioembolic strokes and embolic strokes of undetermined source. However, these results of exploratory analysis need to be independently confirmed before influencing clinical practice. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Embolia Intracraniana/complicações , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Aterosclerose/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos
17.
Age Ageing ; 49(2): 154-160, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830268

RESUMO

New trials of dementia prevention are needed to test novel strategies and agents. Large, simple, cardiovascular trials have successfully discovered treatments with moderate but worthwhile effects to prevent heart attack and stroke. The design of these trials may hold lessons for the dementia prevention. Here we outline suitable populations, interventions and outcomes for large simple trials in dementia prevention. We consider what features are needed to maximise efficiency. Populations could be selected by age, clinical or genetic risk factors or clinical presentation. Patients and their families prioritise functional and clinical outcomes over cognitive scores and levels of biomarkers. Loss of particular functions or dementia diagnoses therefore are most meaningful to participants and potential patients and can be measured in large trials. The size of the population and duration of follow-up needed for dementia prevention trials will be a major challenge and will need collaboration between many clinical investigators, funders and patient organisations.

18.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019884523, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The diagnosis of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) is based on excluding other more likely stroke etiologies, and therefore diagnostic testing plays an especially crucial role. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic testing by region, sex, and age among the participants of NAVIGATE-ESUS trial. METHODS: Participants were grouped according to five global regions (North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and East Asia), age (<60, 60-74, and >75 years), and sex. Frequencies of each diagnostic test within areas of echocardiography, cardiac rhythm monitoring, and arterial imaging were described and compared across groups. A multivariable logistic regression model for each diagnostic test was fit to assess the independent influence of each of region, age, and sex and likelihood of testing. RESULTS: We included 6985 patients in the analysis (918 from North America; 746 from Latin America; 2853 from Western Europe; 1118 from Eastern Europe; 1350 from East Asia). Average age (highest in Western Europe (69 years), lowest in Eastern Europe (65 years)), % females (highest in Latin America (44%) and lowest in East Asia (31%)), and use of each diagnostic test varied significantly across regions. Region, but not sex, was independently associated with use of each diagnostic test examined. Transesophageal echocardiography and either CT or MR angiogram were more often used in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic testing differed by region, and less frequently by age, but not by sex. Our findings reflect the existing variations in global practice in diagnostic testing in ESUS patients.

19.
Stroke ; 50(11): 3184-3190, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526123

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Aortic arch atherosclerosis (AAA) is a possible source of embolism in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. Previous studies reported high rates of embolic events in patients with AAA, especially those with high-risk AAA. This exploratory analysis of NAVIGATE ESUS (New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial Versus ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source) focused on patients with AAA and assessed their characteristics, stroke recurrence rates, and response to treatment. Methods- The detection of AAA and the assessment of its features were based on transesophageal echocardiography that was done in 19% of participants. AAA plaques were considered to have complex features when reported as complex or ulcerated or were ≥4 mm in thickness or had a mobile thrombus present. Results- Among 1382 participants who had transesophageal echocardiography, 397 (29%) had AAA and 112 (8%) had complex AAA. Mean (SD) age (63 [10] versus 67 [9] versus 69 [9]; P<0.001), prevalence of diabetes mellitus (19% versus 26%, versus 32%; P=0.002), and aortic valvulopathy (10 versus 20 versus 20; P<0.001) increased across no versus noncomplex versus complex AAA, respectively. In multivariable analyses, increasing age, diabetes mellitus, aortic valvulopathy, statin use before randomization, chronic infarcts on imaging, and region were independently associated with any AAA versus no AAA and also with complex AAA versus no AAA. Multiterritorial qualifying infarcts rather than single-territory infarcts were observed in 21% with complex AAA versus 17% noncomplex versus 13% no AAA (P=0.07). Annualized rates of ischemic stroke recurrence were 7.2% versus 4.2% versus 5.6% for complex versus noncomplex versus no AAA, respectively. While prevalence of complex AAA increased with increasing risk score, after adjusting for risk score, we did not observe increased risk of recurrent stroke for patients with complex AAA (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.53-2.4), although the number of outcomes was limited. In patients with complex AAA, 4 strokes occurred among rivaroxaban-assigned patients and 4 strokes among aspirin-assigned patients. Conclusions- Complex AAA is prevalent in embolic stroke of undetermined source patients and is associated with atherosclerotic burden. Whether complex AAA independently increases recurrent stroke risk and whether a non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulant as compared with aspirin may be effective for reducing recurrent stroke requires additional study. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02313909.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Embolia Intracraniana , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraniana/genética , Embolia Intracraniana/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
20.
Circulation ; 140(18): 1451-1459, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients treated with antithrombotic drugs are at risk of bleeding. Bleeding may be the first manifestation of underlying cancer. METHODS: We examined new cancers diagnosed in relation to gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding among patients enrolled in the COMPASS trial (Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies) and determined the hazard of new cancer diagnosis after bleeding at these sites. RESULTS: Of 27 395 patients enrolled (mean age, 68 years; women, 21%), 2678 (9.8%) experienced any (major or minor) bleeding, 713 (2.6%) experienced major bleeding, and 1084 (4.0%) were diagnosed with cancer during a mean follow-up of 23 months. Among 2678 who experienced bleeding, 257 (9.9%) were subsequently diagnosed with cancer. Gastrointestinal bleeding was associated with a 20-fold higher hazard of new gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (7.4% versus 0.5%; hazard ratio [HR], 20.6 [95% CI, 15.2-27.8]) and 1.7-fold higher hazard of new nongastrointestinal cancer diagnosis (3.8% versus 3.1%; HR, 1.70 [95% CI, 1.20-2.40]). Genitourinary bleeding was associated with a 32-fold higher hazard of new genitourinary cancer diagnosis (15.8% versus 0.8%; HR, 32.5 [95% CI, 24.7-42.9]), and urinary bleeding was associated with a 98-fold higher hazard of new urinary cancer diagnosis (14.2% versus 0.2%; HR, 98.5; 95% CI, 68.0-142.7). Nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary bleeding was associated with a 3-fold higher hazard of nongastrointestinal, nongenitourinary cancers (4.4% versus 1.9%; HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 2.32-3.91]). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atherosclerosis treated with antithrombotic drugs, any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding was associated with higher rates of new cancer diagnosis. Any gastrointestinal or genitourinary bleeding should prompt investigation for cancers at these sites. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA