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1.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(10): 2019-2027, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606439

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the relationship between internet use, sleep, and internalizing disorder symptoms in adolescents with an evening circadian preference. METHODS: One hundred seventy-two adolescents aged 10-18 years with an evening circadian preference completed a week of sleep diaries and questionnaires about internet use and internalizing disorder symptoms. RESULTS: Adolescents reported internet use for 3.81 hours on weekdays and 5.44 hours on weekends, with > 90% having access to both a computer with internet and a personal cell phone. A majority of adolescents used the internet from 4-8 pm (71%) and from 9-11 pm (62%). Common online activities included listening to music (77%), watching videos (64%), communicating with others (64%), and doing homework (58%). Late-night internet use (9-11 pm) was associated with more internalizing disorder symptoms. Middle-of-the-night internet use (midnight-5 am) was associated with a later bedtime, shorter total sleep time, and more internalizing disorder symptoms. Adolescents used the internet to fulfill social needs, to avoid or combat boredom, or for maladaptive activities. Using the internet for social interaction or avoidance/boredom was associated with higher internalizing disorder symptoms. Using the internet for maladaptive reasons was associated with more late-night and middle-of-the-night use. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent internet use late at night and in the middle of the night is common. Internet use may be motivated by desires for social connection, by boredom/avoidance, or for maladaptive behaviors. Because middle-of-the-night internet use was associated with higher internalizing disorder symptoms and worse sleep, it presents as a potential target for intervention. CITATION: Asarnow LD, Gasperetti CE, Gumport NB, Harvey AG. Internet use and its impact on internalizing disorder symptoms and sleep in adolescents with an evening circadian preference. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(10):2019-2027.

2.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; : 1745691621995752, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495781

RESUMO

Habits affect nearly every aspect of our physical and mental health. Although the science of habit formation has long been of interest to psychological scientists across disciplines, we propose that applications to clinical psychological science have been insufficiently explored. In particular, evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) are interventions targeting psychological processes that cause and/or maintain mental illness and that have been developed and evaluated scientifically. An implicit goal of EBPTs is to disrupt unwanted habits and develop desired habits. However, there has been insufficient attention given to habit-formation principles, theories, and measures in the development and delivery of EBTPs. Herein we consider whether outcomes following an EBPT would greatly improve if the basic science of habit formation were more fully leveraged. We distill six ingredients that are central to habit formation and demonstrate how these ingredients are relevant to EBPTs. We highlight practice points and an agenda for future research. We propose that there is an urgent need for research to guide the application of the science of habit formation and disruption to the complex "real-life" habits that are the essence of EBPTs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561774

RESUMO

The Transdiagnostic Intervention for Sleep and Circadian Dysfunction (TranS-C) was implemented in a community mental health center (CMHC) setting. The goal of TranS-C is to improve sleep and circadian dysfunction among people with severe mental illness. The present study uses the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to uncover barriers and facilitators to changing behaviors learned in TranS-C. Adults with severe mental illness who completed TranS-C (n = 14) were given a semi-structured interview based on the TDF. Interview transcripts were independently coded using inductive and deductive coding. The most commonly coded TDF domains were Behavior Regulation, Beliefs about Consequences, Knowledge and Beliefs about Capabilities. Action planning was the most discussed facilitator and compromising sleep health in favor of time spent with loved ones was the most discussed barrier. These findings suggest that TranS-C has promising strengths and raise important barriers that can be addressed in TranS-C to improve its fit within CMHCs.

4.
Behav Res Ther ; 145: 103948, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comorbidity and subdiagnostic symptoms are understudied for sleep and circadian problems. We evaluated 1) impairment associated with (a) number of sleep and circadian problems and (b) diagnostic threshold (full diagnosis vs. subdiagnostic symptoms), and 2) Transdiagnostic Sleep and Circadian Intervention (TranS-C) outcomes for participants with specific sleep and circadian problems. METHOD: Community participants (N = 121) with serious mental illness and sleep and circadian problem(s) were randomized to receive TranS-C plus usual care (TranS-C + UC) or usual care plus delayed TranS-C (UC-DT). Overall impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and sleep and circadian dysfunction were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Higher numbers of sleep and circadian problems, versus one problem, were associated with worse overall impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and sleep and circadian dysfunction (ps < 0.05, ω2 = 0.06-0.15). Diagnostic threshold was not associated with baseline functioning (ps > 0.05). TranS-C + UC versus UC-DT was associated with psychosocial and sleep and circadian improvements for specific sleep and circadian problems (insomnia, hypersomnia, parasomnias, periodic limb movement/restless leg syndrome, circadian rhythm disorders), though improvements varied by problem. TranS-C + UC outcomes were not moderated by number of sleep and circadian problems (ps > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Higher numbers of sleep and circadian problems, not diagnostic threshold, were associated with greater impairment. Transdiagnostic utility of TranS-C + UC was supported.

5.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 537-550, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the Transdiagnostic Intervention for Sleep and Circadian Dysfunction (TranS-C) improves functional impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and sleep and circadian functioning. METHOD: Adults diagnosed with serious mental illness (SMI) and sleep and circadian dysfunction (N = 121) were randomly allocated to TranS-C plus usual care (TranS-C + UC; n = 61; 8 individual weekly sessions) or 6 months of Usual Care followed by Delayed Treatment with TranS-C (UC-DT; n = 60). Schizophrenia (45%) and anxiety disorders (47%) were common. Blind assessments were conducted pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6 months later (6FU). The latter two were the post-randomization points of interest. The location was Alameda County Behavioral Health Care Services (ACBHCS), a Community Mental Health Center (CMHC) in California. RESULTS: For the primary outcomes, relative to UC-DT, TranS-C + UC was associated with reduction in functional impairment (b = -3.18, p = 0.025, d = -0.58), general psychiatric symptoms (b = -5.88, p = 0.001, d = -0.64), sleep disturbance (b = -5.55, p < .0001, d = -0.96), and sleep-related impairment (b = -9.14, p < .0001, d = -0.81) from pre-treatment to post-treatment. These effects were maintained to 6-month follow-up (6FU; d = -0.42 to -0.82), except functional impairment (d = -0.37). For the secondary outcomes, relative to UC-DT, TranS-C + UC was associated with improvement in sleep efficiency and on the Sleep Health Composite score from pre-treatment to 6FU. TranS-C + UC was also associated with reduced total wake time and wake time variability from pre-treatment to post-treatment, as well as reduced hallucinations and delusions, bedtime variability, and actigraphy measured waking activity count variability from pre-treatment to 6FU. CONCLUSIONS: A novel transdiagnostic treatment, delivered within a CMHC setting, improves selected measures of functioning, symptoms of comorbid disorders, and sleep and circadian outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Adulto , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/complicações , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Behav Ther ; 52(4): 932-944, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134832

RESUMO

Patient memory for the contents of treatment is staggeringly poor, and poor memory for treatment is associated with worse treatment outcome. Accordingly, the Memory Support Intervention was developed to improve patient memory for treatment as an adjunct to treatment as usual. As plans to disseminate the Memory Support Intervention are developed, it is important to have efficient, accurate methods of measuring fidelity to the intervention. However, the existing method of assessing fidelity to the Memory Support Intervention, the Memory Support Rating Scale (MSRS), is burdensome and requires trained independent-raters to spend multiple hours reviewing session recordings, which is not feasible in many routine mental health care settings. Hence, a provider-rated measure of fidelity to the MSI has been developed. The goal of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of scores on this measure-the Memory Support Treatment Provider Checklist. A sample of Memory Support Treatment Provider Checklists (N = 319) were completed by providers (N = 8) treating adults with depression (N = 84). Three metrics of the Memory Support Treatment Provider Checklist were evaluated: (a) the internal consistency and structural validity using confirmatory factor analysis based on prior research on the MSRS and the Memory Support Intervention, (b) construct validity, and (c) predictive validity. Results indicate that the Memory Support Treatment Provider Checklist yields reliable and valid scores of fidelity to the Memory Support Intervention. Overall, this checklist offers a viable, brief method of evaluating fidelity to the Memory Support Intervention.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 129: 105241, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation-related processes have emerged as a biological pathway related to adolescent development. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of baseline inflammatory markers with sleep, circadian preference, and health at baseline and following treatment. METHODS: Participants included 165 adolescents (58.2% female, mean age 14.7 years, 42.4% taking medication) "at-risk" in at least one domain (emotional, cognitive, behavioral, social, and physical health) who received a sleep-based intervention. Self-reported eveningness as well as total sleep time (TST) and bedtime from sleep diary were assessed at baseline and following treatment. Baseline soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (sTNF-R2) and interleukin (IL)-6 were assayed from oral mucosal transudate. Baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) was assayed from saliva. RESULTS: At baseline, shorter TST was associated with more emotional risk among adolescents with higher CRP (b = -0.014, p = 0.007). Greater eveningness was related to more behavioral risk in the context of lower IL-6 (b = -0.142, p = 0.005). Following treatment, lower baseline IL-6 was associated with reduced behavioral risk (Χ2 = 8.06, p = 0.045) and lower baseline CRP was related to reduced physical health risk (Χ2 = 9.34, p = 0.025). Baseline inflammatory markers were not significantly associated with sleep, circadian, or other health domain change following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: There was cross-sectional evidence that sleep and circadian dysfunction differentially relate to emotional and behavioral health risk for high and low levels of inflammatory markers. Longitudinal analyses indicated that lower levels of baseline inflammatory markers may be related to better treatment response to a sleep-based intervention.

8.
J Youth Adolesc ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948831

RESUMO

There are mixed findings when examining if technology use is harmful for adolescent sleep and health. This study builds on these mixed findings by examining the association between technology use with sleep and health in a high-risk group of adolescents. Adolescents with an evening circadian preference (N = 176; 58% female, mean age = 14.77, age range = 10-18) completed measures over one week. Sleep was measured via actigraphy. Technology use and health were measured using ecological momentary assessment. Technology use was associated with an increase in sleep onset latency; with better emotional, social, cognitive, and physical health; and with worse behavioral health. This study offers support for technology use having some benefits and expands research on technology use to adolescents with an evening circadian preference.

9.
Sleep Med ; 79: 166-174, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262011

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between light and sleep, in adolescents with an evening circadian preference. METHODS: For a period of seven days, ninety-nine adolescents wore a wrist actigraph to assess light exposure and objective sleep and completed a sleep diary to assess subjective sleep. RESULTS: Lower average light intensity across the preceding 24 h was associated with a later sleep onset (p < 0.01) and a later next-day sleep offset (p < 0.05). A later time of last exposure to more than 10 lux was associated with a later sleep onset (p < 0.001) and a shorter objective total sleep time (p < 0.001), as well as a later bedtime (p < 0.001) and a shorter subjective total sleep time (p < 0.001). Furthermore, exploratory analyses found that lower average early morning light exposure (between 4 and 9 AM) was associated with later sleep onset (p < 0.05), a later next-day sleep offset (p < 0.05), and a later next-day waketime (p < 0.01), lower average afternoon light exposure (between 2 and 7 PM) was associated with a later next-day sleep offset (p < 0.05), and lower average evening light exposure (between 7 PM and 12 AM) was associated with longer subjective total sleep time (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of light exposure, particularly the timing of light exposure, for establishing healthy patterns of sleep among adolescents with a propensity for a delayed bedtime and waketime. These findings provide additional evidence for targeting light exposure when designing interventions to improve adolescent sleep.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Sono , Adolescente , Humanos , Polissonografia
10.
Sleep Med ; 77: 184-191, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) during adolescence has been linked to impaired health and poor functioning. However there is a dearth of knowledge about DSWPD in young adulthood. We seek to contribute knowledge on the prevalence and correlates of DSWPD in this age group. METHODS: Data were drawn from a 2018 national survey of students in higher education in Norway (the SHoT-study). All 162,512 fulltime students in Norway were invited to participate and 50,054 students (69.1% women) aged 18-35 years were included (response rate = 30.8%). DSWPD was assessed by self-report, and was operationalized according to the criteria for DSWPD in the most recent edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Correlates of DSWPD were examined by validated self-report instruments covering a wide range of demographic and health domains. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of DSWPD was 3.3%, and significantly higher in male (4.7%) than female (2.7%) students. DSWPD was associated with being single, having financial difficulties, having divorced parents, being overweight/obese, and physical inactivity. Students with DSWPD had more sleep problems during weekdays, and higher levels of somatic and mental health problems. Students with DSWPD also had an elevated risk of self-harm-related thoughts and behaviors as well as suicidality. CONCLUSION: DSWPD remains a significant problem among young adults, and the high symptom load across health domains indicates that suggests a need for existing evidence-based approaches to be scaled for college students who present with DSWPD.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Sleep Res ; 30(1): e13150, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743857

RESUMO

Sleep and depression are interlinked throughout the lifespan, but very few studies have examined the directionality of the sleep-depression link in children. The aim of the current study was to prospectively examine the bidirectional association between sleep problems and internalizing problems and depressive symptoms in toddlers and children aged 1.5 and 8 years. Data stem from the large ongoing population-based longitudinal study, the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study, recruited from October 1999 to July 2009. A total of 35,075 children were included. Information on sleep duration, nocturnal awakenings and internalizing problems (Child Behaviour Checklist) was provided by the mothers at 1.5 years, whereas data on sleep duration and depressive symptoms (Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire) were provided by the mothers when the children were 8 years old. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression analyses. After accounting for previous internalizing problems, short sleep duration (≤10 hr) and frequent (≥3) nightly awakenings at 1.5 years predicted the development of depressive symptoms at 8 years of age (adjusted OR = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.51, and adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.50, respectively). Also, internalizing problems at 1.5 years predicted onset of later short sleep duration (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.32-2.54) after accounting for early sleep problems. This prospective study demonstrated a bidirectional association between sleep and internalizing/depressive symptoms from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Intervention studies are needed to examine whether targeting either of these problems at this early age may prevent onset of the other.

12.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 24(1): 33-40, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355291

RESUMO

QUESTION: The context for the implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) often differs from the context in which the treatment was developed, which necessitates adaptations. In this systematic review we build on, and add to, prior approaches by examining the method used to guide such adaptations. In particular, we sought to elucidate the extent to which an empirical process is used. STUDY SELECTION AND ANALYSIS: We focused on publications describing adaptations made to EBPTs for adults diagnosed with a mental illness. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science from database inception to July 2018. Two raters independently coded the articles for the method used to conduct the adaptation, the reason for and nature of the adaptation, and who made the adaptation. FINDINGS: The search produced 20 194 citations, which yielded 152 articles after screening. The most commonly used methods for planned adaptations were literature review (57.7%), clinical intuition (47.0%) and theory (38.9%). The use of data from stakeholder interviews ranked fourth (21.5%) and the use of other types of data (eg, pilot study, experiment, survey, interview) ranked last at fifth (12.1%). Few publications reporting ad hoc adaptations were identified (n=3). CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights a need to (a) educate providers and researchers to carefully consider the methods used for the treatment adaptation process, and to use empirical methods where possible and where appropriate, (b) improve the quality of reporting of stakeholder interviews and (c) develop reporting standards that articulate optimal methods for conducting treatment adaptations.

13.
14.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2(8): e397-e406, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several large-scale randomised controlled trials have shown the efficacy of digital cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (dCBT-I), there is a need to validate widespread dissemination of dCBT-I using recommended key outcomes for insomnia. We investigated the effect of a fully automated dCBT-I programme on insomnia severity, sleep-wake patterns, sleep medication use, and daytime impairment. METHODS: We did a parallel-group superiority randomised controlled trial comparing dCBT-I with online patient education about sleep. The interventions were available through a free-to-access website, publicised throughout Norway, which incorporated automated screening, informed consent, and randomisation procedures, as well as outcome assessments. Adults (age ≥18 years) who had regular internet access and scored 12 or higher on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were eligible for inclusion, and were allocated (1:1) to receive dCBT-I (consisting of six core interactive sessions to be completed over 9 weeks) or patient education (control group). Participants were masked to group assignment and had no contact with researchers during the intervention period. The primary outcome was the change in ISI score from baseline to 9-week follow-up, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02558647) and is ongoing, with 2-year follow-up assessments planned. FINDINGS: Between Feb 26, 2016, and July 1, 2018, 5349 individuals commenced the online screening process, of which 1497 were ineligible or declined to participate, 2131 discontinued the screening process, and 1721 were randomly allocated (868 to receive dCBT-I and 853 to receive patient education). At 9-week follow-up, 584 (67%) participants in the dCBT-I group and 534 (63%) in the patient education group completed the ISI assessment. The latent growth model showed that participants in the dCBT-I group had a significantly greater reduction in ISI scores from baseline (mean score 19·2 [SD 3·9]) to 9-week follow-up (10·4 [6·2]) than those in the patient education group (from 19·6 [4·0] to 15·2 [5·3]; estimated mean difference -4·7 (95% CI -5·4 to -4·1; Cohen's d -1·21; p<0·001). Compared with patient education, the number needed to treat with dCBT-I was 2·7 (95% CI 2·4 to 3·2) for treatment response (ISI score reduction ≥8) and 3·2 (2·8 to 3·8) for insomnia remission (ISI score <8). No adverse events were reported to the trial team. INTERPRETATION: dCBT-I is effective in reducing the severity of symptoms associated with the insomnia disorder. These findings support the widespread dissemination of dCBT-I. Future research is needed to identify the moderators of response and to improve targeting. FUNDING: Norwegian Research Council; Liaison Committee for Education, Research and Innovation in Central Norway.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Sono , Terapia Assistida por Computador , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159591

RESUMO

Sleep problems are prevalent among adolescents, especially among those diagnosed with mental health disorders. There is insufficient knowledge about sleep among adolescents within child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in comparison to the general population. The data are drawn from the youth@hordaland study, a large population-based study conducted in 2012, linked to the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR) (n = 9077). Psychiatric disorders were based on clinical diagnoses from the NPR, while insomnia, delayed sleep-wake-phase disorder (DSWPD), and other sleep problems/patterns were assessed by self-report questionnaires from youth@hordaland. The prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among adolescents seeking mental health services was 0.6%, yielding an estimated prevalence of 0.07% of the population. However, questionnaire-based measurement of insomnia from the youth@hordaland study indicated that insomnia was highly prevalent across disorders in comparison to a reference group of adolescents who were not within mental health care. Insomnia ranged from 29% among adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (PR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.41-2.29) to 48% among adolescents diagnosed with depression (PR = 2.53, 95% CI 2.19-2.92). All diagnostic groups had a mean sleep efficiency below (85%), indicating poor sleep quality. Insomnia, delayed sleep-phase wake disorder, and poor sleep efficiency were confirmed as transdiagnostic sleep problems across psychiatric disorders. In addition, some disorder-specific patterns emerged, such as a higher prevalence of insomnia among adolescents with depression, and DSWPS among adolescents with conduct disorder. This underscores the need for treating sleep problems in CAMHS, and transdiagnostic treatment approaches are warranted.

16.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113443, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890862

RESUMO

The implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments (EBPTs) may be particularly challenging to accomplish in community mental health settings for individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). Transdiagnostic treatments, or treatments that target a mechanism that underpins multiple mental health problems, may be particularly well-suited to community mental health settings. This study examines community stakeholder perspectives (N = 22) of the Transdiagnostic Sleep and Circadian Intervention (TranS-C) implemented in a community mental health setting in the context of a randomized controlled trial of TranS-C for SMI. The present study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of TranS-C for SMI in a community mental health setting using (1) a deductive theory-based process based on the Framework for Dissemination in Health Services Intervention Research and (2) an inductive thematic analysis process. All deductive themes were identified as both barriers and facilitators to the implementation of EBPTs and TranS-C in this community mental health setting. Seven additional themes were identified through the inductive thematic analysis. A discussion of how the findings are related to prior research, other EBPT implementation, and future TranS-C implementation are included.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sono/fisiologia , Participação dos Interessados , Adulto , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia
17.
Sleep Med ; 75: 411-417, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971382

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess stability and predictors of insomnia and sleep duration from adolescence to early adulthood. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of 1257 individuals from three age cohorts were assessed from linked population-based studies, the youth@hordaland study from 2012 (age 16-18) and the SHoT2018 study (age 22-25). Identical measures of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration were analysed. RESULTS: The stability of insomnia was high from adolescence to young adulthood, 50% of those with insomnia symptoms in adolescence still had insomnia symptoms six years later (adjusted IRR = 2.01; (CI 95%; 1.5-2.44)). Short sleep duration was also stable, with 67.8% of the adolescents in the lowest sleep duration quartile still remaining in the lowest quartile six years later. The overall rate of insomnia symptoms, long wake after sleep onset (WASO), and oversleeping increased from adolescence to young adulthood. Also, we observed a reduction in sleep efficiency and later rise times. There was no significant change in sleep onset latency (SOL). CONCLUSION: Insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration are prevalent during both adolescence and young adulthood. Considerable individual stability and a rising rate of insomnia symptoms were observed over time. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and timely interventions to prevent chronic sleep problems.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Polissonografia , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Health Psychol ; 39(9): 785-795, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parents have profound impacts on adolescents' health behaviors. Yet parents receive minimal training in the elements of conversations that optimally inspire their children toward engaging in healthy behaviors. The current study examines a novel interpersonal target: parent-adolescent conversations about adolescent health behavior change. Derived from advances in the science of behavior change, the Parent Behavior Change Intervention (PBC-I) contains conversational elements (e.g., behavior change techniques, positive communication strategies) hypothesized to reduce parent-adolescent coercion and conflict and facilitate upward spirals of healthy behavior change in adolescents. METHOD/DESIGN: The first phase of the study involves the development of the PBC-I in a small case series (N = 12 dyads). The second phase involves an open trial of the PBC-I (N = 36 dyads). Adolescents will receive six 50-min sessions of the Transdiagnostic Sleep and Circadian Intervention to improve sleep while their parents receive six50-min sessions of the PBC-I. Parent-adolescent dyads will be assessed before and after the intervention. The primary analysis will examine whether postintervention use of behavior change techniques and positive communication strategies by parents is higher than preintervention use and whether increased use by parents predicts more positive conversational behaviors, less parent-adolescent conflict, higher adolescent motivation for change, and improved adolescent sleep. DISCUSSION: This research provides an initial test of the hypothesis that improving the parent-adolescent conversation will improve adolescent sleep health behavior. While sleep-related health behaviors are the focus of this study, the research is designed to be relevant to a broad range of health behavior change in young people. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho/legislação & jurisprudência
19.
Behav Ther ; 51(5): 800-813, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800307

RESUMO

Monitoring treatment fidelity is essential to check if patients receive adequate doses of treatment and to enhance our theoretical understanding of how psychosocial treatments work. Developing valid and efficient measures to assess fidelity is a priority for dissemination and implementation efforts. The present study reports on the psychometric properties of the Provider-Rated TranS-C Checklist-a provider-reported fidelity measure for the Transdiagnostic Sleep and Circadian Intervention (TranS-C). Adults with severe mental illness (SMI; N = 101) seeking treatment in a community mental health setting received eight sessions of TranS-C. Therapists completed the Provider-Rated TranS-C Checklist at the end of each treatment session (N = 808) to indicate which modules they delivered during that session. To assess convergent validity, independent raters scored modules delivered from audio recordings of a subset of sessions (n = 257) for the modules delivered using the Independent-Rater TranS-C Checklist. Using exploratory factor analysis, a unidimensional scale composed of TranS-C's modules was identified. Provider-Rated TranS-C Checklist scores were positively associated with the Independent-Rater TranS-C Checklist scores demonstrating convergent validity. Results indicate that the Provider-Rated TranS-C Checklist yields reliable and valid scores of providers' delivery of TranS-C.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Saúde Mental , Sono , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Psicometria
20.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 61(10): 1150-1159, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An abundance of cross-sectional research links inadequate sleep with poor emotional health, but experimental studies in children are rare. Further, the impact of sleep loss is not uniform across individuals and pre-existing anxiety might potentiate the effects of poor sleep on children's emotional functioning. METHODS: A sample of 53 children (7-11 years, M = 9.0; 56% female) completed multimodal, assessments in the laboratory when rested and after two nights of sleep restriction (7 and 6 hr in bed, respectively). Sleep was monitored with polysomnography and actigraphy. Subjective reports of affect and arousal, psychophysiological reactivity and regulation, and objective emotional expression were examined during two emotional processing tasks, including one where children were asked to suppress their emotional responses. RESULTS: After sleep restriction, deleterious alterations were observed in children's affect, emotional arousal, facial expressions, and emotion regulation. These effects were primarily detected in response to positive emotional stimuli. The presence of anxiety symptoms moderated most alterations in emotional processing observed after sleep restriction. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest inadequate sleep preferentially impacts positive compared to negative emotion in prepubertal children and that pre-existing anxiety symptoms amplify these effects. Implications for children's everyday socioemotional lives and long-term affective risk are highlighted.

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