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1.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2016217, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915234

RESUMO

Importance: Life expectancy has decreased in the US, driven largely by increases in drug poisoning, suicide, and alcohol-induced deaths. Assessing whether patterns of these causes differ is required to inform public health interventions. Objective: To compare patterns and trends in drug poisoning, suicide, and alcohol-induced death rates by geography and demographic characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional study used national vital statistics data from the entire US population from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2017, among US residents aged 20 to 64 years. Data were analyzed from January through August 2019. Exposures: Age, sex, race/ethnicity, county-level percentage of unemployment, rurality, and geography. Main Outcomes and Measures: Deaths were categorized as due to drug poisoning, suicide, or alcohol-induced causes based on underlying cause of death. Age-standardized incidence rates and annual percentage changes (APCs) in rates were estimated. Clusters of high-rate counties were identified with hot spot analysis. Excess deaths during 2001 to 2017 were estimated for each cause as the difference between the number of deaths observed and expected if rates had remained stable starting in 2000. Results: During 2000 to 2017, 1 446 177 drug poisoning, suicide, and alcohol-induced premature deaths occurred in the US, including 563 765 drug poisoning deaths (age-standardized rate: 17.6 per 100 000 person-years [PYs]), 517 679 suicides (age-standardized rate: 15.8 per 100 000 PYs), and 364 733 alcohol-induced deaths (age-standardized rate: 10.5 per 100 000 PYs), totaling 451 596 more deaths than expected based on 2000 rates. High drug poisoning death rates were clustered in the Northeast through Appalachia, yet rates of suicide and alcohol-induced deaths were highest in the West. Only suicide death rates were highest in rural areas. Drug poisoning death rates were highest among people aged 35 to 49 years (age-standardized rate: 23.7 per 100 000 PYs), whereas suicide and alcohol-induced death rates peaked among people aged 50 to 64 years (suicide age-standardized rate: 19.6 per 100 000 PYs; alcohol-induced age-standardized death rate: 26.8 per 100 000 PYs). Increases occurred over time across racial/ethnic groups, although trajectories and inflection years varied. Drug poisoning (2013-2017 APC, 15.0% [95% CI, 11-8%-18.3%] per year) and alcohol-induced death rates (2012-2017 APC, 4.1% [95% CI, 3.3%-4.9%] per year) have accelerated recently, while increases in suicide death rates have largely increased at a constant trajectory (2000-2017 APC, 1.8% [95% CI, 1.7%-1.9%] per year). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that demographic characteristics and geographic patterns varied by cause of death, suggesting that increasing death rates from these causes were not concentrated in 1 group or region. Specialized interventions tailored for the underlying drivers of each cause of death are urgently needed.

3.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1784-1791, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level. METHODS: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the FAM63A (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold P < 1.25 × 10-6) was observed in the meta-analysis (P GxE = 1.2 ×10-6, P Joint = 4.2 ×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans. IMPACT: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.

5.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

6.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(4): 309-320, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Disentangling the effects of endogenous estrogens and inflammation on obesity-related diseases requires a clearer understanding of how the two biological mechanisms relate to each other. METHODS: We studied 155 healthy postmenopausal women not taking menopausal hormone therapy enrolled in the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) screening cancer trial. From a baseline blood draw, we measured endogenous estradiol and 69 inflammation biomarkers: cytokines, chemokines, adipokines, angiogenic factors, growth factors, acute phase proteins, and soluble receptors. We evaluated the estradiol-inflammation relationship by assessing associations across different models (linear, ordinal logistic, and binary logistic) using a variety of estradiol classifications. We additionally investigated the estradiol-inflammation relationship stratified by baseline obesity status (BMI < 30 stratum and BMI > 30 stratum). RESULTS: Associations of estradiol with 7 inflammation biomarkers met p < 0.05 statistical significance in linear and ordinal models: C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-6, thymus activation-regulated chemokine, eosinophil chemotactic protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and serum amyloid A. The positive association between estradiol and CRP was robust to model changes. Each standard deviation increase in endogenous estradiol doubled a woman's odds of having CRP levels higher than the study median (odds ratio 2.29; 95% confidence interval 1.28, 4.09). Estradiol was consistently inversely associated with adiponectin. Other estradiol-inflammation biomarker associations were not robust to model changes. CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous estradiol appears to be associated with CRP and adiponectin; the evidence is limited for other inflammation biomarkers.


Assuntos
Estradiol/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(10): 1003-1012, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown. METHODS: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples). RESULTS: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.

8.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
9.
Cancer Res ; 79(20): 5442-5451, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462430

RESUMO

Growing epidemiologic evidence supports chronic inflammation as a mechanism of ovarian carcinogenesis. An association between a circulating marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and ovarian cancer risk has been consistently observed, yet, potential heterogeneity of this association by tumor and patient characteristics has not been adequately explored. In this study, we pooled data from case-control studies nested within six cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3) to examine the association between CRP and epithelial ovarian cancer risk overall, by histologic subtype and by participant characteristics. CRP concentrations were measured from prediagnosis serum or plasma in 1,091 cases and 1,951 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). When CRP was evaluated using tertiles, no associations with ovarian cancer risk were observed. A 67% increased ovarian cancer risk was found for women with CRP concentrations >10 mg/L compared with <1 mg/L (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.12-2.48). A CRP concentration >10 mg/L was positively associated with risk of mucinous (OR = 9.67; 95% CI = 1.10-84.80) and endometrioid carcinoma (OR = 3.41; 95% CI = 1.07-10.92), and suggestively positive, although not statistically significant, for serous (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 0.82-2.49) and clear cell carcinoma (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 0.36-11.57; P heterogeneity = 0.20). Heterogeneity was observed with oral contraceptive use (P interaction = 0.03), where the increased risk was present only among ever users (OR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.62-6.47). This study adds to the existing evidence that CRP plays a role in ovarian carcinogenesis and suggests that inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma. SIGNIFICANCE: C-reactive protein is involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, and chronic inflammation may be particularly implicated in the etiology of mucinous and endometrioid carcinomas.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Carcinoma/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Idoso , Carcinogênese , Carcinoma/classificação , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(12): 1263-1278, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all Ptrend < .01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, >40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; Ptrend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; Ptrend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/etiologia , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/epidemiologia , Ductos Biliares Extra-Hepáticos , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/etiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Ex-Fumantes , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia
12.
Cancer Res ; 79(15): 3973-3982, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113819

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(2): e97-e106, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing premature mortality among some groups of Americans has been largely driven by increases in drug poisoning deaths. However, to our knowledge, a formal descriptive study by race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, rurality, and geography has not been done. In this study, we examined US trends in premature all-cause and drug poisoning mortality between 2000 and 2015 at the county level among white, black, and Latino people. METHODS: We used US mortality data for the period Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2015, including underlying cause of death and demographic data, collected from death certificates by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics, and ascertained county attributes from the 2011-15 Census American Community Survey. We categorised counties into quintiles on the basis of the percentage of people unemployed, the percentage of people with a bachelor's degree, median income, and rurality. We estimated premature (ie, deaths in those aged 25-64 years) age-standardised mortality for all causes (by race and ethnicity) and drug poisoning, by county, for the periods of 2000-03 and 2012-15. We estimated annual percentage changes in mortality (2000-15) by county-level characteristics. FINDINGS: Premature mortality declined from 2000-03 to 2012-15 among black and Latino people, but increased among white people in many US counties. Drug poisoning mortality increased in counties throughout the country. Significant increases between 2000 and 2015 occurred across low and high socioeconomic status and urban and rural counties among white people aged 25-64 years (annual percentage change range 4·56% per year [95% CI 3·56-5·57] to 11·51% per year [9·41-13·65]), black people aged 50-64 years (2·27% per year [0·42-4·16] to 9·46% per year [7·02-11·96]), Latino women aged 25-49 years (2·43% per year [1·18-3·71] to 5·01% per year [3·80-6·23]), and Latino men aged 50-64 years (2·42% per year [0·53-4·34] to 5·96% per year [3·86-8·11]). Although drug poisoning mortality increased rapidly in counties with the lowest socioeconomic status and in rural counties, most deaths during 2012-15 occurred in the largest metropolitan counties (121 395 [76%] in metropolitan counties with ≥250 000 people vs 2175 [1%] in the most rural counties), reflecting population size. INTERPRETATION: Premature mortality has declined among black and Latino people in the USA, and increased among white people, particularly in less affluent and rural counties. Increasing drug poisoning mortality was not limited to poor white people in rural areas. Rapid increases have occurred in communities throughout the USA regardless of race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or rurality. Widespread public health interventions are needed to addess this public health emergency. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Adulto , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Am J Prev Med ; 56(1): 27-37, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454906

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, an estimated 189 million adults smoke tobacco "occasionally" but not every day. Yet few studies have examined the health risks of non-daily smoking. METHODS: Data from the 1991, 1992, and 1995 U.S. National Health Interview Surveys, a nationally representative sample of 70,913 U.S. adults (aged 18-95 years) were pooled. Hazard ratios and 95% CIs for death through 2011 were estimated from Cox proportional hazards regression using age as the underlying time metric and stratified by 5-year birth cohorts in 2017. RESULTS: Non-daily smokers reported smoking a median of 15 days and 50 cigarettes per month in contrast to daily smokers who smoked a median of 600 cigarettes per month. Compared with never smokers, lifelong nondaily smokers who had never smoked daily had a 72% higher mortality risk (95% CI=1.36, 2.18): higher risks were observed for cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disease mortalities. Higher mortality risks were observed among lifelong non-daily smokers who reported 11-30 (hazard ratio=1.34, 95% CI=0.81, 2.20); 31-60 (hazard ratio=2.02, 95% CI=1.17, 3.29); and >60 cigarettes per month (hazard ratio=1.74, 95% CI=1.12, 2.72) than never smokers. Median life-expectancy was about 5 years shorter for lifelong non-daily smokers than never smokers. As expected, daily smokers had even higher mortality risks (hazard ratio=2.50, 95% CI=2.35, 2.66) and shorter survival (10 years less). CONCLUSIONS: Although the mortality risks of non-daily smokers are lower than daily smokers, they are still substantial. Policies should be specifically directed at this growing group of smokers.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(2): 363-371, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299454

RESUMO

Many smokers do not quit but instead reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke per day (CPD) over their lifetime. Yet the associations of such changes in CPD with health risks are unclear. We examined the association of changes in CPD with subsequent death in the period 2004-2011 among 253,947 participants of the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Using a questionnaire assessing responders' history of smoking cigarettes, we identified cigarette smokers who quit, decreased, maintained, or increased their CPD between ages 25-29 and 50-59 years. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained from multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Relative to never smokers, smokers who maintained a consistent CPD had 2.93 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.82, 3.05) higher all-cause mortality risk, and participants who increased their CPD had still higher risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.37, 95% CI: 3.23, 3.52). Death risk was lower among participants who decreased their CPD (HR = 2.38, 95% CI: 2.25, 2.52) or quit smoking (for quitting between ages 30 and 39 years, HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.39). Similar patterns were observed for smoking-related causes of death, with particularly strong associations for lung cancer and respiratory disease. Reductions in CPD over the lifetime meaningfully decreased death risk; however, cessation provided a larger benefit than even large declines in CPD.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/mortalidade , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fumar Cigarros/patologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(1): 189-197, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that inflammation increases risk for ovarian cancer. Aspirin has been shown to decrease ovarian cancer risk, though the mechanism is unknown. Studies of inflammatory markers, lipid molecules such as arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and alpha-linoleic acid metabolites, and development of ovarian cancer are essential to understand the potential mechanisms. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study (157 cases/156 matched controls) within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between prediagnostic serum levels of 31 arachidonic acid/linoleic acid/alpha-linoleic acid metabolites and risk of ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Five of the 31 arachidonic acid/linoleic acid/alpha-linoleic acid (free fatty acids) metabolites were positively associated with ovarian cancer risk: 8-HETE [tertile 3 vs. 1: OR 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-5.39), P trend 0.02], 12,13-DHOME [2.49 (1.29-4.81), 0.01], 13-HODE [2.47 (1.32-4.60), 0.005], 9-HODE [1.97 (1.06-3.68), 0.03], 9,12,13-THOME [2.25 (1.20-4.21), 0.01]. In analyses by subtype, heterogeneity was suggested for 8-HETE [serous OR (95% CI): 2.53 (1.18-5.39) vs. nonserous OR (95% CI): 1.15 (0.56-2.36), P het 0.1] and 12,13-EpOME [1.95 (0.90-4.22) vs. 0.82 (0.39-1.73), 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: Women with increased levels of five fatty acid metabolites (8-HETE, 12,13-DHOME, 13-HODE, 9-HODE, and 9,12,13-THOME) were at increased risk of developing ovarian cancer in the ensuing decade. All five metabolites are derived from either arachidonic acid (8-HETE) or linoleic acid (12,13-DHOME, 13-HODE, 9-HODE, 9,12,13-THOME) via metabolism through the LOX/cytochrome P450 pathway. IMPACT: The identification of these risk-related fatty acid metabolites provides mechanistic insights into the etiology of ovarian cancer and indicates the direction for future research.


Assuntos
Ácidos Araquidônicos/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Ácidos Linoleicos/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Idoso , Ácidos Araquidônicos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/sangue , Inflamação , Ácidos Linoleicos/metabolismo , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo
17.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(2): 129-136, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29790947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been associated with ovarian cancer risk. To clarify the role of Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents in the development of ovarian cancer, we evaluated the association of serologic markers with incident ovarian cancer using a staged approach in two independent populations. METHODS: Studies included: 1) a case-control study in Poland (244 ovarian cancers/556 control subjects) and 2) a prospective nested case-control study in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial (160 ovarian cancers/159 control subjects). Associations of serologic marker levels with ovarian cancer risk at diagnostic as well as higher thresholds, identified in Poland and independently evaluated in PLCO, were estimated using multivariable adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: In the Polish study, antibodies (based on laboratory cut-point) against the chlamydia plasmid-encoded Pgp3 protein (serological gold standard) were associated with increased ovarian cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20 to 2.22); when a positive result was redefined at higher levels, ovarian cancer risk was increased (cut-point 2: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.38 to 2.89; cut-point 3 [max OR]: OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.29 to 3.73). In the prospective PLCO study, Pgp3 antibodies were associated with elevated risk at the laboratory cut-point (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.78 to 2.63) and more stringent cut-points (cut-point 2: OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.07 to 4.71); cut-point 3: OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 0.63 to 10.08). In both studies, antibodies against other infectious agents measured were not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: In two independent populations, antibodies against prior/current C. trachomatis (Pgp3) were associated with a doubling in ovarian cancer risk, whereas markers of other infectious agents were unrelated. These findings lend support for an association between PID and ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Chlamydia trachomatis/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Chlamydia/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(2): 137-145, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of several cancers. A pooled analysis of 12 case-control studies showed a 10% decrease in ovarian cancer risk with regular aspirin use, which was stronger for daily and low-dose users. To prospectively investigate associations of analgesic use with ovarian cancer, we analyzed data from 13 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). METHODS: The current study included 758 829 women who at study enrollment self-reported analgesic use, among whom 3514 developed ovarian cancer. Using Cox regression, we assessed associations between frequent medication use and risk of ovarian cancer. Dose and duration were also evaluated. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Women who used aspirin almost daily (≥6 days/wk) vs infrequent/nonuse experienced a 10% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (rate ratio [RR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82 to 1.00, P = .05). Frequent use (≥4 days/wk) of aspirin (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.03), nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.11), or acetaminophen (RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.24) was not associated with risk. Daily acetaminophen use (RR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.65, P = .05) was associated with elevated ovarian cancer risk. Risk estimates for frequent, long-term (10+ years) use of aspirin (RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.34) or nonaspirin NSAIDs (RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.84 to 1.68) were modestly elevated, although not statistically significantly so. CONCLUSIONS: This large, prospective analysis suggests that women who use aspirin daily have a slightly lower risk of developing ovarian cancer (∼10% lower than infrequent/nonuse)-similar to the risk reduction observed in case-control analyses. The observed potential elevated risks for 10+ years of frequent aspirin and NSAID use require further study but could be due to confounding by medical indications for use or variation in drug dosing.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Lancet Public Health ; 3(8): e374-e384, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although life expectancy has been projected to increase across high-income countries, gains for the USA are anticipated to be among the smallest, and overall US death rates actually increased from 2014 to 2015, with divergence for specific US populations. Therefore, projecting future premature mortality is essential for clinical and public health service planning, curbing rapidly increasing causes of death, and sustaining progress in declining causes of death. We aimed to project premature mortality (here defined as deaths of individuals aged 25-64 years) trends through 2030, and to estimate the total number of projected deaths, the projected number of potential years of life lost due to premature mortality, and the effect of reducing projected accidental death rates by 2% per year. METHODS: We obtained death certificate data for the US population aged 25-64 years for 1990-2015 from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained US mortality data for 2016 for non-American Indian or Alaska native groups from CDC WONDER; data for 2016 were not available for American Indians or Alaska natives. Our analysis focused on all-cause premature mortality and the commonest causes of premature death (cancer, heart disease, accidents, suicide, and chronic liver disease or cirrhosis) among white, black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific islanders, and American Indian or Alaska native men and women. We estimated age-standardised premature mortality and corresponding annual percentage changes for 2017-30 by sex and race or ethnic origin by use of age-period-cohort forecasting models. We also did a sensitivity analysis projecting future mortality from cross-sectional mortality and a JoinPoint of the (log) period rate ratio curve. We calculated absolute death counts by use of corresponding age-specific and year-specific US census population projections, and estimated years of potential life lost. FINDINGS: During 2017-30, all-cause deaths are projected to increase among white women and American Indians or Alaska natives, resulting in 239 700 excess premature deaths relative to 2017 rates (a 10% increase). Mortality declines in white men and black, Hispanic, and Asian or Pacific islander men and women will result in 945 900 fewer deaths (a 14% reduction). Cancer mortality rates are projected to decline among white, black, Hispanic, and Asian or Pacific islander women and men, with the largest declines among black women (age-standardised premature mortality rate 2016: 104·5 deaths per 100 000 woman-years; 2030: 77·1 per 100 000 woman-years) and men (2016: 116·8 per 100 000 man-years; 2030: 81·6 per 100 000 man-years). Heart disease death rates are projected to increase in American Indian or Alaska native men (2015: 150·9 per 100 000 man-years; 2030: 175·9 per 100 000 man-years) and decline in other groups, albeit only slightly in white (2016: 35·6 per 100 000 woman-years; 2030: 31·1 per 100 000 woman-years) and American Indian or Alaska native women (2015: 64·4 per 100 000 woman-years; 2030: 62·8 per 100 000 woman-years). Accidental death rates are projected to increase in all US populations except Asian or Pacific islander women, and will increase most rapidly among white women (2030: 60·5 per 100 000 woman-years) and men (2030: 101·9 per 100 000 man-years) and American Indian or Alaska native women (2030: 97·5 per 100 000 woman-years) and men (2030: 298·7 per 100 000 man-years). Suicide rates are projected to increase for all groups, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis deaths are projected to increase for all groups except black men. A 2% per year reduction in projected accidental deaths would eliminate an estimated 178 700 deaths during 2017-30. INTERPRETATION: To reduce future premature mortality, effective interventions are needed to address rapidly rising mortality rates due to accidents, suicides, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute Intramural Research Program.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Mortalidade Prematura/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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