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1.
Trials ; 21(1): 275, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German guideline on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental disorders recommends a broad spectrum of evidence-based treatments. Structured implementation of the associated patient version of the guideline is missing to date. The study aims to assess whether structured implementation of a patient guideline improves the empowerment of patients with severe mental disorders, as well as knowledge, attitudes and experiences regarding psychosocial interventions, service use, treatment satisfaction, treatment needs, quality of life and burden of care. METHODS: The study is a multicentre, cluster-randomised, controlled study with two parallel groups. Inpatients and day hospital patients (all sexes; 18-65 years) with severe mental disorders will be included. Additionally, relatives of patients with mental disorders (all sexes; ≥ 18 years) will be included. In the experimental group, the patient guideline will be implemented using a multimodal strategy. Participants in the control group will receive treatment as usual but will be made aware of the patient guideline. The primary outcome is the change of empowerment, assessed by using the 'empowerment in the process of psychiatric treatment of patients with affective and schizophrenia disorders' (EPAS) scale. In addition, knowledge, attitudes and experiences regarding psychosocial interventions will be assessed as secondary outcomes, as well as service use, satisfaction with care, patient need and quality of life and participation and social inclusion. For relatives, the perceived burden of care also will be recorded. Results will be analysed using hierarchical linear models. For the health economic evaluation, the incremental cost-utility ratios will be computed using the differences in total costs of illness and the differences in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) between study groups. DISCUSSION: The study will be the first to assess the effects of a structured implementation of the patient version of a psychiatric treatment guideline. The study has some limitations regarding the transferability of the results to other patients and other regions. Furthermore, problems with the recruitment of patients and relatives and with the implementation of intervention could occur during the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) under registration number DRKS00017577 (Date of registration: 23 October 2019.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166503

RESUMO

Primary schizophreniform psychoses are thought to be caused by complex gene-environment interactions. Secondary forms are based on a clearly identifiable organic cause, in terms of either an etiological or a relevant pathogenetic factor. The secondary or "symptomatic" forms of psychosis have reentered the focus stimulated by the discovery of autoantibody (Ab)-associated autoimmune encephalitides (AEs), such as anti-NMDA-R encephalitis, which can at least initially mimic variants of primary psychosis. These newly described secondary, immune-mediated schizophreniform psychoses typically present with the acute onset of polymorphic psychotic symptoms. Over the course of the disease, other neurological phenomena, such as epileptic seizures, movement disorders, or reduced levels of consciousness, usually arise. Typical clinical signs for AEs are the acute onset of paranoid hallucinatory symptoms, atypical polymorphic presentation, psychotic episodes in the context of previous AE, and additional neurological and medical symptoms such as catatonia, seizure, dyskinesia, and autonomic instability. Predominant psychotic courses of AEs have also been described casuistically. The term autoimmune psychosis (AP) was recently suggested for these patients. Paraclinical alterations that can be observed in patients with AE/AP are inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathologies, focal or generalized electroencephalographic slowing or epileptic activity, and/or suspicious "encephalitic" imaging findings. The antibody analyses in these patients include the testing of the most frequently found Abs against cell surface antigens (NMDA-R, CASPR2, LGI1, AMPA-R, GABAB-R), intracellular antigens (Hu, Ri, Yo, CV2/CRMP5, Ma2 [Ta], amphiphysin, GAD65), thyroid antigens (TG, TPO), and antinuclear Abs (ANA). Less frequent antineuronal Abs (e.g., against DPPX, GABAA-R, glycine-R, IgLON5) can be investigated in the second step when first step screening is negative and/or some specific clinical factors prevail. Beyond, tissue-based assays on brain slices of rodents may detect previously unknown antineuronal Abs in some cases. The detection of clinical and/or paraclinical pathologies (e.g., pleocytosis in CSF) in combination with antineuronal Abs and the exclusion of alternative causes may lead to the diagnosis of AE/AP and enable more causal therapeutic immunomodulatory opportunities.

4.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-13, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081071

RESUMO

Objectives: Biological strategies to improve treatment efficacy in clozapine-treated patients are urgently needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) merits consideration as intervention for patients with persistent auditory hallucinations (AH) or negative symptoms (NS) not responding sufficiently to clozapine treatment.Methods: Data from 10 international RCTs of rTMS for patients being treated with clozapine were pooled. Two levels of symptomatic response were defined: improvement of ≥20% and ≥50% on study-specific primary endpoint scales. Changes in the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) from baseline to endpoint assessment were also analysed.Results: Analyses of 131 patients did not reveal a significant difference for ≥20% and ≥50% response thresholds for improvement of AH, negative or total symptoms between active and sham rTMS groups. The number needed to treat (NNT) for an improvement in persistent AH was nine following active rTMS. PANSS scores did not improve significantly from baseline to endpoint between active and sham groups in studies investigating NS and AH.Conclusions: rTMS as a treatment for persistent symptoms in clozapine-treated patients did not show a beneficial effect of active compared to sham treatment. For AH, the size of the NNTs indicates a possible beneficial effect of rTMS.

5.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068570

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) do not usually offer a sex-specific approach for the management of schizophrenia. With this narrative review, we aim to give an integrated and synthesized overview of the current state of knowledge regarding sex-specific aspects in schizophrenia and how this topic may be adapted in the development of CPGs. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies further suggest sex-specific differences in epidemiologic features, the course of illness, underlying pathomechanisms, response likelihood to antipsychotic medication and differences in tolerability. Beyond this, selective estrogen receptor modulators like raloxifene have shown beneficial effects on symptom severity and cognition in women with schizophrenia. SUMMARY: Sex-specific aspects can already be integrated in clinical guideline recommendations, especially with regard to efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotic treatment. Moreover, these aspects may be used for an individual risk-stratification. Recent studies provide evidence supporting the hypothesis of sex-specific modulation in schizophrenia and build the groundwork for sex-specific novel treatment options. However, there remains a clear need for additional studies focusing on women with schizophrenia to substantiate current findings.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062728

RESUMO

As the course of schizophrenic disorders is often chronic, treatment guidelines recommend continuous maintenance treatment to prevent relapses, but antipsychotic drugs can cause many side effects. It, therefore, seems reasonable to try to reduce doses in stable phases of the illness or even try to stop medication. We conducted a 26 weeks, randomized, rater blind, feasibility study to examine individualized antipsychotic dose reduction versus continuous maintenance treatment (Register Number: NCT02307396). We included chronic, adult patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, who were treated with any antipsychotic drug except clozapine, who had not been hospitalized in the last 3 years and who were in symptomatic remission at baseline. The primary outcome was relapse of positive symptoms. Symptom severity, social functioning and side effects were also examined as secondary outcomes. 20 patients were randomized. Relapse rates in the two groups were not significantly different. No patient had to be hospitalized. One patient in the control group dropped out. The mean reduction of antipsychotic dose in the individualized dose-reduction group was 42%, however only one patient discontinued drug completely. There were no significant differences in efficacy or safety outcomes. This randomized trial provides evidence, that reduction of antipsychotic medication in chronic stable schizophrenic patients may be feasible. The results need to be confirmed in a larger trial with a longer follow-up period.

7.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049274

RESUMO

Importance: Identifying psychosis subgroups could improve clinical and research precision. Research has focused on symptom subgroups, but there is a need to consider a broader clinical spectrum, disentangle illness trajectories, and investigate genetic associations. Objective: To detect psychosis subgroups using data-driven methods and examine their illness courses over 1.5 years and polygenic scores for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression disorder, and educational achievement. Design, Setting, and Participants: This ongoing multisite, naturalistic, longitudinal (6-month intervals) cohort study began in January 2012 across 18 sites. Data from a referred sample of 1223 individuals (765 in the discovery sample and 458 in the validation sample) with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder (I/II), schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and brief psychotic disorder were collected from secondary and tertiary care sites. Discovery data were extracted in September 2016 and analyzed from November 2016 to January 2018, and prospective validation data were extracted in October 2018 and analyzed from January to May 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: A clinical battery of 188 variables measuring demographic characteristics, clinical history, symptoms, functioning, and cognition was decomposed using nonnegative matrix factorization clustering. Subtype-specific illness courses were compared with mixed models and polygenic scores with analysis of covariance. Supervised learning was used to replicate results in validation data with the most reliably discriminative 45 variables. Results: Of the 765 individuals in the discovery sample, 341 (44.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 42.7 (12.9) years. Five subgroups were found and labeled as affective psychosis (n = 252), suicidal psychosis (n = 44), depressive psychosis (n = 131), high-functioning psychosis (n = 252), and severe psychosis (n = 86). Illness courses with significant quadratic interaction terms were found for psychosis symptoms (R2 = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.38-0.44), depression symptoms (R2 = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.25-0.32), global functioning (R2 = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.14-0.20), and quality of life (R2 = 0.20; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23). The depressive and severe psychosis subgroups exhibited the lowest functioning and quadratic illness courses with partial recovery followed by reoccurrence of severe illness. Differences were found for educational attainment polygenic scores (mean [SD] partial η2 = 0.014 [0.003]) but not for diagnostic polygenic risk. Results were largely replicated in the validation cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: Psychosis subgroups were detected with distinctive clinical signatures and illness courses and specificity for a nondiagnostic genetic marker. New data-driven clinical approaches are important for future psychosis taxonomies. The findings suggest a need to consider short-term to medium-term service provision to restore functioning in patients stratified into the depressive and severe psychosis subgroups.

8.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(2): 474-528, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901449

RESUMO

A group of European experts reappraised the guidelines on the therapeutic efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) previously published in 2014 [Lefaucheur et al., Clin Neurophysiol 2014;125:2150-206]. These updated recommendations take into account all rTMS publications, including data prior to 2014, as well as currently reviewed literature until the end of 2018. Level A evidence (definite efficacy) was reached for: high-frequency (HF) rTMS of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the painful side for neuropathic pain; HF-rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using a figure-of-8 or a H1-coil for depression; low-frequency (LF) rTMS of contralesional M1 for hand motor recovery in the post-acute stage of stroke. Level B evidence (probable efficacy) was reached for: HF-rTMS of the left M1 or DLPFC for improving quality of life or pain, respectively, in fibromyalgia; HF-rTMS of bilateral M1 regions or the left DLPFC for improving motor impairment or depression, respectively, in Parkinson's disease; HF-rTMS of ipsilesional M1 for promoting motor recovery at the post-acute stage of stroke; intermittent theta burst stimulation targeted to the leg motor cortex for lower limb spasticity in multiple sclerosis; HF-rTMS of the right DLPFC in posttraumatic stress disorder; LF-rTMS of the right inferior frontal gyrus in chronic post-stroke non-fluent aphasia; LF-rTMS of the right DLPFC in depression; and bihemispheric stimulation of the DLPFC combining right-sided LF-rTMS (or continuous theta burst stimulation) and left-sided HF-rTMS (or intermittent theta burst stimulation) in depression. Level A/B evidence is not reached concerning efficacy of rTMS in any other condition. The current recommendations are based on the differences reached in therapeutic efficacy of real vs. sham rTMS protocols, replicated in a sufficient number of independent studies. This does not mean that the benefit produced by rTMS inevitably reaches a level of clinical relevance.

9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(1): 93-108, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669058

RESUMO

There is increasing recognition in the neurological and psychiatric literature of patients with so-called isolated psychotic presentations (ie, with no, or minimal, neurological features) who have tested positive for neuronal autoantibodies (principally N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies) and who have responded to immunotherapies. Although these individuals are sometimes described as having atypical, mild, or attenuated forms of autoimmune encephalitis, some authors feel that that these cases are sufficiently different from typical autoimmune encephalitis to establish a new category of so-called autoimmune psychosis. We briefly review the background, discuss the existing evidence for a form of autoimmune psychosis, and propose a novel, conservative approach to the recognition of possible, probable, and definite autoimmune psychoses for use in psychiatric practice. We also outline the investigations required and the appropriate therapeutic approaches, both psychiatric and immunological, for probable and definite cases of autoimmune psychoses, and discuss the ethical issues posed by this challenging diagnostic category.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Consenso , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato , Adulto , Encefalite , Feminino , Doença de Hashimoto , Humanos , Neurônios/imunologia
10.
Nervenarzt ; 91(1): 26-33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605161

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental diseases and leads to significant personal and social impairments for affected persons. The illness is characterized by frequent relapses, results in increased mortality and is associated with the highest socioeconomic costs of all diseases. Moreover, patients with schizophrenia are often stigmatized in everyday life and also in most treatment settings. In 1998 the first German schizophrenia guidelines were published, followed by the first S3 guidelines for schizophrenia in 2006. The revision process started in 2012 coordinated by the German Association for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics (DGPPN) and the revised guidelines were published in 2019. The target group for the revised S3 guidelines includes all persons involved in the care of patients with schizophrenia in all sectors of the German healthcare system, including decision makers and insurance funds. Starting with an introduction of the biological, clinical and epidemiological basis of the disorder, recommendations for the diagnostics of schizophrenia, the detection of comorbidities, the use of antipsychotic medication and other somatic procedures, for psychotherapy, psychosocial interventions, handling of special treatment conditions and rehabilitation are made. Finally, recommendations for an evidence-based and optimal coordination within the healthcare system are made, followed by a discussion of the cost-effectiveness of treatment and presentation of strategies for improved quality management. The most important aspect of the revised S3 guidelines on schizophrenia is the multiprofessional cooperation in all phases of the disorder and an empathic and respectful therapeutic alliance.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Psicoterapia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 270(1): 83-94, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486890

RESUMO

This report presents the rationale and design of a multi-center clinical trial that examines the efficacy and safety of antipsychotic combination treatment in acutely ill schizophrenia patients compared to antipsychotic monotherapy. Antipsychotic combination treatment is common in clinical practice worldwide, despite clinical guidelines generally not recommending such practice due to lacking evidence for its efficacy and safety. Olanzapine has a related chemical structure and comparable receptor-binding profile as clozapine, which demonstrated superior efficacy in combination studies, but has a more unfavorable side-effect profile compared to olanzapine. Amisulpride and olanzapine have shown promising therapeutic efficacy in meta-analyses in monotherapy for people with schizophrenia. Combining amisulpride and olanzapine, complementary receptor-binding properties may enhance efficacy and possibly reduce (or at least not augment) side effects due to the different receptor profiles and metabolization pathways. Accordingly, we hypothesize that patients treated with amisulpride plus olanzapine show greater improvement on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score after 8 weeks versus either monotherapy. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial is performed at 16 German centers comparing flexibly dosed monotherapy of oral amisulpride (400-800 mg/day), and olanzapine (10-20 mg/day) and amisulpride-olanzapine co-treatment. Sample size was calculated to be n = 101 per treatment arm, assuming an effect size of 0.500 and a two-sided alpha = 0.025 and beta = 0.90. Recruitment for this trial started in June 2012. Until December 2018, 328 patients have been randomized. Trial conduct has been extended to reach the projected sample size. Publication of the study results is expected in 2019 informing an evidence-based recommendation regarding specific antipsychotic combination treatment.

12.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 270(1): 95-106, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796528

RESUMO

The sudden arrival of culturally diverse asylum seekers and refugees into Germany has created a strong demand for recognizing and appropriately treating those suffering from mental health issues. Due to many systemic, organizational, cultural and socio-linguistic barriers, psychiatric treatment of refugees is posing a major challenge to Germany's mental health care system. Thus, there is a need for alternative models that allow for increased access to adequate, effective and efficient culturally sensitive mental health care services. Here, we describe the Mental Health in Refugees and Asylum Seekers (MEHIRA) project, a multicentre randomized controlled trial investigating a stepped collaborative care model (SCCM) for providing mental health treatment in this vulnerable population. The proposed SCCM aims to decrease the aforementioned barriers. Adult and adolescent participants will be screened for depressive symptoms and matched to appropriate psychological interventions, including group-level interventions (START intervention, Empowerment/Gender-sensitive/Peer to peer), and other innovative, digital treatment approaches (Smartphone application). The therapeutic effect of the SCCM will be compared to TAU (treatment-as-usual). All interventions have been designed to be culturally sensitive, and offered in two different languages: Arabic and Farsi. The outcome of this study may contribute significantly to future clinical and legal guidelines in developing parallel and efficient new structures of treatment. Collected data will inform primary and secondary mental health care providers with recommendations concerning the design and implementation of effective treatment models and programmes. Guidelines and recommendations may also potentially be adopted by other host countries, developing countries and also in humanitarian aid programmes.

13.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806522

RESUMO

Aerobic exercise is a promising intervention for patients with schizophrenia, but structural neuroplastic effects on brain regions relevant to the pathophysiology of the disease remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate longitudinal changes in cortical thickness after aerobic exercise intervention in schizophrenia patients and the relationship of these changes to clinical correlates. We investigated 21 schizophrenia patients and 23 healthy controls who performed aerobic exercise and 21 schizophrenia patients who played table soccer. The 12-week exercise intervention was combined with computer-assisted cognitive remediation training from week 6 to week 12. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired at baseline and weeks 6, 12, and 24. The thickness of the entorhinal, parahippocampal, and lateral and medial prefrontal cortices was assessed with FreeSurfer 6.0. The schizophrenia aerobic exercise group showed a significant increase of cortical thickness in the right entorhinal cortex at week 6, and we found a significant correlation between the cortical thickness of the right lateral prefrontal cortex at baseline and improvement of social adaptation at week 12. In the schizophrenia table soccer and healthy control groups, we found no significant longitudinal change in cortical thickness through the intervention and follow-up period and no correlation of cortical thickness at baseline with clinical measures. Our results suggest that aerobic exercise in schizophrenia modulates the thickness of the entorhinal cortex, a structure adjacent to the hippocampus. Greater cortical thickness of the right lateral prefrontal cortex appears to predict better clinical response to an aerobic exercise intervention in patients with schizophrenia.

14.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci ; 21(3): 261-269, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749650

RESUMO

Cognitive symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia and are related to an unfavorable disease outcome. So far, there are no satisfactory pharmacological approaches to address cognitive symptoms. For some time now, aerobic exercise has been demonstrated in various trials to be a promising candidate for this indication. The aim of this brief qualitative review was to present the most recent meta-analyses regarding the capacity of exercise to improve cognition in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, we give a short overview of the effects in other conditions, like healthy subjects and patients with major depression. We conducted a focused literature search using the PubMed database, concentrating on meta-analyses which are based on a systematic search. The most recent meta-analysis investigating the efficacy of aerobic exercise on cognitive impairments in schizophrenia patients provides evidence that exercise has positive effects on cognitive functioning in this population. However, the effect seems not to be specific; there were positive findings regarding healthy subjects and patients with depressive disorders as well, even if they were less consistent. As most available trials have a small to modest sample size and have no consensus with regard to the intervention regime, nor to the assessment of cognition, the findings are difficult to generalize. In the future, standardized clinical trials focusing on the long-term effects of exercise are needed to evaluate whether the improvements in cognition are sustainable.
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15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 284, 2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712617

RESUMO

Hippocampal volume decrease is a structural hallmark of schizophrenia (SCZ), and convergent evidence from postmortem and imaging studies suggests that it may be explained by changes in the cytoarchitecture of the cornu ammonis 4 (CA4) and dentate gyrus (DG) subfields. Increasing evidence indicates that aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume in CA subfields and improves cognition in SCZ patients. Previous studies showed that the effects of exercise on the hippocampus might be connected to the polygenic burden of SCZ risk variants. However, little is known about cell type-specific genetic contributions to these structural changes. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated the modulatory role of cell type-specific SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRS) on volume changes in the CA1, CA2/3, and CA4/DG subfields over time. We studied 20 multi-episode SCZ patients and 23 healthy controls who performed aerobic exercise, and 21 multi-episode SCZ patients allocated to a control intervention (table soccer) for 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging-based assessments were performed with FreeSurfer at baseline and after 3 months. The analyses showed that the polygenic burden associated with oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) and radial glia (RG) significantly influenced the volume changes between baseline and 3 months in the CA4/DG subfield in SCZ patients performing aerobic exercise. A higher OPC- or RG-associated genetic risk burden was associated with a less pronounced volume increase or even a decrease in CA4/DG during the exercise intervention. We hypothesize that SCZ cell type-specific polygenic risk modulates the aerobic exercise-induced neuroplastic processes in the hippocampus.

16.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686308

RESUMO

Higher glutamate and glutamine (together: Glx) and lower N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels were reported in schizophrenia. Endurance training normalizes NAA in the hippocampus, but its effects on other metabolites in the brain and the relationship of metabolites to clinical symptoms remain unknown. For 12 weeks, 20 schizophrenia inpatients (14 men, 6 women) and 23 healthy controls (16 men, 7 women) performed endurance training and a control group of 21 schizophrenia inpatients (15 men, 6 women) played table soccer. A computer-assisted cognitive performance training program was introduced after 6 weeks. We assessed cognitive performance, psychopathological symptoms, and everyday functioning at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks and performed single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and thalamus. We quantified NAA, Glx, total creatine (tCr), calculated NAA/tCr and Glx/tCr and correlated these ratios with physical fitness, clinical and neurocognitive scores, and everyday functioning. At baseline, in both schizophrenia groups NAA/tCr was lower in the left DLPFC and left hippocampus and Glx/tCr was lower in the hippocampus than in the healthy controls. After 6 weeks, NAA/tCr increased in the left DLPFC in both schizophrenia groups. Brain metabolites did not change significantly in the hippocampus or thalamus, but the correlation between NAA/tCr and Glx/tCr normalized in the left DLPFC. Global Assessment of Functioning improvements correlated with NAA/tCr changes in the left DLPFC. In our study, endurance training and table soccer induced normalization of brain metabolite ratios in the brain circuitry associated with neuronal and synaptic elements, including metabolites of the glutamatergic system.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654119

RESUMO

In this web-based field study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of 10 selected mental disorders between the ICD-11 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (CDDG) and the ICD-10 CDDG using vignettes in a sample of 928 health professionals from all WHO regions. On average, the ICD-11 CDDG displayed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (71.9% for ICD-11, 53.2% for ICD-10), higher ease of use, better goodness of fit, higher clarity, and lower time required for diagnosis compared to the ICD-10 CDDG. The advantages of the ICD-11 CDDG were largely limited to new diagnoses in ICD-11. After limiting analyses to diagnoses existing in ICD-11 and ICD-10, the ICD-11 CDDG were only superior in ease of use. The ICD-11 CDDG were not inferior in diagnostic accuracy or clinical utility compared to the ICD-10 CDDG for any of the vignettes. Diagnostic accuracy was consistent across WHO regions and independent of participants' clinical experience. There were no differences between medical doctors and psychologists in diagnostic accuracy, but members of other health professions had greater difficulties in determining correct diagnoses based on the ICD-11 CDDG. In sum, there were no differences in diagnostic accuracy for diagnoses existing in ICD-10 and ICD-11, but the introduction of new diagnoses in ICD-11 has improved the diagnostic classification of some clinical presentations. The favourable clinical utility ratings of the ICD-11 CDDG give reason to expect a positive evaluation by health professionals in the implementation phase of ICD-11. Yet, training in ICD-11 is needed to further enhance the diagnostic accuracy.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563981

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on the onset and course of psychoses. Following a systematic literature search of five data bases (2005-2016) and consecutive structured evaluation, we were able to include 26 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The methodological quality of the included publications were in the range of high and poor. The scientific literature indicates that psychotic illness arises more frequently in cannabis users compared to non-users, cannabis use is associated with a dose-dependent risk of developing psychotic illness, and cannabis users have an earlier onset of psychotic illness compared to non-users. Cannabis use was also associated with increased relapse rates, more hospitalizations and pronounced positive symptoms in psychotic patients. We make recommendations about the type of research that is required to better characterize the relationship between cannabis use and the development and outcomes of psychosis.

20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214723

RESUMO

In the 1990s, the endocannabinoid system was discovered as part of the human physiology. Since then, the effects of cannabis as a medicine have been researched more systematically. To summarize the scientific knowledge, the German Federal Ministry of Health commissioned an expertise.The project "Cannabis: Potential and Risks: a Scientific Analysis" (CaPRis), which started in 2016, aimed at analyzing the potential of medicinal cannabis and the risks of recreational cannabis use. A search of systematic reviews (SRs) and randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in five international databases (publication date: 2006-2017). For the medical use of cannabis 16 SRs (of 186 RCTs) were included from a global search and nine further RCTs were comprised from a de novo search. All studies were methodologically assessed.Evidence for the efficacy of cannabis medicine (given as an adjunct to other medication) was found in patients with chronic pain and spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Benefits were also found for appetite stimulation, improvement of nausea, and weight gain in patients with cancer, HIV/AIDS or in palliative care. Effects were often small. For other physical or mental disorders, only few or no controlled human studies are available. Adverse effects of cannabis medicine are often reported; severe adverse effects were mentioned in single cases only.To provide reliable treatment recommendations for clinicians and patients, more large-sized RCTs with follow-up assessments, consistent outcome measures, and active comparisons are needed.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica , Alemanha , Humanos , Neoplasias
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