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J Biol Chem ; 290(47): 28343-52, 2015 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26221033


Despite significant advances, the molecular identity of the cytotoxic species populated during in vivo amyloid formation crucial for the understanding of neurodegenerative disorders is yet to be revealed. In this study lysozyme prefibrillar oligomers and fibrils in both mature and sonicated states have been isolated through an optimized ultrafiltration/ultracentrifugation method and characterized with various optical spectroscopic techniques, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We examined their level and mode of toxicity on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in both differentiated and undifferentiated states. We find that oligomers and fibrils display cytotoxic capabilities toward cultured cells in vitro, with oligomers producing elevated levels of cellular injury toward undifferentiated PC12 cells (PC12(undiff)). Furthermore, dual flow cytometry staining experiments demonstrate that the oligomers and mature fibrils induce divergent cellular death pathways (apoptosis and secondary necrosis, respectively) in these PC12 cells. We have also shown that oligomers but not sonicated mature fibrils inhibit hippocampal long term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity implicated in learning and memory, in vivo. We conclude that our in vitro and in vivo findings confer a level of resistance toward amyloid fibrils, and that the PC 12-based comparative cytotoxicity assay can provide insights into toxicity differences between differently aggregated protein species.

Amiloide/metabolismo , Biopolímeros/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Amiloide/química , Animais , Biopolímeros/química , Células PC12 , Ratos
Proteins ; 81(1): 1-17, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22777854


Human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (HAMLET) and its analogs are partially unfolded protein-oleic acid (OA) complexes that exhibit selective tumoricidal activity normally absent in the native protein itself. To understand the nature of the interaction between protein and OA moieties, charge-specific chemical modifications of lysine side chains involving citraconylation, acetylation, and guanidination were employed and the biophysical and biological properties were probed. Upon converting the original positively-charged lysine residues to negatively-charged citraconyl or neutral acetyl groups, the binding of OA to protein was eliminated, as were any cytotoxic activities towards osteosarcoma cells. Retention of the positive charges by converting lysine residues to homoarginine groups (guanidination); however, yielded unchanged binding of OA to protein and identical tumoricidal activity to that displayed by the wild-type α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex. With the addition of OA, the wild-type and guanidinated α-lactalbumin proteins underwent substantial conformational changes, such as partial unfolding, loss of tertiary structure, but retention of secondary structure. In contrast, no significant conformational changes were observed in the citraconylated and acetylated α-lactalbumins, most likely because of the absence of OA binding. These results suggest that electrostatic interactions between the positively-charged basic groups on α-lactalbumin and the negatively-charged carboxylate groups on OA molecules play an essential role in the binding of OA to α-lactalbumin and that these interactions appear to be as important as hydrophobic interactions.

Lactalbumina/química , Lactalbumina/metabolismo , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Ácidos Oleicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lactalbumina/farmacologia , Lisina/química , Modelos Moleculares , Ácidos Oleicos/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , Desdobramento de Proteína , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Eletricidade Estática , Termodinâmica
Biochem Soc Trans ; 40(4): 746-51, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22817727


HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells) and its related partially unfolded protein-fatty acid complexes are novel biomolecular nanoparticles that possess relatively selective cytotoxic activities towards tumour cells. One of the key characteristics is the requirement for the protein to be partially unfolded, hence endowing native proteins with additional functions in the alternatively folded states. Beginning with the history of its discovery and development, the cellular targets that appear to be strongly correlated with tumour cell death are introduced in the present article.

Lactalbumina/química , Lactalbumina/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/química , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Ácidos Oleicos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Bovinos , Humanos , Dobramento de Proteína