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2.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 45-54, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547383

RESUMO

Studies of chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes (ADS) suggest a broad range of bronchial pathology. However, there are as yet no multicentre studies to assess the variety of bronchial pathology in this patient group. One of the underlying reasons is the lack of a consensus methodology, a prerequisite to jointly document chest CT findings. We aimed to establish an international platform for the evaluation of bronchial pathology as assessed by chest CT and to describe the range of bronchial pathologies in patients with antibody deficiency. Ffteen immunodeficiency centres from 9 countries evaluated chest CT scans of patients with ADS using a predefined list of potential findings including an extent score for bronchiectasis. Data of 282 patients with ADS were collected. Patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) comprised the largest subgroup (232 patients, 82.3%). Eighty percent of CVID patients had radiological evidence of bronchial pathology including bronchiectasis in 61%, bronchial wall thickening in 44% and mucus plugging in 29%. Bronchiectasis was detected in 44% of CVID patients aged less than 20 years. Cough was a better predictor for bronchiectasis than spirometry values. Delay of diagnosis as well as duration of disease correlated positively with presence of bronchiectasis. The use of consensus diagnostic criteria and a pre-defined list of bronchial pathologies allows for comparison of chest CT data in multicentre studies. Our data suggest a high prevalence of bronchial pathology in CVID due to late diagnosis or duration of disease.

3.
Thromb Res ; 136(3): 531-4, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26254194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the routine use of advanced multi-slice CT scanners, pulmonary embolism (PE) is increasingly detected as an incidental finding among cancer patients. Although this generally leads to therapeutic interventions, the accuracy of diagnosing PE on routinely performed contrast enhanced CT scans is unknown. METHODS: Consecutive cancer patients diagnosed with incidental PE were eligible for inclusion. Their CT images were reassessed in a blinded fashion by two thoracic radiologists. To ensure blindness, a total of 19 cancer staging CT images without PE were included. The inter-observer reliability for the presence of PE was calculated with use of Kappa statistics. RESULTS: A total of 62 incidental PE patients (mean age 64years, 60% male) were included. All patients received anticoagulant treatment upon diagnosis. Level of agreement between the two expert readers was high: they disagreed on the presence of PE in only two patients (3.2%), resulting in a Kappa statistic of 0.93. After final consensus reading, it was concluded that the CT images of all 62 patients initially diagnosed with incidental PE were indeed positive for PE. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that an incidental PE diagnosis is reliable and highly reproducible, despite the suboptimal reading conditions of a non-dedicated scan protocol.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
PLoS One ; 9(10): e108551, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25279774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chest radiographs (CXR) are an important diagnostic tool for the detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in critically ill patients, but their diagnostic value is limited by a poor sensitivity. By using advanced image processing, the aim of this study was to increase the value of chest radiographs in the diagnostic work up of neutropenic patients who are suspected of IPA. METHODS: The frontal CXRs of 105 suspected cases of IPA were collected from four institutions. Radiographs could contain single or multiple sites of infection. CT was used as reference standard. Five radiologists and two residents participated in an observer study for the detection of IPA on CXRs with and without bone suppressed images (ClearRead BSI 3.2; Riverain Technologies). The evaluation was performed separately for the right and left lung, resulting in 78 diseased cases (or lungs) and 132 normal cases (or lungs). For each image, observers scored the likelihood of focal infectious lesions being present on a continuous scale (0-100). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) served as the performance measure. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by considering only the lungs with a suspiciousness score of greater than 50 to be positive. RESULTS: The average AUC for only CXRs was 0.815. Performance significantly increased, to 0.853, when evaluation was aided with BSI (p = 0.01). Sensitivity increased from 49% to 66% with BSI, while specificity decreased from 95% to 90%. CONCLUSION: The detection of IPA in CXRs can be improved when their evaluation is aided by bone suppressed images. BSI improved the sensitivity of the CXR examination, outweighing a small loss in specificity.


Assuntos
Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
5.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 31(11): 2093-107, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22855226

RESUMO

This paper describes a framework for establishing a reference airway tree segmentation, which was used to quantitatively evaluate fifteen different airway tree extraction algorithms in a standardized manner. Because of the sheer difficulty involved in manually constructing a complete reference standard from scratch, we propose to construct the reference using results from all algorithms that are to be evaluated. We start by subdividing each segmented airway tree into its individual branch segments. Each branch segment is then visually scored by trained observers to determine whether or not it is a correctly segmented part of the airway tree. Finally, the reference airway trees are constructed by taking the union of all correctly extracted branch segments. Fifteen airway tree extraction algorithms from different research groups are evaluated on a diverse set of twenty chest computed tomography (CT) scans of subjects ranging from healthy volunteers to patients with severe pathologies, scanned at different sites, with different CT scanner brands, models, and scanning protocols. Three performance measures covering different aspects of segmentation quality were computed for all participating algorithms. Results from the evaluation showed that no single algorithm could extract more than an average of 74% of the total length of all branches in the reference standard, indicating substantial differences between the algorithms. A fusion scheme that obtained superior results is presented, demonstrating that there is complementary information provided by the different algorithms and there is still room for further improvements in airway segmentation algorithms.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Análise de Variância , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
6.
Radiology ; 262(3): 969-76, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22357896

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the effect of the number of computed tomography (CT) sections on trapped air (TA) assessment in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by using an established scoring system and a new quantitative scoring system and to compare CT and pulmonary function test (PFT) estimates of TA in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved pilot study, 20 subjects aged 6-20 years (12 female and eight male; median age, 12.6 years) contributed two expiratory CT studies (three-section baseline CT, volumetric follow-up CT) and two PFT studies over 2 years after parental informed consent was obtained. From follow-up CT studies, seven sets were composed: Set 1 was volumetric. Sets 2, 3, 4, and 5, had spacing of 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, and 20.4 mm, respectively, between sections. Sets 6 and 7 contained five and three sections, respectively. Longitudinal follow-up was performed with three sections. All images were deidentified and randomized, and TA was scored with the Brody II system and a new quantitative system. Statistical analysis included the Wilcoxon signed rank test, calculation of Spearman and intraclass correlation coefficients, and use of three-section and linear mixed models. RESULTS: For the Brody II system, the intraclass correlation coefficient for set 1 versus those for sets 2 through 7 was 0.75 versus 0.87; however, mean scores from sets 6 and 7 were significantly lower than the mean score from set 1 (P = .01 and P < .001, respectively). For the quantitative system, the number of sections did not affect TA assessment (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.82-0.88; P > .13 for all). CT and PFT estimates were not correlated (r(s) = 20.19 to 0.09, P = .43-.93). No change in TA over time was found for CT or PFT (P > .16 for all). CONCLUSION: The number of sections affected Brody II estimates, suggesting that three-section protocols lead to underestimation of TA assessment in patients with CF when using the Brody II system; CT and PFT estimates of TA showed no correlation and no significant change over time.


Assuntos
Ar , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Expiração , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
7.
J Gen Virol ; 92(Pt 8): 1854-8, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21543558

RESUMO

We investigated the development of pulmonary lesions in ferrets by means of computed tomography (CT) following infection with the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus and compared the scans with gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Ground-glass opacities observed by CT scanning in all infected lungs corresponded to areas of alveolar oedema at necropsy. These areas were most pronounced on day 3 and gradually decreased from days 4 to 7 post-infection. This pilot study shows that the non-invasive imaging procedure allows quantification and characterization of influenza-induced pulmonary lesions in living animals under biosafety level 3 conditions and can thus be used in pre-clinical pharmaceutical efficacy studies.


Assuntos
Furões , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Patologia/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico por imagem , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias
8.
Insights Imaging ; 2(6): 705-15, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23100045

RESUMO

In the treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE) two groups of patients are traditionally identified, namely the hemodynamically stable and instable groups. However, in the large group of normotensive patients with PE, there seems to be a subgroup of patients with an increased risk of an adverse outcome, which might benefit from more aggressive therapy than the current standard therapy with anticoagulants. Risk stratification is a commonly used method to define subgroups of patients with either a high or low risk of an adverse outcome. In this review the clinical parameters and biomarkers of myocardial injury and right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) that have been suggested to play an important role in the risk stratification of PE are described first. Secondly, the use of more direct imaging techniques like echocardiography and CT in the assessment of RVD are discussed, followed by a brief outline of new imaging techniques. Finally, two risk stratification models are proposed, combining the markers of RVD with cardiac biomarkers of ischemia to define whether patients should be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and/or be given thrombolysis, admitted to the medical ward, or be safely treated at home with anticoagulant therapy.

9.
Chest ; 140(1): 178-185, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21148242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Respiratory tract exacerbation rate (RTE-R) is a key clinical efficacy end point in cystic fibrosis (CF) trials. Chest CT scanning holds great potential as a surrogate end point. Evidence supporting the ability of CT scan scores to predict RTE-R is an important step in validating CT scanning as a surrogate end point. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between CT scan scores and RTE-R in a cohort of pediatric patients with CF. METHODS: A retrospective review of data from pediatric patients with CF included chest CT scans, spirometry, and 2 years follow-up. RTE-R was defined as the number of IV antibiotics courses per year. CT scans were scored with the Brody-II system, assessing bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, mucus, and opacities. RESULTS: One hundred fifteen patients contributed 170 CT scans. Median age and FEV(1) at first CT scan were 12 years (range, 5-20 years) and 90% predicted (range, 23% predicted-132% predicted), respectively. Analyzing exacerbation counts using Poisson regression models, bronchiectasis score and FEV(1) both were found to be strong independent predictors of RTE-R in the subsequent 2 years. For the bronchiectasis score categorized in quartiles, RTE-R increased by factors of 1.8 (95% CI, 0.6-6.1; P = .31), 5.5 (95% CI, 1.9-15.4; P = .001), and 10.6 (95% CI, 3.8-29.4; P < .001), respectively, for each quartile compared with the quartile with the best (ie, lowest) scores. Similarly, time to first respiratory tract exacerbation was significantly associated with quartiles of both bronchiectasis score and FEV(1). CONCLUSIONS: The CT scan bronchiectasis score is strongly associated with RTE-R in pediatric patients with CF, providing an important piece of evidence in the validation of CT scans as an end point for CF clinical trials.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/etiologia , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Radiol ; 74(1): 40-9, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20227213

RESUMO

Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the pulmonary arteries has become the main diagnostic test for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism (PE). Not only due to the good availability, low cost and minimal invasiveness of this technique, but mainly because of the introduction of multi-detector CT techniques resulting in significant improvement in resolution, speed and image quality. This continuous gain in image acquisition speed went along with the introduction of new techniques of image acquisition, such as the dual-source CT scanning and novel concepts of image interpretation beyond morphological findings including the definition of the resulting perfusion defects and assessment of the cardiopulmonary circulation as a functional unit. This article will focus on technical and practical aspects to optimize CTPA examinations with modern multi-detector CT scanners, discusses aspects to be considered in specific patient groups (e.g., during pregnancy, young patients) and outlines new advents such as dual-source lung perfusion and automatic detection of pulmonary emboli.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Fatores Etários , Peso Corporal , Angiografia Coronária/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências
11.
Radiology ; 253(1): 223-9, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19710003

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess whether chest computed tomography (CT) scores from ultra-low-dose end-expiratory scans alone could suffice for assessment of all cystic fibrosis (CF)-related structural lung abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved study, 20 patients with CF aged 6-20 years (eight males, 12 females) underwent low-dose end-inspiratory CT and ultra-low-dose end-expiratory CT. Informed consent was obtained. Scans were randomized and scored by using the Brody-II CT scoring system to assess bronchiectasis, airway wall thickening, mucus plugging, and opacities. Scoring was performed by two observers who were blinded to patient identity and clinical information. Mean scores were used for all analyses. Statistical analysis included assessment of intra- and interobserver variability, calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Bland-Altman plots. RESULTS: Median age was 12.6 years (range, 6.3-20.3 years), median forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 100% (range, 46%-127%) of the predicted value, and median forced vital capacity was 99% (range, 61%-123%) of the predicted value. Very good agreement was observed between end-inspiratory and end-expiratory CT scores for Brody-II total score (ICC = 0.96), bronchiectasis (ICC = 0.98), airway wall thickening (ICC = 0.94), mucus plugging (ICC = 0.96), and opacities (ICC = 0.90). Intra- and interobserver agreement were good to very good (ICC range, 0.70-0.98). Bland-Altman plots showed that differences in scores were independent of score magnitude. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, CT scores from end-expiratory and end-inspiratory CT match closely, suggesting that ultra-low-dose end-expiratory CT alone may be sufficient for monitoring CF-related lung disease. This would help reduce radiation dose for a single investigation by up to 75%.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Doses de Radiação , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur Radiol ; 17(8): 1943-53, 2007 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17285281

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine non-invasively the frequency of ectopic bronchial arteries (BA) (i.e., bronchial arteries originating at a level of the descending aorta other than T5-T6 or from any aortic collateral vessel) on multidetector-row CT angiograms (CTA) obtained in patients with hemoptysis. Over a 5-year period (2000-2005), 251 consecutive patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector-row CT angiography of the thorax. From this population, 37 patients were excluded because of a suboptimal CTA examination (n = 19), the presence of extensive mediastinal disease (n = 15) or severe chest deformation (n = 3) precluding any precise analysis of the bronchial arteries at CTA. Our final study group included 214 patients who underwent a thin-collimated CT angiogram (contrast agent: 300 to 350 mg/ml) on a 4- (n = 56), 16- (n = 119) and 64- (n = 39) detector-row scanner. The site of origin and distribution of bronchial arteries were analyzed on transverse CT scans, maximum intensity projections and volume-rendered images. The site of the ostium of a bronchial artery was coded as orthotopic when the artery originated from the descending aorta between the levels of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae; all other bronchial arteries were considered ectopic. From the studied population, 137 (64%) patients had only orthotopic bronchial arteries, whereas 77 patients (36%) had at least one bronchial artery of ectopic origin. A total of 147 ectopic arteries were depicted, originating as common bronchial trunks (n = 23; 19%) or isolated right or left bronchial arteries (n = 101; 81%). The most frequent sites of origin of the 124 ostiums were the concavity of the aortic arch (92/124; 74%), the subclavian artery (13/124; 10.5%) and the descending aorta (10/124; 8.5%). The isolated ectopic bronchial arteries supplied the ipsilateral lung in all but three cases. Bronchial artery embolization was indicated in 26 patients. On the basis of CTA information, (1) bronchial embolization was attempted in 24 patients; it was technically successful in 21 patients (orthotopic BAs: 6 patients; orthotopic and ectopic BAs: 3 patients; ectopic BAs: 12 patients) and failed in 3 patients due to an instable catheterization of the ectopic BAs; the absence of additional bronchial arterial supply and no abnormalities of nonbronchial systemic arteries at CTA avoided additional arteriograms in these 3 patients; (2) owing to the iatrogenic risk of the embolization procedure of ectopic BAs, the surgical ligation of the abnormal vessels was the favored therapeutic option in 2 patients. This study enabled the depiction of ectopic bronchial arteries in 36% of the studied population, important anatomical information prior to therapeutic decision making.


Assuntos
Angiografia/métodos , Artérias Brônquicas/anormalidades , Artérias Brônquicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemoptise/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Iohexol , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Med Phys ; 33(7): 2610-20, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16898465

RESUMO

An automatic method for textural analysis of complete HRCT lung slices is presented. The system performs classification of regions of interest (ROIs) into one of six classes: normal, hyperlucency, fibrosis, ground glass, solid, and focal. We propose a novel method of automatically generating ROIs that contain homogeneous texture. The use of such regions rather than square regions is shown to improve performance of the automated system. Furthermore, the use of two different, previously published, feature sets is investigated. Both feature sets are shown to yield similar results. Classification performance of the complete system is characterized by ROC curves for each of the classes of abnormality and compared to a total of three expert readings by two experienced radiologists. The different types of abnormality can be automatically distinguished with areas under the ROC curve that range from 0.74 (focal) to 0.95 (solid). The kappa statistics for intraobserver agreement, interobserver agreement, and computer versus observer agreement were 0.70, 0.53+/-0.02, and 0.40+/-0.03, respectively. The question whether or not a class of abnormality was present in a slice could be answered by the computer system with an accuracy comparable to that of radiologists.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Automação , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Diagnóstico por Computador , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/classificação , Modelos Estatísticos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Curva ROC , Software
15.
Radiology ; 235(3): 798-803, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15845793

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To retrospectively quantify right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) and the pulmonary artery obstruction index at helical computed tomography (CT) on the basis of various criteria proposed in the literature and to assess the predictive value of these CT parameters for mortality within 3 months after the initial diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was not required for retrospective study. In 120 consecutive patients (55 men, 65 women; mean age +/- standard deviation, 59 years +/- 18) with proved PE, two readers assessed the extent of RVD by quantifying the ratio of the right ventricle to left ventricle short-axis diameters (RV/LV) and the pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameters, the shape of the interventricular septum, and the extent of obstruction to the pulmonary artery circulation on helical CT images, which were blinded for clinical outcome in consensus reading. Regression analysis was used to correlate these parameters with patient outcome. RESULTS: CT signs of RVD (RV/LV ratio, >1.0) were seen in 69 patients (57.5%). During follow-up, seven patients died of PE. Both the RV/LV ratio and the obstruction index were shown to be significant risk factors for mortality within 3 months (P = .04 and .01, respectively). No such relationship was found for the ratio of the pulmonary artery to ascending aorta diameters (P = .66) or for the shape of the interventricular septum (P = .20). The positive predictive value for PE-related mortality with an RV/LV ratio greater than 1.0 was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.9%, 17.4%). The negative predictive value for an uneventful outcome with an RV/LV ratio of 1.0 or less was 100% (95% CI: 94.3%, 100%). There was a 11.2-fold increased risk of dying of PE for patients with an obstruction index of 40% or higher (95% CI: 1.3, 93.6). CONCLUSION: Markers of RVD and pulmonary vascular obstruction, assessed with helical CT at baseline, help predict mortality during follow-up.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/complicações
17.
J Nucl Med ; 44(5): 739-44, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12732675

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Different criteria have been advocated for the interpretation of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scans in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Besides these predefined criteria, many physicians use an integration of the different sets of criteria and their own experience-the so-called Gestalt interpretation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interobserver variability and accuracy of 3 sets of criteria: the Hull and PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) criteria and the Gestalt interpretation. METHODS: Two experienced observers interpreted V/Q scans of all 328 patients according to the 3 different schemes. The diagnostic classification obtained for the different sets of criteria was analyzed against the presence or absence of PE. RESULTS: The interobserver variabilities as assessed by the kappa statistics of the PIOPED and Hull criteria and for the Gestalt interpretation were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.76), 0.79 (95% CI, 0.73-0.85), and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58-0.72), respectively. The differences in kappa values between the Hull and PIOPED criteria and between the Hull criteria and Gestalt interpretation were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). For 16 patients (14 without PE) with a normal lung scan result according to the Hull criteria, the result according to the PIOPED criteria was low probability. For 21 patients (12 with PE), the scans were intermediate probability according to the PIOPED criteria, whereas the result with the Hull criteria was high probability. Analysis of receiver-operating-characteristic curves yielded a comparable area under the curve for all sets of criteria (0.87-0.90). CONCLUSION: The Hull, PIOPED, and Gestalt interpretation of V/Q lung scans all have a good accuracy and interobserver variability. However, the reproducibility of the Hull criteria is superior in comparison with that of the other sets of criteria.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Criptônio , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Relação Ventilação-Perfusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Cintilografia
18.
J Nucl Med ; 43(10): 1317-23, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12368369

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The use of a so-called gestalt interpretation, an integration of different sets of criteria and the physician's own experience, has been advocated in the interpretation of lung scintigraphs of patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. However, data on the reliability of this approach are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the observer variability and accuracy of the gestalt interpretation of perfusion scintigraphy (combined with chest radiography) as well as the impact of adding ventilation scintigraphy and clinical pretest information. METHODS: Three experienced observers independently reviewed the chest radiograph and ventilation-perfusion scans of 101 consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism. All datasets were reviewed twice by each observer, using a visual analog scale to indicate the estimated probability of pulmonary embolism. The results of the gestalt interpretations were analyzed against the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism. RESULTS: All 3 gestalt interpretations had a good-to-excellent interobserver variability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.73-0.89), with similar intraobserver agreement (ICC, 0.76-0.95). The performance of all 3 readers was comparable. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of all 3 observers were high and similar (for observer 1, the AUCs were 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI)], 0.93-1.00), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.93-1.00), and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90-1.00), respectively, for the 3 gestalt interpretations). CONCLUSION: A gestalt interpretation is a useful classification scheme with good-to-excellent intra- and interobserver variability. However, the interpretation and the consequences of this result are dependent on the observer. Unexpectedly, the addition of information on ventilation scintigraphy and clinical information did not affect the overall assessment.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Teoria Gestáltica , Humanos , Radioisótopos de Criptônio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Cintilografia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Agregado de Albumina Marcado com Tecnécio Tc 99m , Relação Ventilação-Perfusão
19.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 26(1): 21-5, 2002 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11801900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to assess whether easily obtained clinical parameters can predict optimal scan delay for contrast-enhanced spiral CT of pulmonary arteries and to compare image quality between individualized contrast timing versus a fixed scan delay. METHOD: We used an individualized delay in 85 patients by measuring the contrast transit time through the pulmonary circulation (Group A) and assessed the correlation between transit time and clinical parameters. In 56 patients (Group B), we used a 20 s fixed scan delay. The CT examinations of both groups were compared with regard to image quality. RESULTS: Contrast transit times (mean 10.5 s, range 4-26 s) did not correlate significantly with heart rate, blood pressure, body length, weight, body surface area, or cardiac function. Although contrast transit times were significantly related to gender and age, only 14.8% of the variation could be explained by these clinical parameters. Data of 57 patients in Group A and 50 patients in Group B were available for analysis. Image quality was not significantly different between Groups A and B, which was good, moderate, and poor in 61, 32, and 7% in Group A and 60, 34, and 6% in Group B, respectively (p = 1.0). CONCLUSION: One cannot predict individual scan delay from easily obtainable clinical parameters. Fortunately, a 20 s fixed scan delay provides equal image quality as individualized contrast timing.


Assuntos
Iohexol/análogos & derivados , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Doença Aguda , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo
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