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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609447

RESUMO

Determination of the clinical relevance of rare germline variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) in the BRCA2 cancer predisposition gene remains a challenge as a result of limited availability of data for use in classification models. However, laboratory-based functional data derived from validated functional assays of known sensitivity and specificity may influence the interpretation of VUSs. We evaluated 252 missense VUSs from the BRCA2 DNA-binding domain by using a homology-directed DNA repair (HDR) assay and identified 90 as non-functional and 162 as functional. The functional assay results were integrated with other available data sources into an ACMG/AMP rules-based classification framework used by a hereditary cancer testing laboratory. Of the 186 missense variants observed by the testing laboratory, 154 were classified as VUSs without functional data. However, after applying protein functional data, 86% (132/154) of the VUSs were reclassified as either likely pathogenic/pathogenic (39/132) or likely benign/benign (93/132), which impacted testing results for 1,900 individuals. These results indicate that validated functional assay data can have a substantial impact on VUS classification and associated clinical management for many individuals with inherited alterations in BRCA2.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
3.
Hum Mutat ; 42(3): 290-299, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326660

RESUMO

The current study aimed to identify new breast and/or ovarian cancer predisposition genes. For that, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in the germline DNA of 52 non-BRCA1/BRCA2/TP53 mutation carrier women at high-risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). All variants were classified using information from population and disease specific databases, in silico prediction tools and the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) criteria. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor samples and segregation analyses were performed whenever possible. The variants identified were investigated in a second, independent cohort of 17 BC cases. Pathogenic/Likely Pathogenic variants were identified in known cancer genes such as CHEK2, MUTYH, PMS2, and RAD51C. Rare and potentially pathogenic variants were identified in DNA repair genes (FAN1, POLQ, and RAD54L) and other cancer-related genes such as DROSHA and SLC34A2. Interestingly, the variant c.149T>G in the FAN1 gene was identified in two unrelated families, and exhibited LOH in the tumor tissue of one of them. In conclusion, this is the largest Brazilian WES study involving families at high-risk for HBOC which has brought novel insights into the role of potentially new genetic risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

4.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146377

RESUMO

To evaluate the racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) and the effect of race/ethnicity on breast cancer (BC) risk among carriers, results of multigene testing of 77,900 women with BC (Non-Hispanic White [NHW] = 57,003; Ashkenazi-Jewish = 4,798; Black = 6,722; Hispanic = 5,194; and Asian = 4,183) were analyzed and the frequency of PVs in each gene were compared between BC cases and race/ethnicity-matched gnomAD reference controls. Compared to NHWs, BRCA1 PVs were enriched in Ashkenazi-Jews and Hispanics while CHEK2 PVs were statistically significantly lower in Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians (all two-sided P< 0.05). In case-control studies BARD1 PVs were associated with high risks (Odds Ratio>4.00) of BC in Blacks, Hispanics and Asians; ATM PVs were associated with increased risk of BC among all races/ethnicities except Asians; whereas CHEK2 and BRIP1 PVs were associated with increased risk of BC among NHWs and Hispanics only. These findings suggest a need for personalized management of BC risk in PV carriers based on race/ethnicity.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) of germline mutation carriers in homologous recombination repair (HRR) genes and noncarriers with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: Germline DNA from 3,078 patients with PDAC enrolled in a prospective registry at Mayo Clinic between 2000 and 2017 was analyzed for mutations in 37 cancer predisposition genes. Characteristics and OS of patients with mutations in eight genes (ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D) involved in HRR were compared with patients testing negative for mutations in all 37 genes. RESULTS: The 175 HRR mutation carriers and 2,730 noncarriers in the study had a median duration of follow-up of 9.9 years. HRR mutation carriers were younger (median age at diagnosis: 63 vs. 66 years, P < 0.001) and more likely to have metastatic disease at diagnosis (46% vs. 36%, P = 0.004). In a multivariable model adjusting for sex, age at diagnosis, and tumor staging, patients with germline HRR mutations had a significantly longer OS compared with noncarriers [HR, 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-0.97; P = 0.02]. Further gene-level analysis demonstrated that germline ATM mutation carriers had longer OS compared with patients without germline mutations in any of the 37 genes (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.94; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that germline mutation carrier status in PDAC is associated with longer OS compared with noncarriers. Further research into tumor biology and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in germline mutation carriers with PDAC are needed to better understand the association with longer OS.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

7.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 4: 32-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832836

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In studies of men of European ancestry, rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair pathway genes have been shown to be associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. The contribution of rare coding variation to prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry has not been established. METHODS: We sequenced a panel of 19 DNA repair and cancer predisposition genes in 2,453 African American and 1,151 Ugandan prostate cancer cases and controls. Rare variants were classified as pathogenic or putatively functionally disruptive and examined in association with prostate cancer risk and disease aggressiveness in gene and pathway-level association analyses. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants were found in 75 out of 2,098 cases (3.6%) and 31 out of 1,481 controls (2.1%) (OR=1.82, 95% CI=1.19 to 2.79, P=0.0044) with the association being stronger for more aggressive disease phenotypes (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.54 to 6.23, P=0.0022). The highest risks for aggressive disease were observed with pathogenic variants in the ATM, BRCA2, PALB2 and NBN genes, with odds ratios ranging from ~4 to 15 in the combined study sample of African American and Ugandan men. Rare, non-pathogenic, non-synonymous variants did not have a major impact on risk of overall prostate cancer or disease aggressiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes have appreciable effects on risk of aggressive prostate cancer in men of African ancestry. These findings have potential implications for panel testing and risk stratification in this high-risk population.

8.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377563

RESUMO

In silico predictions of missense variants is an important consideration when interpreting variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. We trained and evaluated hundreds of machine learning algorithms based on results from validated functional assays to better predict missense variants in these genes as damaging or neutral. This new optimal "BRCA-ML" model yielded a substantially more accurate method than current algorithms for interpreting the functional impact of variants in these genes, making BRCA-ML a valuable addition to data sources for VUS classification.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 41(8): e1-e6, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442341

RESUMO

Multigene panel testing for cancer predisposition mutations is becoming routine in clinical care. However, the gene content of panels offered by testing laboratories vary significantly, and data on mutation detection rates by gene and by the panel is limited, causing confusion among clinicians on which test to order. Using results from 147,994 multigene panel tests conducted at Ambry Genetics, we built an interactive prevalence tool to explore how differences in ethnicity, age of onset, and personal and family history of different cancers affect the prevalence of pathogenic mutations in 31 cancer predisposition genes, across various clinically available hereditary cancer gene panels. Over 13,000 mutation carriers were identified in this high-risk population. Most were non-Hispanic white (74%, n = 109,537), but also Black (n = 10,875), Ashkenazi Jewish (n = 10,464), Hispanic (n = 10,028), and Asian (n = 7,090). The most prevalent cancer types were breast (50%), ovarian (6.6%), and colorectal (4.7%), which is expected based on genetic testing guidelines and clinician referral for testing. The Hereditary Cancer Multi-Gene Panel Prevalence Tool presented here can be used to provide insight into the prevalence of mutations on a per-gene and per-multigene panel basis, while conditioning on multiple custom phenotypic variables to include race and cancer type.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1409-1418, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of genetic testing criteria for the detection of germline pathogenic variants in women with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with breast cancer enrolled in a breast cancer registry at a tertiary cancer center between 2000 and 2016 were evaluated for germline pathogenic variants in 9 breast cancer predisposition genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, NF1, PALB2, PTEN, and TP53). The performance of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) hereditary cancer testing criteria was evaluated relative to testing of all women as recommended by the American Society of Breast Surgeons. RESULTS: Of 3,907 women, 1,872 (47.9%) meeting NCCN criteria were more likely to carry a pathogenic variant in 9 predisposition genes compared with women not meeting criteria (9.0% v 3.5%; P < .001). Of those not meeting criteria (n = 2,035), 14 (0.7%) had pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The sensitivity of NCCN criteria was 70% for 9 predisposition genes and 87% for BRCA1 and BRCA2, with a specificity of 53%. Expansion of the NCCN criteria to include all women diagnosed with breast cancer at ≤ 65 years of age achieved > 90% sensitivity for the 9 predisposition genes and > 98% sensitivity for BRCA1 and BRCA2. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of women with breast cancer carrying germline pathogenic variants in predisposition genes do not qualify for testing by NCCN criteria. Expansion of NCCN criteria to include all women diagnosed at ≤ 65 years of age improves the sensitivity of the selection criteria without requiring testing of all women with breast cancer.

12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The germline cancer predisposition genes associated with increased risk of each clinical subtype of breast cancer, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2, are not well defined. METHODS: A total of 54,555 invasive breast cancer patients with 56,480 breast tumors were subjected to clinical hereditary cancer multigene panel testing. Heterogeneity for predisposition genes across clinical breast cancer subtypes was assessed by comparing mutation frequencies by gene among tumor subtypes and by association studies between each tumor subtype and reference controls. RESULTS: Mutations in 15 cancer predisposition genes were detected in 8.6% of patients with ER+/HER2-; 8.9% with ER+/HER2+; 7.7% with ER-/HER2+; and 14.4% of ER-/PR-/HER2- tumors. BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1 and PALB2 mutations were enriched in ER- and HER2- tumors, RAD51C and RAD51D mutations were enriched in ER- tumors only, TP53 mutations were enriched in HER2+ tumors, and ATM and CHEK2 mutations were enriched in both ER+ and/or HER2+ tumors. All genes were associated with moderate (odds ratio (OR)>2.00) or strong (OR > 5.00) risks of at least one subtype of breast cancer in case-control analyses. Mutations in ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53 had predicted lifetime absolute risks of ≥ 20.0% for breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Germline mutations in hereditary cancer panel genes confer subtype-specific risks of breast cancer. Combined tumor subtype, age at breast cancer diagnosis, and family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer information provides refined categorical estimates of mutation prevalence for women considering genetic testing.

13.
Genet Med ; 22(2): 407-415, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406321

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the rapid uptake of multigene panel testing (MGPT) for hereditary cancer predisposition, there is limited guidance surrounding indications for testing and genes to include. METHODS: To inform the clinical approach to hereditary cancer MGPT, we comprehensively evaluated 32 cancer predisposition genes by assessing phenotype-specific pathogenic variant (PV) frequencies, cancer risk associations, and performance of genetic testing criteria in a cohort of 165,000 patients referred for MGPT. RESULTS: We identified extensive genetic heterogeneity surrounding predisposition to cancer types commonly referred for germline testing (breast, ovarian, colorectal, uterine/endometrial, pancreatic, and melanoma). PV frequencies were highest among patients with ovarian cancer (13.8%) and lowest among patients with melanoma (8.1%). Fewer than half of PVs identified in patients meeting testing criteria for only BRCA1/2 or only Lynch syndrome occurred in the respective genes (33.1% and 46.2%). In addition, 5.8% of patients with PVs in BRCA1/2 and 26.9% of patients with PVs in Lynch syndrome genes did not meet respective testing criteria. CONCLUSION: Opportunities to improve upon identification of patients at risk for hereditary cancer predisposition include revising BRCA1/2 and Lynch syndrome testing criteria to include additional clinically actionable genes with overlapping phenotypes and relaxing testing criteria for associated cancers.

14.
Genet Med ; 22(4): 701-708, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853058

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Genetic testing of individuals often results in identification of genomic variants of unknown significance (VUS). Multiple lines of evidence are used to help determine the clinical significance of these variants. METHODS: We analyzed ~138,000 individuals tested by multigene panel testing (MGPT). We used logistic regression to predict carrier status based on personal and family history of cancer. This was applied to 4644 tested individuals carrying 2383 BRCA1/2 variants to calculate likelihood ratios informing pathogenicity for each. Heterogeneity tests were performed for specific classes of variants defined by in silico predictions. RESULTS: Twenty-two variants labeled as VUS had odds of >10:1 in favor of pathogenicity. The heterogeneity analysis found that among variants in functional domains that were predicted to be benign by in silico tools, a significantly higher proportion of variants were estimated to be pathogenic than previously indicated; that missense variants outside of functional domains should be considered benign; and that variants predicted to create de novo donor sites were also largely benign. CONCLUSION: The evidence presented here supports the use of personal and family history from MGPT in the classification of VUS and will be integrated into ongoing efforts to provide large-scale multifactorial classification.

15.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 722, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847808

RESUMO

Following publication of the original article [1], the author explained that Table 2 is displayed incorrectly. The correct Table 2 is given below. The original article has been corrected.

16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 557, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) continues to be the standard practice in genomic variant calling in both research and the clinic. Recently the toolkit has been rapidly evolving. Significant computational performance improvements have been introduced in GATK3.8 through collaboration with Intel in 2017. The first release of GATK4 in early 2018 revealed rewrites in the code base, as the stepping stone toward a Spark implementation. As the software continues to be a moving target for optimal deployment in highly productive environments, we present a detailed analysis of these improvements, to help the community stay abreast with changes in performance. RESULTS: We re-evaluated multiple options, such as threading, parallel garbage collection, I/O options and data-level parallelization. Additionally, we considered the trade-offs of using GATK3.8 and GATK4. We found optimized parameter values that reduce the time of executing the best practices variant calling procedure by 29.3% for GATK3.8 and 16.9% for GATK4. Further speedups can be accomplished by splitting data for parallel analysis, resulting in run time of only a few hours on whole human genome sequenced to the depth of 20X, for both versions of GATK. Nonetheless, GATK4 is already much more cost-effective than GATK3.8. Thanks to significant rewrites of the algorithms, the same analysis can be run largely in a single-threaded fashion, allowing users to process multiple samples on the same CPU. CONCLUSIONS: In time-sensitive situations, when a patient has a critical or rapidly developing condition, it is useful to minimize the time to process a single sample. In such cases we recommend using GATK3.8 by splitting the sample into chunks and computing across multiple nodes. The resultant walltime will be nnn.4 hours at the cost of $41.60 on 4 c5.18xlarge instances of Amazon Cloud. For cost-effectiveness of routine analyses or for large population studies, it is useful to maximize the number of samples processed per unit time. Thus we recommend GATK4, running multiple samples on one node. The total walltime will be ∼34.1 hours on 40 samples, with 1.18 samples processed per hour at the cost of $2.60 per sample on c5.18xlarge instance of Amazon Cloud.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Genoma Humano , Haplótipos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
17.
Front Genet ; 10: 736, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481971

RESUMO

As reliable, efficient genome sequencing becomes ubiquitous, the need for similarly reliable and efficient variant calling becomes increasingly important. The Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), maintained by the Broad Institute, is currently the widely accepted standard for variant calling software. However, alternative solutions may provide faster variant calling without sacrificing accuracy. One such alternative is Sentieon DNASeq, a toolkit analogous to GATK but built on a highly optimized backend. We conducted an independent evaluation of the DNASeq single-sample variant calling pipeline in comparison to that of GATK. Our results support the near-identical accuracy of the two software packages, showcase optimal scalability and great speed from Sentieon, and describe computational performance considerations for the deployment of DNASeq.

18.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220074, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339943

RESUMO

For many disease conditions, tissue samples are colored with multiple dyes and stains to add contrast and location information for specific proteins to accurately identify and diagnose disease. This presents a computational challenge for digital pathology, as whole-slide images (WSIs) need to be properly overlaid (i.e. registered) to identify co-localized features. Traditional image registration methods sometimes fail due to the high variation of cell density and insufficient texture information in WSIs-particularly at high magnifications. In this paper, we proposed a robust image registration strategy to align re-stained WSIs precisely and efficiently. This method is applied to 30 pairs of immunohistochemical (IHC) stains and their hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) counterparts. Our approach advances the existing methods in three key ways. First, we introduce refinements to existing image registration methods. Second, we present an effective weighting strategy using kernel density estimation to mitigate registration errors. Third, we account for the linear relationship across WSI levels to improve accuracy. Our experiments show significant decreases in registration errors when matching IHC and H&E pairs, enabling subcellular-level analysis on stained and re-stained histological images. We also provide a tool to allow users to develop their own registration benchmarking experiments.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Fluoresceínas , Imunofluorescência/métodos , Hematoxilina
19.
J Pathol Inform ; 10: 5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972224

RESUMO

Whole-slide images (WSIs) are a rich new source of biomedical imaging data. The use of automated systems to classify and segment WSIs has recently come to forefront of the pathology research community. While digital slides have obvious educational and clinical uses, their most exciting potential lies in the application of quantitative computational tools to automate search tasks, assist in classic diagnostic classification tasks, and improve prognosis and theranostics. An essential step in enabling these advancements is to apply advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence from other fields to previously inaccessible pathology datasets, thereby enabling the application of new technologies to solve persistent diagnostic challenges in pathology. Here, we applied convolutional neural networks to differentiate between two forms of melanocytic lesions (Spitz and conventional). Classification accuracy at the patch level was 99.0%-2% when applied to WSI. Importantly, when the model was trained without careful image curation by a pathologist, the training took significantly longer and had lower overall performance. These results highlight the utility of augmented human intelligence in digital pathology applications, and the critical role pathologists will play in the evolution of computational pathology algorithms.

20.
Gynecol Oncol ; 152(1): 20-25, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of germline cancer predisposition gene mutations in patients with endometrial cancer (EC) subtypes. METHODS: Germline DNA was extracted from whole blood collected from consenting patients undergoing primary surgery for EC between 5/2005 and 11/2016. DNA samples were evaluated by product sequencing from a targeted multiplex PCR panel including 21 known/suspected cancer predisposition genes. Variants were classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic based on allele frequency (<0.003), effects on protein function, and ClinVar assertions. RESULTS: Germline panel testing was performed on 1170 cases of EC; 849 (72.6%) were type I, and 321 (27.4%) were type II EC, including 135 (11.5%) uterine serous cancers (USC). BRCA1 mutations were enriched in Type II EC compared to Type I EC (0.93% vs. 0.12%, p = 0.07). Lynch Syndrome (LS) mutations were identified in 1.4% of type I and 1.6% of type II EC (p = 0.79), including 1.5% for USC. In total, predisposition gene mutations were present in 4.2% of type I and 5.3% of type II EC, as well as 6.7% of patients with USC). CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1/2 and Lynch mutations were rare in this cohort of unselected patients with type I and II EC, including USC. However, the presence of predisposition gene mutations in 4.2% of EC type I, 5.3% of EC type II, and 6.7% of USC suggests that somatic mutation testing should be considered for all EC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Idoso , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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