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1.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in partner and localiser of BRCA2 (PALB2) confer increased risk to breast cancer, but relatively few studies have reported the prevalence in South-East Asian populations. Here, we describe the prevalence of rare variants in PALB2 in a population-based study of 7840 breast cancer cases and 7928 healthy Chinese, Malay and Indian women from Malaysia and Singapore, and describe the functional impact of germline missense variants identified in this population. METHODS: Mutation testing was performed on germline DNA (n=15 768) using targeted sequencing panels. The functional impact of missense variants was tested in mouse embryonic stem cell based functional assays. RESULTS: PTVs in PALB2 were found in 0.73% of breast cancer patients and 0.14% of healthy individuals (OR=5.44; 95% CI 2.85 to 10.39, p<0.0001). In contrast, rare missense variants in PALB2 were not associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Whereas PTVs were associated with later stage of presentation and higher-grade tumours, no significant association was observed with missense variants in PALB2. However, two novel rare missense variants (p.L1027R and p.G1043V) produced unstable proteins and resulted in a decrease in homologous recombination-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks. CONCLUSION: Despite genetic and lifestyle differences between Asian and other populations, the population prevalence of PALB2 PTVs and associated relative risk of breast cancer, are similar to those reported in European populations.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901219

RESUMO

This article aims to provide a detailed description of the Singapore Breast Cancer Cohort (SGBCC), an ongoing multi-ethnic cohort established with the overarching goal to identify genetic markers for breast cancer risk, prognosis and treatment response, as well as to understand the ethnic differences in disease risk and outcome in an Asian setting. The cohort comprises of breast cancer patients aged 21 years and above from six public hospitals which diagnose and treat nearly 76% breast cancer cases in Singapore. Self-reported data on sociodemographic and lifestyle, reproductive risk factors, medical history and family history of breast or ovarian cancer is collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical data on tumour characteristics, and treatment modalities are obtained through medical record. Bio-specimens (blood or saliva) is collected at recruitment. Follow-up on survival information is done through routine linkage with the Registry of Births and Deaths. As of 31 December 2016, 7,768 subjects have been recruited to the study with 76% subjects contributed bio-specimens. The SGBCC provides a valuable platform which offers a unique, large and rich resource for new research ideas on breast cancer related phenotypic risk factors and genetic markers.

3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 379, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme that incorporates genetic testing using breast cancer associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), against the current biennial mammogram-only screening programme to aid in its implementation into the current programme in Singapore. METHODS: A Markov model was used to compare the costs and health outcomes of the current screening programme, against a polygenic risk-tailored screening programme, which can advise a long-term screening strategy depending on the individual's polygenic risk. The model took the perspective of the healthcare system, with a time horizon of 40 years, following women from the age of 35 to 74. Epidemiological and cost data were taken from Asian studies, and an annual discount rate of 3% was used. The model outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), calculated from the difference in costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Scenarios with varying risk thresholds for each polygenic risk group were examined. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess parameter uncertainty. RESULTS: The ICER for a polygenic risk-tailored breast cancer screening programme, compared with the current biennial mammogram-only screening programme, was - 3713.80 SGD/QALY, with incremental costs < 0 and incremental effects > 0. The scenario analysis of different polygenic risk cutoffs showed that the ICERs remain negative, with all ICERs falling within the south-east quadrant of the cost-effectiveness plane, indicating that tailored screening is more cost effective than mammogram-only screening, with lower costs and higher QALYs to be gained. This suggests that a polygenic risk-tailored breast cancer screening programme is cost effective, entailing lower cost than the current mammogram-only programme, while causing no additional harm to women. CONCLUSION: Results from this cost-effectiveness analysis show that polygenic risk-tailored screening is cost effective with an ICER of - 3713.80 SGD/QALY. Tailored screening remains cost effective even across varying percentile cutoffs for each risk group. While the results look promising for incorporating polygenic risk into the current breast cancer screening programme, further studies should be conducted to address various limitations.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 314-322, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined whether existing licensed pharmacotherapies could reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: An open-label parallel randomized controlled trial was performed among healthy migrant workers quarantined in a large multi-storey dormitory in Singapore. Forty clusters (each defined as individual floors of the dormitory) were randomly assigned to receive a 42-day prophylaxis regimen of either oral hydroxychloroquine (400 mg once, followed by 200 mg/day), oral ivermectin (12 mg once), povidone-iodine throat spray (3 times/day, 270 µg/day), oral zinc (80 mg/day)/vitamin C (500 mg/day) combination, or oral vitamin C, 500 mg/day. The primary outcome was laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as shown by either: (1) a positive serologic test for SARS-CoV-2 antibody on day 42, or (2) a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 at any time between baseline and day 42. RESULTS: A total of 3037 asymptomatic participants (mean age, 33.0 years; all men) who were seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 at baseline were included in the primary analysis. Follow-up was nearly complete (99.6%). Compared with vitamin C, significant absolute risk reductions (%, 98.75% confidence interval) were observed for oral hydroxychloroquine (21%, 2-42%) and povidone-iodine throat spray (24%, 7-39%). No statistically significant differences were observed with oral zinc/vitamin C combination (23%, -5 to +41%) and ivermectin (5%, -10 to +22%). Interruptions due to side effects were highest among participants who received zinc/vitamin C combination (6.9%), followed by vitamin C (4.7%), povidone-iodine (2.0%), and hydroxychloroquine (0.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Chemoprophylaxis with either oral hydroxychloroquine or povidone-iodine throat spray was superior to oral vitamin C in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection in young and healthy men.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A breast cancer polygenic risk score (PRS) comprising 313 common variants reliably predicts disease risk. We examined possible relationships between genetic variation, regulation, and expression to clarify the molecular alterations associated with these variants. METHODS: Genome-wide methylomic variation was quantified (MethylationEPIC) in Asian breast cancer patients (1152 buffy coats from peripheral whole blood). DNA methylation (DNAm) quantitative trait loci (mQTL) mapping was performed for 235 of the 313 variants with minor allele frequencies > 5%. Stability of identified mQTLs (p < 5e-8) across lifetime was examined using a public mQTL database. Identified mQTLs were also mapped to expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project and the eQTLGen Consortium. RESULTS: Breast cancer PRS was not associated with DNAm. A higher proportion of significant cis-mQTLs were observed. Of 822 significant cis-mQTLs (179 unique variants) identified in our dataset, 141 (59 unique variants) were significant (p < 5e-8) in a public mQTL database. Eighty-six percent (121/141) of the matched mQTLs were consistent at multiple time points (birth, childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, middle age, post-diagnosis, or treatment). Ninety-three variants associated with DNAm were also cis-eQTLs (35 variants not genome-wide significant). Multiple loci in the breast cancer PRS are associated with DNAm, contributing to the polygenic nature of the disease. These mQTLs are mostly stable over time. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent results from DNAm and expression data may reveal new candidate genes not previously associated with breast cancer.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(4): 653-660, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited research is available on the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs in Asian countries. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Singapore's national mammography screening program, implemented in 2002, recommending annual screening between ages 40 and 49 and biennial screening between ages 50 and 69, and alternative screening scenarios taking into account important country-specific factors. METHODS: We used national data from Singapore in the MIcrosimulation SCreening ANalysis-Fatal diameter (MISCAN-Fadia) model to simulate 302 screening scenarios for 10 million women born between 1910 and 1969. Screening scenarios varied by starting and ending age, screening interval, and attendance. Outcome measures included life-years gained (LYG), breast cancer deaths averted, false positives, overdiagnosis, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), costs (in 2002 Singapore dollars; S$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). Costs and effects were calculated and discounted with 3% using a health care provider's perspective. RESULTS: Singapore's current screening program at observed attendance levels required 54,158 mammograms per 100,000 women, yielded 1,054 LYG, and averted 57 breast cancer deaths. At attendance rates ≥50%, the current program was near the efficiency frontier. Most scenarios on the efficiency frontier started screening at age 40. The ICERs of the scenarios on the efficiency frontiers ranged between S$10,186 and S$56,306/QALY, which is considered cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of S$70,000/QALY gained. CONCLUSIONS: Singapore's current screening program lies near the efficiency frontier, and starting screening at age 40 or 45 is cost-effective. Furthermore, enhancing screening attendance rates would increase benefits while maintaining cost-effectiveness. IMPACT: Screening all women at age 40 or 45 is cost-efficient in Singapore, and a policy change may be considered.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 42(2): 200-212, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314489

RESUMO

The discovery of high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes, such as Breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) and Breast cancer associated gene 2 (BRCA2) has led to accurate identification of individuals for risk management and targeted therapy. The rapid decline in sequencing costs has tremendously increased the number of individuals who are undergoing genetic testing world-wide. However, given the significant differences in population-specific variants, interpreting the results of these tests can be challenging especially for novel genetic variants in understudied populations. Here we report the characterization of novel variants in the Malaysian and Singaporean population that consist of different ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese, Indian, and other indigenous groups). We have evaluated the functional significance of 14 BRCA2 variants of uncertain clinical significance by using multiple in silico prediction tools and examined their frequency in a cohort of 7840 breast cancer cases and 7928 healthy controls. In addition, we have used a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-based functional assay to assess the impact of these variants on BRCA2 function. We found these variants to be functionally indistinguishable from wild-type BRCA2. These variants could fully rescue the lethality of Brca2-null mESCs and exhibited no sensitivity to six different DNA damaging agents including a poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor. Our findings strongly suggest that all 14 evaluated variants are functionally neutral. Our findings should be valuable in risk assessment of individuals carrying these variants.

8.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 1080, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the presentation, help seeking behaviour for breast cancer in Singapore. Nor was there a study exploring the experience of patients in their breast cancer journey. METHODS: A qualitative interview study with thematic analysis, conducted with 36 patients. RESULTS: There is no clear pattern of presentation for breast cancer by cancer stage at diagnosis, age and ethnicity in the cancer journey of this group of patients. Patients were diagnosed with early to advanced stages cancer regardless of when they presented or took up treatment in their cancer journey. The reasons patients sought medical attention also did not appear to differ between the stages of cancer diagnosed, ethnic and age. Without setting a measure to define early and late presentation, we found that women shared similar experience in their breast cancer journey, regardless of age, ethnicity and stage of cancer at diagnosis. Poor knowledge of breast cancer (symptoms and causes); few practised regular BSE; denial of symptom; fear of hospitalisation, diagnosis and treatment; worries and stress over financial burden of treatment; misinformation in magazine and online sources; diet; stress; caring responsibility; support network; and use of alternative medicine before and after diagnosis were identified in patients' narratives. Strong social support; fear of being an emotional and financial burden for the family; and financial worries during treatment were also the recurring themes after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: A measure of breast cancer presentation - that accounts for the patient's experience in the cancer journey, the time interval and tumour biology - that is meaningful to patients, clinicians and researchers is needed. For research on late and delayed presentation, details on BSE practice - how often, when and was it done correctly - will improve the accuracy of time delay interval. For the public, concerted efforts to improve knowledge of breast cancer, survival and prognosis for early-diagnosed cancer, and the importance of regular and correct technique to perform BSE, are critical and urgent to address the rising breast cancer incidence in the country.

9.
Gut ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An unmet need exists for a non-invasive biomarker assay to aid gastric cancer diagnosis. We aimed to develop a serum microRNA (miRNA) panel for identifying patients with all stages of gastric cancer from a high-risk population. DESIGN: We conducted a three-phase, multicentre study comprising 5248 subjects from Singapore and Korea. Biomarker discovery and verification phases were done through comprehensive serum miRNA profiling and multivariant analysis of 578 miRNA candidates in retrospective cohorts of 682 subjects. A clinical assay was developed and validated in a prospective cohort of 4566 symptomatic subjects who underwent endoscopy. Assay performance was confirmed with histological diagnosis and compared with Helicobacter pylori (HP) serology, serum pepsinogens (PGs), 'ABC' method, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Cost-effectiveness was analysed using a Markov decision model. RESULTS: We developed a clinical assay for detection of gastric cancer based on a 12-miRNA biomarker panel. The 12-miRNA panel had area under the curve (AUC)=0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.95) and AUC=0.92 (95% CI 0.88 to 0.96) in the discovery and verification cohorts, respectively. In the prospective study, overall sensitivity was 87.0% (95% CI 79.4% to 92.5%) at specificity of 68.4% (95% CI 67.0% to 69.8%). AUC was 0.848 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.88), higher than HP serology (0.635), PG 1/2 ratio (0.641), PG index (0.576), ABC method (0.647), CEA (0.576) and CA19-9 (0.595). The number needed to screen is 489 annually. It is cost-effective for mass screening relative to current practice (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio=US$44 531/quality-of-life year). CONCLUSION: We developed and validated a serum 12-miRNA biomarker assay, which may be a cost-effective risk assessment for gastric cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Registration number: NCT04329299).

10.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 145, 2020 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The change in two measurements of a continuous outcome can be modelled directly with a linear regression model, or indirectly with a random effects model (REM) of the individual measurements. These methods are susceptible to model misspecifications, which are commonly addressed by applying monotonic transformations (e.g., Box-Cox transformation) to the outcomes. However, transforming the outcomes complicates the data analysis, especially when variable selection is involved. We propose a robust alternative through a novel application of the conditional probit (cprobit) model. METHODS: The cprobit model analyzes the ordered outcomes within each subject, making the estimate invariant to monotonic transformation on the outcome. By scaling the estimate from the cprobit model, we obtain the exposure effect on the change in the observed or Box-Cox transformed outcome, pending the adequacy of the normality assumption on the raw or transformed scale. RESULTS: Using simulated data, we demonstrated a similar good performance of the cprobit model and REM with and without transformation, except for some bias from both methods when the Box-Cox transformation was applied to scenarios with small sample size and strong effects. Only the cprobit model was robust to skewed subject-specific intercept terms when a Box-Cox transformation was used. Using two real datasets from the breast cancer and inpatient glycemic variability studies which utilize electronic medical records, we illustrated the application of our proposed robust approach as a seamless three-step workflow that facilitates the use of Box-Cox transformation to address non-normality with a common underlying model. CONCLUSIONS: The cprobit model provides a seamless and robust inference on the change in continuous outcomes, and its three-step workflow is implemented in an R package for easy accessibility.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1217, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139696

RESUMO

Known risk variants explain only a small proportion of breast cancer heritability, particularly in Asian women. To search for additional genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer, here we perform a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Asians (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and European descendants (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls). We identified 31 potential novel loci with the lead variant showing an association with breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The associations for 10 of these loci were replicated in an independent sample of 16,787 cases and 16,680 controls of Asian women (P < 0.05). In addition, we replicated the associations for 78 of the 166 known risk variants at P < 0.05 in Asians. These findings improve our understanding of breast cancer genetics and etiology and extend previous findings from studies of European descendants to Asian women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
13.
Cancer Med ; 9(7): 2435-2444, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053293

RESUMO

The impact of timely treatment on breast cancer-specific survival may differ by tumor stage. We aim to study the impact of delayed first treatment on overall survival across different tumor stages. In addition, we studied the impact of delayed adjuvant treatments on survival in patients with invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer who had surgery ≤90 days postdiagnosis. This population-based study includes 11 175 breast cancer patients, of whom, 2318 (20.7%) died (median overall survival = 7.9 years). To study the impact of delayed treatment on survival, hazard ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional-hazards models. The highest proportion of delayed first treatment (>30 days postdiagnosis) was in patients with noninvasive breast cancer (61%), followed by metastatic breast cancer (50%) and invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer (22%). Delayed first treatment (>90 vs ≤30 days postdiagnosis) was associated with worse overall survival in patients with invasive nonmetastatic (HR: 2.25, 95% CI 1.55-3.28) and metastatic (HR: 2.09, 95% CI 1.66-2.64) breast cancer. Delayed adjuvant treatment (>90 vs 31-60 days postsurgery) was associated with worse survival in patients with invasive nonmetastatic (HR: 1.50, 95% CI 1.29-1.74). Results for the Cox proportional-hazards models were similar for breast cancer-specific death. A longer time to first treatment (31-90 days postdiagnosis) may be viable for more extensive diagnostic workup and patient-doctor decision-making process, without compromising survival. However, patients' preference and anxiety status need to be considered.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1330, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992769

RESUMO

Breast cancer survival has improved with significant progress in treatment and disease management. However, compliance with treatment varies. Treatment guidelines for older patients are unclear. We aim to identify predictors of noncompliance with recommended therapy in a large breast cancer population and assess the impact of noncompliance on survival. Our study included 19,241 non-metastatic female breast cancer patients, of whom 3,158 (16%) died within 10 years post-diagnosis (median survival = 5.8 years). We studied the association between treatment noncompliance and factors with logistic regression, and the impact of treatment noncompliance on survival with a flexible parametric survival model framework. The highest proportion of noncompliance was observed for chemotherapy (18%). Predictors of noncompliance with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine therapy included age, tumor size, nodal involvement and subtype (except radiotherapy). Factors associated with not receiving surgery included age and subtype. Treatment noncompliance was associated with worse overall survival for surgery (HR: 2.26 [1.80-2.83]), chemotherapy (1.25 [1.11-1.41]), radiotherapy (2.28 [1.94-2.69]) and endocrine therapy (1.70 [1.41-2.04]). Worse survival was similarly observed in older patients for whom guidelines generally do not apply. Our results highlight the importance of following appropriate treatment as recommended by current guidelines. Older patients may benefit from similar recommendations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 503, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949192

RESUMO

Incidence of breast cancer is rising rapidly in Asia. Some breast cancer risk factors are modifiable. We examined the impact of known breast cancer risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), reproductive and hormonal risk factors, and breast density on the incidence of breast cancer, in Singapore. The study population was a population-based prospective trial of screening mammography - Singapore Breast Cancer Screening Project. Population attributable risk and absolute risks of breast cancer due to various risk factors were calculated. Among 28,130 women, 474 women (1.7%) developed breast cancer. The population attributable risk was highest for ethnicity (49.4%) and lowest for family history of breast cancer (3.8%). The proportion of breast cancers that is attributable to modifiable risk factor BMI was 16.2%. The proportion of breast cancers that is attributable to reproductive risk factors were low; 9.2% for age at menarche and 4.2% for number of live births. Up to 45.9% of all breast cancers could be avoided if all women had breast density <12% and BMI <25 kg/m2. Notably, sixty percent of women with the lowest risk based on non-modifiable risk factors will never reach the risk level recommended for mammography screening. A combination of easily assessable breast cancer risk factors can help to identify women at high risk of developing breast cancer for targeted screening. A large number of high-risk women could benefit from risk-reduction and risk stratification strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade da Mama , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura/epidemiologia
16.
Transl Oncol ; 13(2): 254-261, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of a handheld ultrasound-guided optoacoustic tomography (US-OT) probe developed for human deep-tissue imaging in ex vivo assessment of tumor margins postlumpectomy. METHODS: A custom-built two-dimensional (2D) US-OT-handheld probe was used to scan 15 lumpectomy breast specimens. Optoacoustic signals acquired at multiple wavelengths between 700 and 1100 nm were reconstructed using model linear algorithm, followed by spectral unmixing for lipid and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb). Distribution maps of lipid and Hb on the anterior, posterior, superior, inferior, medial, and lateral margins of the specimens were inspected for margin involvement, and results were correlated with histopathologic findings. The agreement in tumor margin assessment between US-OT and histopathology was determined using the Bland-Altman plot. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of margin assessment using US-OT were calculated. RESULTS: Ninety margins (6 × 15 specimens) were assessed. The US-OT probe resolved blood vessels and lipid up to a depth of 6 mm. Negative and positive margins were discriminated by marked differences in the distribution patterns of lipid and Hb. US-OT assessments were concordant with histopathologic findings in 87 of 89 margins assessed (one margin was uninterpretable and excluded), with diagnostic accuracy of 97.9% (kappa = 0.79). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 100% (4/4), 97.6% (83/85), 66.7% (4/6), and 100% (83/83), respectively. CONCLUSION: US-OT was capable of providing distribution maps of lipid and Hb in lumpectomy specimens that predicted tumor margins with high sensitivity and specificity, making it a potential tool for intraoperative tumor margin assessment.

17.
Stat Methods Med Res ; 29(2): 437-454, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943882

RESUMO

The rank-ordered logit (rologit) model was recently introduced as a robust approach for analysing continuous outcomes, with the linear exposure effect estimated by scaling the rank-based log-odds estimate. Here we extend the application of the rologit model to continuous outcomes with ties and ordinal outcomes treated as imperfectly-observed continuous outcomes. By identifying the functional relationship between survival times and continuous outcomes, we explicitly establish the equivalence between the rologit and Cox models to justify the use of the Breslow, Efron and perturbation methods in the analysis of continuous outcomes with ties. Using simulation, we found all three methods perform well with few ties. Although an increasing extent of ties increased the bias of the log-odds and linear effect estimates and resulted in reduced power, which was somewhat worse when the model was mis-specified, the perturbation method maintained a type I error around 5%, while the Efron method became conservative with heavy ties but outperformed Breslow. In general, the perturbation method had the highest power, followed by the Efron and then the Breslow method. We applied our approach to three real-life datasets, demonstrating a seamless analytical workflow that uses stratification for confounder adjustment in studies of continuous and ordinal outcomes.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 203-211, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously conducted a systematic field synopsis of 1059 breast cancer candidate gene studies and investigated 279 genetic variants, 51 of which showed associations. The major limitation of this work was the small sample size, even pooling data from all 1059 studies. Thereafter, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have accumulated data for hundreds of thousands of subjects. It's necessary to re-evaluate these variants in large GWAS datasets. METHODS: Of these 279 variants, data were obtained for 228 from GWAS conducted within the Asian Breast Cancer Consortium (24,206 cases and 24,775 controls) and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry). Meta-analyses were conducted to combine the results from these two datasets. FINDINGS: Of those 228 variants, an association was observed for 12 variants in 10 genes at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 2·19 × 10-4. The associations for four variants reached P < 5 × 10-8 and have been reported by previous GWAS, including rs6435074 and rs6723097 (CASP8), rs17879961 (CHEK2) and rs2853669 (TERT). The remaining eight variants were rs676387 (HSD17B1), rs762551 (CYP1A2), rs1045485 (CASP8), rs9340799 (ESR1), rs7931342 (CHR11), rs1050450 (GPX1), rs13010627 (CASP10) and rs9344 (CCND1). Further investigating these 10 genes identified associations for two additional variants at P < 5 × 10-8, including rs4793090 (near HSD17B1), and rs9210 (near CYP1A2), which have not been identified by previous GWAS. INTERPRETATION: Though most candidate gene variants were not associated with breast cancer risk, we found 14 variants showing an association. Our findings warrant further functional investigation of these variants. FUND: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Caspase 8 , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Risco
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 781-794, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence linking breast size to breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, and its interpretation is often hampered by confounding factors such as body mass index (BMI). Here, we used linkage disequilibrium score regression and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the genetic associations between BMI, breast size and breast cancer risk. METHODS: Summary-level genotype data from 23andMe, Inc (breast size, n = 33 790), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (breast cancer risk, n = 228 951) and the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (BMI, n = 183 507) were used for our analyses. In assessing causal relationships, four complementary MR techniques [inverse variance weighted (IVW), weighted median, weighted mode and MR-Egger regression] were used to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: The genetic correlation (rg) estimated between BMI and breast size was high (rg = 0.50, P = 3.89x10-43). All MR methods provided consistent evidence that higher genetically predicted BMI was associated with larger breast size [odds ratio (ORIVW): 2.06 (1.80-2.35), P = 1.38x10-26] and lower overall breast cancer risk [ORIVW: 0.81 (0.74-0.89), P = 9.44x10-6]. No evidence of a relationship between genetically predicted breast size and breast cancer risk was found except when using the weighted median and weighted mode methods, and only with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative risk. There was no evidence of reverse causality in any of the analyses conducted (P > 0.050). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate a potential positive causal association between BMI and breast size and a potential negative causal association between BMI and breast cancer risk. We found no clear evidence for a direct relationship between breast size and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mama/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
20.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(6): e707, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies consistently indicate that alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for female breast cancer (BC). Although the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism (rs671: Glu>Lys) has a strong effect on acetaldehyde metabolism, the association of rs671 with BC risk and its interaction with alcohol intake have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a pooled analysis of 14 case-control studies, with individual data on Asian ancestry women participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: We included 12,595 invasive BC cases and 12,884 controls for the analysis of rs671 and BC risk, and 2,849 invasive BC cases and 3,680 controls for the analysis of the gene-environment interaction between rs671 and alcohol intake for BC risk. The pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with rs671 and its interaction with alcohol intake for BC risk were estimated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The Lys/Lys genotype of rs671 was associated with increased BC risk (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30, p = 0.014). According to tumor characteristics, the Lys/Lys genotype was associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.36, p = 0.008), progesterone receptor (PR)-positive BC (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36, p = 0.015), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative BC (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.48, p = 0.012). No evidence of a gene-environment interaction was observed between rs671 and alcohol intake (p = 0.537). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the Lys/Lys genotype confers susceptibility to BC risk among women of Asian ancestry, particularly for ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-negative tumor types.


Assuntos
Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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