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1.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; : e0031222, 2022 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546123

RESUMO

We report the near-full-length genome sequences of 22 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1, lineage Sindh-08, obtained from foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Pakistan between 2011 and 2012. The scarcity of full-length FMDV sequences from this region enhances the importance of these new genomes for understanding the regional molecular epidemiology.

2.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 11(2): e0116721, 2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35112907

RESUMO

Here, we report the genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) contaminating a continuous fetal bovine kidney cell line. The cell line (LFBK-αVß6) is used for the rapid isolation and serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sequence contains the full polyprotein-coding sequence and partial untranslated regions (UTRs).

3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(1): 72-87, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237198

RESUMO

Transboundary movement of animal feed and feed ingredients has been identified as a route for pathogen incursions. While imports of animals and animal-derived products are highly regulated for the purpose of infectious disease prevention, there has been less consideration of the viability of infectious agents in inanimate products, such as feed. This study investigated the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to remain infectious as a contaminant of commercial whole pig feed and select pig feed ingredients, and to establish the minimum infectious dose (MIDF ) required to cause foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in pigs that consumed contaminated feed. FMDV viability in vitro varied depending on virus strain, feed product, and storage temperature, with increased duration of infectivity in soybean meal compared to pelleted whole feed. Specifically, both strains of FMDV evaluated remained viable through to the end of the 37 day observation period in experimentally contaminated soybean meal stored at 4 or 20°C . The MIDF for pigs consuming contaminated feed varied across virus strains and exposure duration in the range of 106.2 to 107 TCID50 . The ability of FMDV to cause infection in exposed pigs was mitigated by pre-treatment of feed with two commercially available feed additives, based on either formaldehyde (SalCURB®) or lactic acid (Guardian™). Our findings demonstrate that FMDV may remain infectious in pig feed ingredients for durations compatible with transoceanic transport. Although the observed MIDF was relatively high, variations in feeding conditions and biophysical characteristics of different virus strains may alter the probability of infection. These findings may be used to parameterize modelling of the risk of FMDV incursions and to regulate feed importation to minimize the risk of inadvertent importation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Febre Aftosa , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão
4.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0165021, 2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586864

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) field studies have suggested the occurrence of simultaneous infection of individual hosts by multiple virus strains; however, the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) coinfections is largely unknown. In the current study, cattle were experimentally exposed to two FMDV strains of different serotypes (O and A). One cohort was simultaneously infected with both viruses, while additional cohorts were initially infected with FMDV A and subsequently superinfected with FMDV O after 21 or 35 days. Coinfections were confirmed during acute infection, with both viruses concurrently detected in blood, lesions, and secretions. Staggered exposures resulted in overlapping infections as convalescent animals with persistent subclinical FMDV infection were superinfected with a heterologous virus. Staggering virus exposure by 21 days conferred clinical protection in six of eight cattle, which were subclinically infected following the heterologous virus exposure. This effect was transient, as all animals superinfected at 35 days post-initial infection developed fulminant FMD. The majority of cattle maintained persistent infection with one of the two viruses while clearing the other. Analysis of viral genomes confirmed interserotypic recombination events within 10 days in the upper respiratory tract of five superinfected animals from which the dominant genomes contained the capsid coding regions of the O virus and nonstructural coding regions of the A virus. In contrast, there were no dominant recombinant genomes detected in samples from simultaneously coinfected cattle. These findings inculpate persistently infected carriers as potential FMDV mixing vessels in which novel strains may rapidly emerge through superinfection and recombination. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral infection of livestock of critical socioeconomic importance. Field studies from areas of endemic FMD suggest that animals can be simultaneously infected by more than one distinct variant of FMD virus (FMDV), potentially resulting in emergence of novel viral strains through recombination. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms of in vivo FMDV coinfections under controlled experimental conditions. Our findings confirmed that cattle could be simultaneously infected by two distinct serotypes of FMDV, with different outcomes associated with the timing of exposure to the two different viruses. Additionally, dominant interserotypic recombinant FMDVs were discovered in multiple samples from the upper respiratory tracts of five superinfected animals, emphasizing the potential importance of persistently infected FMDV carriers as sources of novel FMDV strains.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Febre Aftosa/virologia , /veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Portador Sadio/virologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Gado/virologia , Sorogrupo
5.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(1)2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414349

RESUMO

We report the genome sequences of 12 recombinant foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from Vietnam. The recombinant strain has a capsid region from an A/Sea-97 strain and a nonstructural segment from an O/ME-SA/PanAsia strain. The isolates were obtained from two outbreak samples collected in June 2017 and 10 subclinical samples collected between 2017 and 2019.

6.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596275

RESUMO

Data-driven modeling of incursions of high-consequence, transboundary pathogens of animals is a critical component of veterinary preparedness. However, simplifying assumptions and excessive use of proxy measures to compensate for gaps in available data may compromise modeled outcomes. The current investigation was prospectively designed to address two major gaps in current knowledge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) pathogenesis in pigs: the end (duration) of the infectious period and the viability of FMDV in decaying carcasses. By serial exposure of sentinel groups of pigs to the same group of donor pigs infected by FMDV A24 Cruzeiro, it was demonstrated that infected pigs transmitted disease at 10 days post infection (dpi), but not at 15 dpi. Assuming a latent period of 1 day, this would result in a conservative estimate of an infectious duration of 9 days, which is considerably longer than suggested by a previous report from an experiment performed in cattle. Airborne contagion was diminished within two days of removal of infected pigs from isolation rooms. FMDV in muscle was inactivated within 7 days in carcasses stored at 4oC. By contrast, FMDV infectivity in vesicle epithelium harvested from intact carcasses stored under similar conditions remained remarkably high until the study termination at 11 weeks post mortem. The output from this study consists of experimentally determined data on contagion associated with FMDV-infected pigs. This information may be utilized to update parameterization of models used for foot-and-mouth disease outbreak simulations involving areas of substantial pig production.

7.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(16)2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299883

RESUMO

We report the genome sequences of seven foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) isolates collected in India between 1997 and 2009. The strains represented four sublineages within the O/ME-SA/Ind2001 lineage. These viruses provide insights into FMDV diversity and evolution in India and may influence future control measures, including vaccine selections.

8.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(5)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001559

RESUMO

We report the genomes of five foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) from distinct provinces in Vietnam. All five viruses were grouped within the O/CATHAY topotype. Sequences contain the full polyprotein coding sequence and partial untranslated regions. These genomes provide critical data on the spread and evolution of FMDVs in the region.

9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1257-1270, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880066

RESUMO

Continuous surveillance for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in endemic settings such as West Africa is imperative to support improved local and regional control plans, with the long-term goal of regional eradication. This paper describes the genetic characterization of FMD viruses (FMDV) obtained from outbreaks in Nigeria (n = 45) and Cameroon (n = 15) during 2016 and from archival samples (n = 3) retrieved from a 2014 outbreak in Nigeria. These viruses were analysed in the context of previously published FMDV sequences from the region. Four FMDV serotypes: O, A, SAT1 and SAT2, were detected. Phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 coding sequences indicate the continuity of FMDV serotype O East Africa-3 (O/EA-3), serotype A AFRICA genotype G-IV (A/AFRICA/G-IV) and serotype South African Territories (SAT) 2 lineage VII (SAT2/VII). The FMDV SAT1 topotype X (SAT1/X), which emerged in Nigeria in 2015, continued to be associated with outbreaks in the region during 2016, and SAT1 is reported for the first time from Cameroon. Additionally, a re-emergence or re-introduction of the serotype O West Africa (O/WA) topotype in Nigeria is described herein. Our findings indicate a consistent, pan-serotypic relationship between FMDV strains detected in Cameroon and Nigeria. Additionally, FMDV strains from West Africa obtained in this study were genetically related to those occurring in East and North Africa. These phylogenetic relationships suggest that animal movements (pastoralism and/or trade) are important factors for virus spread across the African continent. These data provide critical baselines which are a necessary component of Stages 0 and 1 of the Progressive Control Pathway of FMD (PCP-FMD). Specifically, characterizing the existing virus strains (risk) provides the basis for the comprehensive risk-based control plan which is the requisite criteria for Nigeria's transition to Stage 2 of PCP-FMD, and for coordinated regional control of FMD.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Gado , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Sorogrupo
10.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(49)2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806747

RESUMO

We report the genomes of four foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype SAT 1 topotype X isolates from Cameroon. The viruses were isolated from bovine epithelium collected during an outbreak in 2016. These novel sequences update knowledge of FMDV diversity in Central Africa and contribute to regional FMDV molecular epidemiology.

11.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(36)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488534

RESUMO

Here, we report the near-complete genomes of three Southern African Territories 1 (SAT1) serotype strains and one SAT2 serotype strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) recently isolated from Kenya. Viral isolates were obtained from bovine epithelial tissues collected in 2014 and 2016 following outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). These near-complete genome sequences provide a critical update of Kenyan FMDV molecular epidemiology.

12.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(38)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537675

RESUMO

We report the genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A topotype Africa isolate collected from bovine vesicular epithelium from Kenya in 2016. This novel sequence updates the knowledge of FMDV diversity in eastern Africa and has important implications for FMDV epidemiology and molecular analyses.

13.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(33)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416875

RESUMO

We report the full polyprotein-coding sequences and partial untranslated regions (UTRs) of 18 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses from 4 outbreaks in India in 2013 and 2014. All strains grouped within the O/ME-SA/Ind2001d sublineage. These genomes update knowledge of FMD virus (FMDV) diversity in South Asia and may contribute to molecular epidemiology studies and vaccine selections.

14.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(35)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467102

RESUMO

We report a near-full-length genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype Southern African Territories 2 (SAT 2), topotype VII, isolated from cattle during an FMDV outbreak in Bauchi State, Nigeria, in October 2014. This provides the first SAT 2 near-full-length genome sequence from West Africa and contributes to our understanding of viral spread and evolution.

15.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 8(35)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467103

RESUMO

This is the first report of two near-complete genome sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O from Kenya. The viruses were isolated from bovine epithelium collected in 2014 and 2016 from local FMD outbreaks. These full-genome sequences are critical for improving the understanding of regional FMDV molecular epidemiology.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863819

RESUMO

We report the polyprotein coding sequence of the newly defined Ind2001e sublineage of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype O, isolated from a bovine epithelial tissue sample collected in 2017 in Kon Tum Province, Vietnam. This discovery updates FMDV diversity in Vietnam, has implications for FMDV epidemiology, and influences future vaccine selections.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687818

RESUMO

In 2018, senecavirus A was detected for the first time in Vietnam. This report contains the first complete genome of a senecavirus A isolate collected from pigs in Kon Tum Province, Vietnam. This novel incursion has substantial implications for regional control of vesicular transboundary diseases.

18.
mSphere ; 3(6)2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541776

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cattle was investigated through early and late stages of infection by use of an optimized experimental model for controlled contact exposure. Time-limited exposure of cattle to FMDV-infected pigs led to primary FMDV infection of the nasopharyngeal mucosa in both vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. In nonvaccinated cattle, the infection generalized rapidly to cause clinical disease, without apparent virus amplification in the lungs prior to establishment of viremia. Vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical disease and viremia; however, all vaccinated cattle were subclinically infected, and persistent infection occurred at similarly high prevalences in both animal cohorts. Infection dynamics in cattle were consistent and synchronous and comparable to those of simulated natural and needle inoculation systems. However, the current experimental model utilizes a natural route of virus exposure and is therefore superior for investigations of disease pathogenesis and host response. Deep sequencing of viruses obtained during early infection of pigs and cattle indicated that virus populations sampled from sites of primary infection were markedly more diverse than viruses from vesicular lesions of cattle, suggesting the occurrence of substantial bottlenecks associated with vesicle formation. These data expand previous knowledge of FMDV pathogenesis in cattle and provide novel insights for validation of inoculation models of bovine FMD studies.IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important livestock pathogen that is often described as the greatest constraint to global trade in animal products. The present study utilized a standardized pig-to-cow contact exposure model to demonstrate that FMDV infection of cattle initiates in the nasopharyngeal mucosa following natural virus exposure. Furthermore, this work confirmed the role of the bovine nasopharyngeal mucosa as the site of persistent FMDV infection in vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. The critical output of this study validates previous studies that have used simulated natural inoculation models to characterize FMDV pathogenesis in cattle and emphasizes the importance of continued research of the unique virus-host interactions that occur within the bovine nasopharynx. Specifically, vaccines and biotherapeutic countermeasures designed to prevent nasopharyngeal infection of vaccinated animals could contribute to substantially improved control of FMDV.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Epitélio/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/isolamento & purificação , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
19.
Front Vet Sci ; 5: 174, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101147

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by FMD virus (FMDV; Aphthovirus, Picornaviridae), is a highly contagious and economically important disease of cloven-hoofed domestic livestock and wildlife species worldwide. Subsequent to the clinical phase of FMD, a large proportion of FMDV-infected ruminants become persistently infected carriers, defined by detection of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) samples 28 days or more post-infection. The goal of this prospective study was to characterize the FMD carrier state in cattle subsequent to natural infection under typical husbandry practices in Vietnam. Ten persistently infected cattle on eight farms in the Long An province in southern Vietnam were monitored by monthly screening of serum and oropharyngeal fluid samples for 12 months. To assess transmission from FMDV carriers, 16 naïve cattle were intentionally brought into direct contact with the persistently infected animals for 6 months, and were monitored by clinical and laboratory methods. The restricted mean duration of the FMD carrier state was 27.7 months, and the rate of decrease of the proportion of carrier animals was 0.03 per month. There was no evidence of transmission to naïve animals throughout the study period. Additionally, there was no detection of FMDV infection or seroconversion in three calves born to carrier animals during the study. The force of infection for carrier-to-contact transmission was 0 per month, with upper 95% confidence limit of 0.064 per month. Phylogenetic analysis of viral protein 1 (VP1) coding sequences obtained from carriers indicated that all viruses recovered in this study belonged to the O/ME-SA/PanAsia lineage, and grouped phylogenetically with temporally and geographically related viruses. Analysis of within-host evolution of FMDV, based upon full-length open reading frame sequences recovered from consecutive samples from one animal, indicated that most of the non-synonymous changes occurred in Lpro, VP2, and VP3 protein coding regions. This study suggests that the duration of FMDV persistent infection in cattle may be longer than previously recognized, but the risk of transmission is low. Additional novel insights are provided into within-host viral evolution under natural conditions in an endemic setting.

20.
Prev Vet Med ; 155: 1-10, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786519

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious and economically important livestock diseases worldwide. Four serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV; O, A, SAT1, SAT2) circulate in Cameroon, and a trivalent inactivated vaccine against the three most common serotypes (O, A, SAT2) was recently introduced in 2014. The objective of this study was to characterize vaccine performance in cattle under natural hyperendemic conditions in the Adamawa region of Cameroon. Vaccinated cattle (n = 50) and non-vaccinated controls (n = 100) were monitored by serum and oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) sample collection through a 12-month period. Anti-FMDV non-structural protein (anti-NSP) seroprevalence increased from 59.3% (89/150) at the beginning of the study to 85.8% (103/120) at the end of the study, and FMDV RNA was found in 28% (42/150) of animals overall, despite detection of clinical signs of FMD in only 6 non-vaccinated animals. Viral sequence analysis indicated that subclinical infections of FMDV serotypes O and A were present within the study herds during the study period, which was reflected by an overall increase of anti-NSP seroprevalence during the study. There was no association between vaccination status and seroconversion or prevalence of FMDV RNA in OPF. Younger cattle had higher odds of detection of FMDV RNA in OPF, but older animals were more likely to be seropositive. This study suggests vaccination of herds previously exposed to FMDV may help to limit clinical signs and reduce economic losses caused by FMDV. These findings also suggest that subclinical circulation of FMDV occurs in hyperendemic regions regardless of vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
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