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1.
Can Fam Physician ; 66(2): 104-111, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To contrast how Brazil's and Canada's different jurisdictional and judicial realities have led to different types of telemedicine and how further scale and improvement can be achieved. COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE: A subgroup of the Besrour Centre of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and Canadian telemedicine experts developed connections with colleagues in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and collaborated to undertake a between-country comparison of their respective telemedicine programs. METHODS: Following a literature review, the authors collectively reflected on their experiences in an attempt to explore the past and current state of telemedicine in Canada and Brazil. REPORT: Both Brazil and Canada share expansive geographies, creating substantial barriers to health for rural patients. Telemedicine is an important part of a universal health system. Both countries have achieved telemedicine programs that have scaled up across large regions and are showing important effects on health care costs and outcomes. However, each system is unique in design and implementation and faces unique challenges for further scale and improvement. Addressing regional differences, the normalization of telemedicine, and potential alignment of telemedicine and artificial intelligence technologies for health care are seen as promising approaches to scaling up and improving telemedicine in both countries.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the 5-year prevalence of patients admitted to public inpatient care units due to a mental disorder, stratifying them by age group and diagnosis, and to assess trends of admissions over this time period in Porto Alegre. METHODS: All admissions to the public mental health care system regulated by the city-owned electronic system Administração Geral dos Hospitais (AGHOS) were included in the analysis. The total population size was obtained by estimations of Fundação de Economia e Estatística (FEE). General information about 5-year prevalence of inpatient admissions, time-series trends e prevalence by age groups and diagnosis were presented. RESULTS: There were 32,608 admissions over the 5-year period analyzed. The overall prevalence of patients was 1.62% among the total population, 0.01% among children, 1.12% among adolescents, 2.28% among adults and 0.93% among the elderly. The most common diagnosis was drug-related, followed by mood, alcohol-related and psychotic disorders. There was a linear trend showing an increase in the number of admissions from 2013 to the midst of 2014, which dropped in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: Admissions due to mental disorders are relatively common, mainly among adults and related to drug use and mood disorders. Time trends varied slightly over the 5 years. Prevalence rates in real-world settings might be useful for policymakers interested in planning the public mental health system in large Brazilian cities.

4.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 176, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730005

RESUMO

We present to the scientific community the pioneering of Brazilian National Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, the Brazilian Census Bureau) in partnership with the Ministry of Health, the largest fieldwork ever conducted in a single country in the world, using the PCAT in a national household sample survey, visiting more than 100,000 households and 40% of the country's municipalities. In Brazil, PCAT is being consolidated as an instrument to support public policy for the evaluation of primary health care. We believe that it represents a virtuous example of dialogue between scientific community and health management, following the legacy of Professors Barbara Starfield and Leiyu Shi.

5.
Telemed J E Health ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556810

RESUMO

Background: Hypertension remains widely undetected, undertreated, and poorly controlled. Appropriate dietary changes can prevent and treat hypertension effectively. Primary care physicians (PCPs) have the opportunity to counsel patients about their diets and are able to facilitate long-term adherence to changes. However, they encounter several barriers to delivery of evidence-based counseling in daily medical practice. m-Health can make important contributions. Objective: To describe the development and assessment of a Brazilian mobile app for nutritional management of hypertension supported by evidence-based. Materials and Methods: App development used a user-centered approach that seeks to solve problems in a collective and collaborative way. The app was developed in Apache Cordova for iOS and Android mobile phone platforms. Beta testing was performed with a sample of Brazilian PCPs (n = 62), who were asked to use the app in routine practice and evaluate it. Results: The process involved researchers, government, PCPs, nutritionists, and designers. Dieta Dash app was divided into following sections: meal evaluation, Healthy meals, Healthy choices, and a database of Healthy recipes. The mean perceived usefulness and ease-of-use scores were 23.3 and 32.3 out of 42, respectively. Conclusions: It is a great source of up-to-date and summary guidelines, usable, acceptable, and positively impact clinical care. PCPs have identified improvements that could make the user experience better. The Dieta Dash app can be incorporated into Brazilian primary care practice.

6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(9): 3457-3462, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508763

RESUMO

On May 20, 2019, one day after the world's celebration of the Family Physician's Day, the Ministry of Health published Decree N. 9,795 of May 17, 2019, which changed the organization chart of this federal body. For the first time in the country's history, a specific Secretariat responsible for Primary Health Care and the Family Health Strategy (ESF) was created. The ESF celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2019. The new Primary Health Care Secretariat (SAPS) has three departments: the already existing Department of Strategic Programmatic Actions (DAPES), a Department of Family Health (DESF) and a new Department of Health Promotion (DPS). The Secretariat has, among its competencies, commitments that seek to meet structural challenges, even in the face of a budget constraint scenario that has been observed since 2014. Among the commitments are: (i) increasing the population's access to family health units , (ii) definition of a new funding model based on health and efficiency results, (iii) definition of a new model for the provision and training of physicians for remote areas, (iv) strengthening of clinic and teamwork, v) expansion of the computerization of units and electronic medical records.

7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3457-3462, set. 2019. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019662

RESUMO

Resumo Em 20 de maio de 2019, um dia após a celebração mundial do "Dia do Médico de Família", o Ministério da Saúde publicou o Decreto nº 9.795, de 17 de maio de 2019, que alterou o organograma desse órgão federal. Foi criada, pela primeira vez na história do País, uma Secretaria específica responsável pela Atenção Primária à Saúde e pela Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF), que completou 25 anos em 2019. A nova Secretaria de Atenção Primária à Saúde (SAPS) abriga três departamentos: o já existente Departamento de Ações Programáticas Estratégicas (DAPES), um Departamento de Saúde da Família (DESF) e um novo Departamento de Promoção da Saúde (DPS). A Secretaria apresenta entre suas competências, compromissos que buscam enfrentar desafios de ordem estruturante, mesmo diante de um cenário de restrição orçamentária que vem sendo observado desde 2014. Entre os compromissos colocados estão: (i) ampliação do acesso da população às unidades de saúde da família, (ii) definição de um novo modelo de financiamento baseado em resultados em saúde e eficiência, (iii) definição de um novo modelo de provimento e formação de médicos para áreas remotas, (iv) fortalecimento da clínica e do trabalho em equipe, (v) ampliação da informatização das unidades e prontuário eletrônico.


Abstract On May 20, 2019, one day after the world's celebration of the Family Physician's Day, the Ministry of Health published Decree N. 9,795 of May 17, 2019, which changed the organization chart of this federal body. For the first time in the country's history, a specific Secretariat responsible for Primary Health Care and the Family Health Strategy (ESF) was created. The ESF celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2019. The new Primary Health Care Secretariat (SAPS) has three departments: the already existing Department of Strategic Programmatic Actions (DAPES), a Department of Family Health (DESF) and a new Department of Health Promotion (DPS). The Secretariat has, among its competencies, commitments that seek to meet structural challenges, even in the face of a budget constraint scenario that has been observed since 2014. Among the commitments are: (i) increasing the population's access to family health units , (ii) definition of a new funding model based on health and efficiency results, (iii) definition of a new model for the provision and training of physicians for remote areas, (iv) strengthening of clinic and teamwork, v) expansion of the computerization of units and electronic medical records.

8.
Int J Med Inform ; 129: 296-302, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Children are an important portion of the population of the territories covered by Primary Health Care (PHC), with needs and characteristics that can be managed at this level of care. Therefore, it is essential that professionals working in PHC be capable of providing child care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of dentists working in primary healthcare (PHC) in a pediatric dentistry distance learning (DL) course, and to investigate the relationship between the grades earned on questionnaires applied after each course module and features of their personal and professional profile. METHOD: The study used a convenience sample of 201 dentists working in PHC, who enrolled in a DL course offered by a telehealth center in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The course consisted of video classes on restorative dentistry, endodontics, dental trauma, and clinical management in pediatric dentistry. After completing each module, each participant was asked to answer a questionnaire to assess their acquisition of immediate knowledge. Student's t-test and the ANOVA test were used to assess the relationship between the mean grade earned and the variables of sex, age, type of training institution, time since graduation, and years working in PHC. RESULTS: A significant relationship was observed between type of training institution (public) and the grade earned on the restorative dentistry questionnaire, and also between time since graduation and the grade earned on the dental trauma questionnaire (p < 0.05). No relationship was observed between the personal/professional variables and the grades earned on the endodontics and clinical management questionnaires. Grades were significantly lower on the endodontics questionnaire (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION: The large number of dentists enrolled in this DL course is a demonstration that there is great interest in pediatric dentistry contents. Improvement of DL courses may lead to the enhancement of professionals and their skills, and to a significant improvement in the quality of care provided to children in public health networks. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that training in a public institution and a longer time since graduation positively influenced the grades earned on the restorative dentistry and dental trauma questionnaires, respectively.


Assuntos
Educação a Distância , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Odontólogos , Endodontia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Odontopediatria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the scheduling model influences the perception of the user about the quality of primary health care centers. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional and population-based study that measured the quality of centers by the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil), applied to adult users (n = 409) from 11 health centers in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina. Multilevel analysis was used to verify the relationship between the score of general quality of the primary health care and the scheduling model. The independent variables (age, skin color, scheduling model, panel size by primary health team, poverty ratio as income proxy, number of health teams, presence of economically interest areas, number of medical appointments in one year per primary health team, number of people treated in one year per health team), with p < 0.20 were selected for the multilevel model, which was adjusted with aggregates of information from users and health centers. RESULTS: The health center that used advanced access had a general score of 7.04, while those using a weekly carve-out had a score of 6.26; the carve-out every 15 days, score of 5.87; and the traditional carve-out, score of 6.29. CONCLUSIONS: The scheduling model of advanced access had a positive effect on the quality of primary health care, in the perception of users.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 14(41): e1881, fev. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-981952

RESUMO

Novos desafios epidemiológicos e demográficos demandam novas formas de organizar os sistemas de saúde. O presente ensaio propõe a telessaúde como ferramenta organizativa, capaz de suavizar o triângulo de ferro da atenção à saúde e de facilitar a busca pelo triple aim, pelo seu potencial de aumento do acesso e qualidade com redução de custo. A integração da telessaúde ao processo de referência e transição entre serviços assistenciais aumenta a resolutividade da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS), favorece a coordenação do cuidado, promove adesão terapêutica, diminui reinternações e estimula a prevenção quaternária. Este ensaio propõe a telessaúde como metasserviço que confere densidade tecnológica à APS e permite que ela se torne coordenadora efetiva do cuidado, passando a organizar o fluxo de informações, pessoas e insumos. Frente às inovações propostas, é essencial avaliar o impacto de ações já existentes de telessaúde para viabilizar a sua aplicação como metasserviço de saúde.


New epidemiological and demographic challenges require new ways of organizing healthcare systems. This essay proposes telehealth as an organizational tool, capable of smoothing the iron triangle of health care and facilitating achievement of the triple aim, namely greater access and quality with cost reduction. The integration of telehealth into the referral process and the transition between care services increases the resolvability of primary health care (PHC), facilitates the coordination of care, promotes treatment adherence, decreases readmissions, and stimulates quaternary prevention. This essay introduces the notion of telehealth as a meta-service that confers technological density to PHC and allows it to become an effective coordinator of care, organizing the flow of information, people and supplies. In view of the innovations proposed, it is essential to evaluate the impact of existing telehealth initiatives so as to extend their applicability as meta-service.


Nuevos desafíos epidemiológicos y demográficos demandan nuevas formas de organizar los sistemas de salud. El presente ensayo propone la telesalud como herramienta organizacional, capaz de suavizar el triángulo de hierro de la atención a la salud y de facilitar la búsqueda por el triple aim, por su potencial de aumento del acceso y calidad con reducción de costo. La integración de la telesalud al proceso de referencia y transición entre servicios asistenciales aumenta la capacidad resolutiva de la Atención Primaria a la Salud (APS), favorece la coordinación del cuidado, promueve la adhesión terapéutica, disminuye reinternaciones y estimula la prevención cuaternaria. Este ensayo propone la telesalud como metaservicio que confiere densidad tecnológica a la APS y permite que ella se convierta en coordinadora efectiva del cuidado, pasando a organizar el flujo de informaciones, personas e insumos. Frente a las innovaciones propuestas, es esencial evaluar el impacto de acciones ya existentes de telesalud para viabilizar su aplicación como metaservicio de salud.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Saúde , Telemedicina , Inovação
11.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 14(41): 2065, fev. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1049848

RESUMO

Objective: The mere dissemination of standard care recommendations has been insufficient to improve clinical results in patients with asthma. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a multifaceted asthma distance education for primary care providers. Methods: Cluster randomized controlled trial. Full primary care teams were included if they had access to telehealth support and free basic asthma treatment. Before randomization, selected teams indicated asthma patients between 5-45 years old for inclusion. The intervention group received three interactive online sessions, printed educational material, reminders, booklet for patients, and frequent stimulus to use consulting services. The control group received no intervention. Symptomfree days per two weeks was the primary result. Controlled asthma, unscheduled asthma doctor visits, and preventive inhaled corticosteroid use were the secondary results. Six months after intervention, the results were compared with baseline data using generalized estimating equations for repeated measures and clustering effect. Results: Were enrolled 71 primary care teams and 443 individuals. Most patients (60.3%) were female, and 44% were younger than 12 years old. The attendance of interactive sessions by the teams was 50%. The odds ratio (OR) for additional symptom-free day was 1.31 (95%CI 0.61-2.82; p=0.49). For the secondary results, the results were: controlled asthma OR 1.29 (95%CI 0.89-1.87; p=0.18); unscheduled asthma doctor visits OR 0.81 (95%CI 0.60-1.10; p=0.17); and preventive inhaled corticosteroid use OR 1.02 (95%CI 0.71-1.47; p=0.91). Conclusions: Multifaceted distance education in asthma care for primary care providers was not effective to improve patients' results. Telemedicine needs to deal with significant obstacles in professional education. ClinicalTrials.gov registry: NCT01595971.


Objetivo: A mera disseminação de recomendações de cuidados padronizados tem sido insuficiente para melhorar os desfechos clínicos em pacientes com asma. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia clínica de uma intervenção educativa multifacetada a distância sobre asma para profissionais da atenção primária à saúde. Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado por cluster. Equipes completas de atenção primária foram incluídas se tinham acesso a suporte de telessaúde e tratamento básico gratuito para asma. Antes da randomização, as equipes selecionadas indicaram pacientes asmáticos entre 5-45 anos para inclusão. O grupo de intervenção recebeu três sessões online interativas, material educativo impresso, lembretes, folheto para pacientes e estímulos frequentes para o uso de serviços de consultoria. O grupo controle não recebeu intervenção. O desfecho primário foi dias sem sintomas por duas semanas. Asma controlada, consultas médicas não programadas para asma e uso preventivo de corticosteroides inalatórios foram os desfechos secundários. Seis meses após a intervenção, os resultados foram comparados com a linha de base, usando equações de estimativas generalizadas para medidas repetidas e efeito de agrupamento. Resultados: Foram inscritas 71 equipes de atenção primária e 443 indivíduos. A maioria dos pacientes (60,3%) era do sexo feminino e 44% tinha menos de 12 anos de idade. A frequência das equipes nas sessões interativas foi de 50%. O odds ratio (OR) para dias sem sintomas adicionais foi de 1,31 (IC 95% 0,61-2,82; p=0,49). Para os desfechos secundários, os resultados foram: asma controlada 1,29 (IC 95% 0,89-1,87; p=0,18); visitas não programadas de asma ao médico OR 0,81 (IC 95% 0,60-1,10; p=0,17); e uso preventivo de corticosteroides inalatórios OR 1,02 (IC 95% 0,71-1,47; p=0,91). Conclusões: Ações multifacetadas de educação a distância em cuidados de asma para profissionais de saúde da atenção primária não foram eficazes para melhorar os resultados nos pacientes. A telemedicina precisa lidar com obstáculos significativos na educação profissional. Registro ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01595971.


Objetivo: La mera difusión de las recomendaciones de atención estándar ha sido insuficiente para mejorar los resultados clínicos en pacientes con asma. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la efectividad clínica de una educación multifacética a distancia sobre el asma para los proveedores de atención primaria. Métodos: Ensayo controlado aleatorizado por grupos. Se incluyeron equipos completos de atención primaria si tenían acceso a apoyo de telesalud y tratamiento básico gratuito para el asma. Antes de la aleatorización, los equipos seleccionados indicaron pacientes con asma entre 5-45 años de edad para inclusión. El grupo de intervención recibió tres sesiones interactivas en línea, material educativo impreso, recordatorios, folleto para los pacientes y estímulos frecuentes para utilizar los servicios de consultoría. El grupo control no recibió ninguna intervención. El resultado primario fue días sin síntomas por dos semanas. Los resultados secundarios fueron asma controlada, visitas médicas no programadas para el asma y el uso preventivo de corticosteroides inhalados. Seis meses después de la intervención, los resultados se compararon con los datos de referencia utilizando ecuaciones de estimación generalizadas para medidas repetidas y efecto de agrupación. Resultados: Se inscribieron 71 equipos de atención primaria y 443 personas. La mayoría de los pacientes (60,3%) eran mujeres y el 44% eran menores de 12 años. La asistencia a sesiones interactivas por parte de los equipos fue del 50%. La razón de probabilidades (OR) para un día sin síntomas adicional fue de 1.31 (IC del 95%: 0.61 a 2.82; p=0.49). Para los resultados secundarios, los resultados fueron: asma controlada O 1.29 (IC del 95%: 0.89 a 1.87; p=0.18); visitas al médico para el asma no programadas O 0,81 (IC del 95%: 0,60 a 1,10; p=0,17); y el uso preventivo de corticosteroides inhalados OR 1.02 (IC del 95%: 0.71 a 1.47; p=0.91). Conclusiones: La educación a distancia multifacética en el cuidado del asma para los proveedores de atención primaria no fue efectiva para mejorar los resultados de los pacientes. La telemedicina debe enfrentar obstáculos significativos en la educación profesional. Registro de ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01595971.

12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 38, jan. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004510

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the scheduling model influences the perception of the user about the quality of primary health care centers. METHODS This is a cross-sectional and population-based study that measured the quality of centers by the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil), applied to adult users (n = 409) from 11 health centers in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina. Multilevel analysis was used to verify the relationship between the score of general quality of the primary health care and the scheduling model. The independent variables (age, skin color, scheduling model, panel size by primary health team, poverty ratio as income proxy, number of health teams, presence of economically interest areas, number of medical appointments in one year per primary health team, number of people treated in one year per health team), with p < 0.20 were selected for the multilevel model, which was adjusted with aggregates of information from users and health centers. RESULTS The health center that used advanced access had a general score of 7.04, while those using a weekly carve-out had a score of 6.26; the carve-out every 15 days, score of 5.87; and the traditional carve-out, score of 6.29. CONCLUSIONS The scheduling model of advanced access had a positive effect on the quality of primary health care, in the perception of users.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar se o modelo de agendamento influencia a percepção do usuário sobre a qualidade dos serviços da atenção primária à saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de base populacional que mediu a qualidade dos serviços pelo instrumento Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brasil), aplicado aos usuários adultos (n = 409) de 11 centros de saúde em Florianópolis, SC. A análise multinível foi utilizada para verificar a relação entre o escore de qualidade geral da atenção primária à saúde e o modelo de agendamento. As variáveis independentes (idade, cor da pele, modelo de agendamento, população por equipe de saúde da família, proporção de pobreza como proxy de renda, número de equipes de saúde da família, presença de áreas de interesse social, número de consultas médicas em um ano por equipe de saúde da família, número de pessoas atendidas em um ano por equipe de saúde) com p < 0,20 foram selecionadas para o modelo multinível, que foi ajustado com agregados de informações dos usuários e dos centros de saúde. RESULTADOS O centro de saúde que utilizava acesso avançado apresentou o escore geral 7,04, enquanto os que utilizavam carve-out semanal tiveram escore 6,26, carve-out quinzenal escore 5,87 e tradicional escore 6,29. CONCLUSÕES O modelo de agendamento acesso avançado teve um efeito positivo na qualidade da atenção primária à saúde, na percepção dos usuários.

13.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 27(4): e2017504, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the performance of Primary Health Care (PHC) in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional population-based study with adults living in the catchment areas of the Health Centers (HC) located in the Northern Health District of Florianópolis in 2012; the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil) was applied do assess the presence and extent of PHC characteristics. RESULTS: of the 598 interviewees, 68,4% reported that they considered PHC centers to be their usual source of care; while the usage subdimension of the First Contact Access characteristic was the best evaluated (8.4; 95%CI 8.2;8.6), the service delivery subdimension of the First Contact Access/subdimension accessibility was the worst evaluated (3.5; 95%CI 3.3; 3.6); four (36.6%) of the eleven PHC centers evaluated had a high overall and essential PHC score, although their overall mean score was low (6.4; 95%CI 6.2;6.5). CONCLUSION: considering the PHC model evaluated by PCATool-Brazil, PHC services need to be improved, especially with regard to their process and structure components.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42, sep. 2018. Special Issue Alma-Ata.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49522

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Avaliar a qualidade da atenção primária à saúde (APS) no Brasil e sua associação com o Programa Mais Médicos (PMM). Métodos. Este estudo transversal de abrangência nacional utilizou a ferramenta PCATool-Brasil para avaliar a qualidade da APS a partir da experiência dos usuários vinculados a três categorias de médicos: médicos brasileiros do PMM, médicos cubanos do PMM e médicos brasileiros não vinculados ao PMM. Os seguintes escores foram calculados: Escore Geral da APS, Escore de Acesso e Escore de Longitudinalidade. A associação entre o Escore Geral obtido, a categoria do médico e outras características dos usuários e dos profissionais foi investigada por análise multinível. Resultados. O Escore Geral da APS para o Brasil foi 6,78, e o Escore de Longitudinalidade, 7,43. Não houve diferença entre esses escores para as três categorias de médicos. O Escore de Acesso para o Brasil foi de 4,24, havendo diferença pequena, mas significativa (P-valor < 0,001), entre as categorias de médicos: médicos cubanos do PMM com 4,43 (IC: 4,32 a 4,54), médicos brasileiros do PMM com 4,08 (IC: 3,98 a 4,18) e médicos brasileiros não vinculados ao PMM com 4,20 (IC: 4,09 a 4,32). Na análise multinível, idade, estrato socioeconômico, presença de doenças crônicas e o fato de o médico realizar visita domiciliar influenciaram positivamente o Escore Geral. Conclusões. O tipo de médico não influenciou o grau de orientação aos atributos da APS (Escore Geral) no Brasil. O PMM associou-se a maiores Escores de Acesso em regiões de maior vulnerabilidade socioeconômica. Com a análise multinível, identificamos que o fortalecimento da APS também pode ser alcançado ao reforçar papéis fundamentais dos médicos que trabalham na APS (como as visitas domiciliares) e aprimorar o acesso das populações de maior vulnerabilidade socioeconômica e de pessoas mais jovens ou sem doenças crônicas.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To assess the performance of primary health care (PHC) in Brazil and its association with the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM). Method. This nationwide cross-sectional study used the Primary Care Assessment Tool validated for Brazilian Portuguese (PCATool-Brasil) to determine the achievement of PHC according to user experience associated with three physician categories: Brazilian physicians participating in the PMM, Cuban physicians participating in the PMM, and Brazilian physicians not linked to the PMM. The following PHC scores were calculated: overall PCA score, accessibility (first contact), and longitudinality. The association between PHC scores, physician category, and other user and physician characteristics was investigated using multilevel analysis. Results. The overall PCA score for Brazil was 6.78, and the longitudinality score was 7.43. There was no difference in these scores among the three physician categories. The overall accessibility score was 4.24. A small but significant difference (P < 0.001) in accessibility score was detected among physician categories: 4.43 for Cuban physicians participating in the PMM (CI: 4.32-4.54), 4.08 for Brazilian physicians participating in the PMM(CI: 3.98-4.18), and 4.20 for Brazilian physicians not linked to the PMM (CI: 4.09-4.32). Age, socioeconomic level, presence of chronic diseases, and home visits by physicians positively influenced the overall PCA score on multilevel analysis. Conclusions. The type of physician did not influence the primary care orientation (overall score) of the healthcare system in Brazil. PMM was associated with higher accessibility sores in more socioeconomically vulnerable areas. Multilevel analysis showed that PCH may be strengthened by the reinforcement of essential physician roles (such as home visits) and by improving access for socioeconomically vulnerable, younger populations or those without chronic diseases.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Evaluar la calidad de la atención primaria de salud (APS) en Brasil y su relación con el Programa Más Médicos (PMM). Métodos. Estudio transversal de alcance nacional em el que se utilizó la herramienta PCATool-Brasil para evaluar la calidad de la APS a partir de la experiencia de los usuarios vinculados a tres categorías de médicos: médicos brasileños del PMM, médicos cubanos del PMM y médicos brasileños no vinculados al PMM. Se calcularon los siguientes puntajes: Puntaje general de APS, Puntaje de acceso y Puntaje de longitudinalidad. Se investigaron mediante análisis multinivel la asociación entre el Puntaje general obtenido, la categoría del médico y otras características de los usuarios y los profesionales. Resultados. El Puntaje general de APS para Brasil fue 6,78, y el Puntaje de longitudinalidad, 7,43. No hubo diferencia entre estos puntajes para las tres categorías de médicos. El Puntaje de acceso para Brasil fue de 4,24 y mostró una diferencia pequeña, pero significativa (p <0,001) entre las categorías de médicos: médicos cubanos del PMM 4,43 (IC: 4,32-4,54), médicos brasileños del PMM 4,08 (IC: 3,98-4,18) y médicos brasileños no vinculados al PMM 4,20 (IC: 4,09-4,32). En el análisis multinivel, la edad, el estrato socioeconómico, la presencia de enfermedades crónicas y el hecho de que el médico realizara visitas domiciliarias influyeron positivamente em el Puntaje general. Conclusiones. El tipo de médico no influyó en el grado de orientación a los atributos de la APS (Puntaje general) en Brasil. El PMM se asoció com mayores Puntajes de acceso en las regiones de mayor vulnerabilidad socioeconómica. Con el análisis multinivel se identificó que el fortalecimiento de la APS también puede ser alcanzado reforzando los roles fundamentales de los médicos que trabajan en la APS (como las visitas domiciliarias) y mejorando el acceso de las poblaciones de mayor vulnerabilidad socioeconómica y de las personas más jóvenes o sin enfermedades crónicas.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Sistema Único de Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Brasil , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Sistema Único de Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Brasil , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 52: 71, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9), as well as compare the agreement between two different types of application. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 133 adult users of a Primary Health Service in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The PDRQ-9 was answered by the participants as a self-administered questionnaire and in an interview. The instrument was also validated by interview, using data from 628 participants of the Mais Médicos Program Evaluation Research, which is a cross-sectional study with a systematic sample of Primary Care Services in all regions of Brazil. We evaluated the semantic, conceptual, and item equivalence, as well as factor analysis and reliability. RESULTS: All items presented factor loading > 0.5 in the different methods of application and populations in the factor analysis. We found Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 in the self-administered method. We found Cronbach's alpha of 0.95 and 0.94 in the two different samples in the interview application. The use of PDRQ-9 with an interview or self-administered was considered equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: The cross-cultural adaptation of the PDRQ-9 in Brazil replicated the factorial structure found in the original study, with high internal consistency. The instrument can be used as a new dimension in the evaluation of the quality of health care in clinical research, in the evaluation of services and public health, in health management, and in professional training. Further studies can evaluate other properties of the instrument, as well as its behavior in different populations and contexts.


Assuntos
Relações Médico-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Psicometria , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
16.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 7(8): e169, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a growing problem worldwide, markedly in low- and middle-income countries, where the rate of control slightly decreased. The overall prevalence of hypertension in Brazil is 28.7% among adult individuals and 68.9% in the population aged 60 years and older, and less than a third of patients have controlled blood pressure (BP). The use of technologies-mobile phones and the internet-to implement interventions to reduce blood pressure can minimize costs and diminish cardiovascular risk. Interventions through text messaging and electronic BP monitoring present divergent results. OBJECTIVE: This trial evaluates the effectiveness of interventions-personalized messages and telemonitoring of BP-to reduce systolic BP and improve lifestyle compared to the usual care of patients with hypertension (control group). METHODS: This factorial randomized controlled trial enrolls individuals aged 30 to 75 years who have a mobile phone and internet access with the diagnosis of hypertension under drug treatment with up to 2 medications and uncontrolled BP. Eligible participants should have both increased office BP and 24-hour BP with ambulatory BP monitoring. Participants with severe hypertension (systolic BP ≥180 or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg), life threatening conditions, low life expectancy, recent major cardiovascular event (last 6 months), other indications for the use of antihypertensive medication, diagnosis of secondary hypertension, pregnant or lactating women, or those unable to understand the interventions are excluded. Participants are randomly allocate to 1 of 4 experimental arms: (1) Telemonitoring of blood pressure (TELEM) group: receives an automatic oscillometric device to measure BP, (2) telemonitoring by text message (TELEMEV) group: receives personalized, standardized text messages to stimulate lifestyle changes and adhere with BP-lowering medication, (3) TELEM-TELEMEV group: receives both interventions, and (4) control group: receives usual clinical treatment (UCT). Data collection is performed in a clinical research center located in a referent hospital. The primary outcomes are reduction of systolic BP assessed by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (primary outcome) and change of lifestyle (based on dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH)-type diet, sodium restriction, weight loss or control, increase of physical activity). RESULTS: This study was funded by two Brazilian agencies: the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Enrollment was completed at the end of 2017 (N=231), the follow-up is ongoing, and data analysis is expected to begin in early 2019. A reduction of 24-hour systolic BP of approximately 8.8 [SD 13.1] mm Hg for participants in the BP monitoring group versus 3.4 [SD 11.6] mm Hg in the UCT group is expected. A similar reduction in the text messaging group is expected. CONCLUSIONS: The use of mobile technologies connected to the internet through mobile phones promotes time optimization, cost reduction, and better use of public health resources. However, it has not been established whether simple interventions such as text messaging are superior to electronic BP monitoring and whether both outperform conventional counseling. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03005470; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03005470 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/70AoANESu). Plataforma Brasil CAAE 31423214.0.0000.5327. REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER: RR1-10.2196/9619.

17.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52jul. 2018. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-908938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9), as well as compare the agreement between two different types of application. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 133 adult users of a Primary Health Service in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The PDRQ-9 was answered by the participants as a self-administered questionnaire and in an interview. The instrument was also validated by interview, using data from 628 participants of the Mais Médicos Program Evaluation Research, which is a cross-sectional study with a systematic sample of Primary Care Services in all regions of Brazil. We evaluated the semantic, conceptual, and item equivalence, as well as factor analysis and reliability. RESULTS: All items presented factor loading > 0.5 in the different methods of application and populations in the factor analysis. We found Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 in the self-administered method. We found Cronbach's alpha of 0.95 and 0.94 in the two different samples in the interview application. The use of PDRQ-9 with an interview or self-administered was considered equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: The cross-cultural adaptation of the PDRQ-9 in Brazil replicated the factorial structure found in the original study, with high internal consistency. The instrument can be used as a new dimension in the evaluation of the quality of health care in clinical research, in the evaluation of services and public health, in health management, and in professional training. Further studies can evaluate other properties of the instrument, as well as its behavior in different populations and contexts.(AU)


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Brasil , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49082

RESUMO

Cuarenta años después de Alma Ata, el mundo está reforzando la consciencia sobre la importancia de los atributos y funciones del primer nivel de atención, pero aún queda mucho por hacer para implementarlos, medirlos y aprender de las experiencias exitosas de algunos países. El conjunto de instrumentos Primary Care Assessment Tools (PCAT), desarrollados en los años 90 en Estados Unidos de América por Starfield y Shi (1), se ha mostrado como la herramienta más completa para el análisis de la atención primaria de la salud (APS) y su utilidad fue reconocida en numerosos países y regiones del mundo. El objetivo de esta carta es comunicar preliminarmente el proceso de armonización de las versiones PCAT ya adaptadas en diversos países de Iberoamérica y subrayar la importancia de estas herramientas para evaluar y comparar el primer nivel de atención, particularmente en sistemas de salud fundados en la estrategia de APS.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , América Latina , Espanha , Epidemiologia
19.
Telemed J E Health ; 24(8): 624-630, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral health in childhood is a major problem for global public health. In Brazil, the prevalence of childhood tooth decay varies from 12% to 46%. Dental care treatment in Brazil is almost the exclusive responsibility of primary healthcare (PHC). Therefore, it is essential these professionals are prepared to conduct restorative, endodontic, and exodontic treatments and preventive care in children. INTRODUCTION: Children make up a large proportion of the population in territories requiring advanced dental care provided by PHC in Brazil. To care for these patients, it is necessary to have both manual dexterity and technical knowledge of pediatric dentistry. Accordingly, this study aimed to develop a distance course on pediatric dentistry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pretest questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was used to assess initial dental knowledge of participants. After completion of a five-module course, participants retook the same initial dental knowledge questionnaire (post-test). Descriptive statistic and paired t test, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson and Spearman correlation were used, and a significance level of 5% was set. RESULTS: The majority of participants completing the five-module course were women who earned specialty degrees beyond undergraduate studies and currently worked in PHC (>5 years). Participant performance on the dental knowledge questionnaire after completion of the five-module course improved pre- to post-test. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that completion of a distance course on pediatric dentistry can be an effective tool for improving knowledge of pediatric dentistry in PHC professionals.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/métodos , Educação a Distância/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Odontopediatria/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
20.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34589

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. A cobertura universal pode ser entendida como uma meta que engloba diversas medidas que permitem a ampliação do acesso pelos sistemas de saúde. A atenção primária à saúde (APS) deve ser vista como um aspecto essencial desse processo, com papel de re-organização dos serviços com base nas necessidades em saúde. O Programa Mais Médicos no Brasil traz uma série de medidas para fortalecer a APS no país. A partir de uma revisão conceitual de cobertura universal em saúde e de uma análise do Programa Mais Médicos sob a ótica dos resultados obtidos em termos de fortalecimento da APS no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), o objetivo do artigo foi discutir a potencial contribuição do Programa Mais Médicos para o avanço do sistema de saúde brasileiro rumo à cobertura universal. Conclui-se que o Programa Mais Médicos é um propulsor para o alcance da cobertura universal no SUS.


[ABSTRACT]. Universal health coverage can be understood as a goal encompassing a series of structural measures that allow health care systems to enhance access to health care. Primary health care (PHC) should be seen as an essential component of this process, in charge of re-organizing services according to the health needs of the population. A Brazilian physician recruitment program, Programa Mais Médicos (More Doctors), has introduced a set of measures that strengthen PHC. Based on a conceptual review of universal health coverage and on an analysis of the More Doctor Program from the perspective of the results obtained in terms of strengthening PHC in the public Unified Health System (SUS), the aim of the present article was to discuss the potential contribution of the More Physicians Program to the progress towards universal coverage in the SUS. It is concluded that the More Doctors Programs is a driver of universal coverage in the public health care system in Brazil.


[RESUMEN]. La cobertura universal de salud puede entenderse como una meta que abarca una serie de medidas estructurales que permiten a los sistemas de atención médica mejorar el acceso a la atención médica. La atención primaria de salud (APS) debe ser vista como un componente esencial de este proceso, responsable de la reorganización de los servicios, tomando en cuenta las necesidades de salud de la población. El programa Más Médicos, ha introducido en Brasil un conjunto de medidas que fortalecen la APS. Con base en una revisión conceptual de la cobertura universal de salud y de un análisis del programa Más Médicos desde la perspectiva de los resultados obtenidos en términos de fortalecimiento de la APS en el Sistema Único de Salud público (SUS), el objetivo del presente artículo fue analizar la contribución potencial del programa Más Médicos al progreso hacia la cobertura universal en el SUS. Se concluye que el programa Más Médicos es un motor de cobertura universal en el sistema de salud pública en Brasil.


Assuntos
Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Sistema Único de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Brasil
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