*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(16): 166404, 2020 Apr 24.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-32383917

##### RESUMO

The nonlinear optical responses from topological semimetals are crucial in both understanding the fundamental properties of quantum materials and designing next-generation light sensors or solar cells. However, previous work focused on the optical effects from bulk states only, disregarding the responses from topological surface states. In this Letter, we propose a new surface-only photocurrent response from chiral Fermi arcs. Using the ideal topological chiral semimetal RhSi as a representative, we quantitatively compute the photogalvanic currents from Fermi arcs on different surfaces. By rigorous crystal symmetry analysis, we demonstrate that Fermi arc photogalvanic currents can be perpendicular to the bulk injection currents regardless of the choice of materials surface. We then generalize this finding to other cubic chiral space groups and predict material candidates. Our theory reveals a powerful notion where common crystalline symmetry can be used to completely disentangle bulk and surface optical responses in many conducting material families.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(21): 217004, 2019 Nov 22.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31809171

##### RESUMO

The interplay between unconventional Cooper pairing and quantum states associated with atomic scale defects is a frontier of research with many open questions. So far, only a few of the high-temperature superconductors allow this intricate physics to be studied in a widely tunable way. We use scanning tunneling microscopy to image the electronic impact of Co atoms on the ground state of the LiFe_{1-x}Co_{x}As system. We observe that impurities progressively suppress the global superconducting gap and introduce low energy states near the gap edge, with the superconductivity remaining in the strong-coupling limit. Unexpectedly, the fully opened gap evolves into a nodal state before the Cooper pair coherence is fully destroyed. Our systematic theoretical analysis shows that these new observations can be quantitatively understood by the nonmagnetic Born-limit scattering effect in an s±-wave superconductor, unveiling the driving force of the superconductor to metal quantum phase transition.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(19): 196604, 2019 Nov 08.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31765205

##### RESUMO

Strongly correlated kagome magnets are promising candidates for achieving controllable topological devices owing to the rich interplay between inherent Dirac fermions and correlation-driven magnetism. Here we report tunable local magnetism and its intriguing control of topological electronic response near room temperature in the kagome magnet Fe_{3}Sn_{2} using small angle neutron scattering, muon spin rotation, and magnetoresistivity measurement techniques. The average bulk spin direction and magnetic domain texture can be tuned effectively by small magnetic fields. Magnetoresistivity, in response, exhibits a measurable degree of anisotropic weak localization behavior, which allows the direct control of Dirac fermions with strong electron correlations. Our work points to a novel platform for manipulating emergent phenomena in strongly correlated topological materials relevant to future applications.

*Science ; 365(6459): 1278-1281, 2019 09 20.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-31604235

##### RESUMO

Topological matter is known to exhibit unconventional surface states and anomalous transport owing to unusual bulk electronic topology. In this study, we use photoemission spectroscopy and quantum transport to elucidate the topology of the room temperature magnet Co2MnGa. We observe sharp bulk Weyl fermion line dispersions indicative of nontrivial topological invariants present in the magnetic phase. On the surface of the magnet, we observe electronic wave functions that take the form of drumheads, enabling us to directly visualize the crucial components of the bulk-boundary topological correspondence. By considering the Berry curvature field associated with the observed topological Weyl fermion lines, we quantitatively account for the giant anomalous Hall response observed in this magnet. Our experimental results suggest a rich interplay of strongly interacting electrons and topology in quantum matter.

*Nature ; 567(7749): 500-505, 2019 03.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30894753

##### RESUMO

The quantum behaviour of electrons in materials is the foundation of modern electronics and information technology1-11, and quantum materials with topological electronic and optical properties are essential for realizing quantized electronic responses that can be used for next generation technology. Here we report the first observation of topological quantum properties of chiral crystals6,7 in the RhSi family. We find that this material class hosts a quantum phase of matter that exhibits nearly ideal topological surface properties originating from the crystals' structural chirality. Electrons on the surface of these crystals show a highly unusual helicoid fermionic structure that spirals around two high-symmetry momenta, indicating electronic topological chirality. The existence of bulk multiply degenerate band fermions is guaranteed by the crystal symmetries; however, to determine the topological invariant or charge in these chiral crystals, it is essential to identify and study the helicoid topology of the arc states. The helicoid arcs that we observe on the surface characterize the topological charges of ±2, which arise from bulk higher-spin chiral fermions. These topological conductors exhibit giant Fermi arcs of maximum length (π), which are orders of magnitude larger than those found in known chiral Weyl fermion semimetals5,8-11. Our results demonstrate an electronic topological state of matter on structurally chiral crystals featuring helicoid-arc quantum states. Such exotic multifold chiral fermion semimetal states could be used to detect a quantized photogalvanic optical response, the chiral magnetic effect and other optoelectronic phenomena predicted for this class of materials6.

*Nat Mater ; 17(11): 978-985, 2018 11.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30275564

##### RESUMO

Chiral crystals are materials with a lattice structure that has a well-defined handedness due to the lack of inversion, mirror or other roto-inversion symmetries. Although it has been shown that the presence of crystalline symmetries can protect topological band crossings, the topological electronic properties of chiral crystals remain largely uncharacterized. Here we show that Kramers-Weyl fermions are a universal topological electronic property of all non-magnetic chiral crystals with spin-orbit coupling and are guaranteed by structural chirality, lattice translation and time-reversal symmetry. Unlike conventional Weyl fermions, they appear at time-reversal-invariant momenta. We identify representative chiral materials in 33 of the 65 chiral space groups in which Kramers-Weyl fermions are relevant to the low-energy physics. We determine that all point-like nodal degeneracies in non-magnetic chiral crystals with relevant spin-orbit coupling carry non-trivial Chern numbers. Kramers-Weyl materials can exhibit a monopole-like electron spin texture and topologically non-trivial bulk Fermi surfaces over an unusually large energy window.

*Nature ; 562(7725): 91-95, 2018 10.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-30209398

##### RESUMO

Owing to the unusual geometry of kagome lattices-lattices made of corner-sharing triangles-their electrons are useful for studying the physics of frustrated, correlated and topological quantum electronic states1-9. In the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling, the magnetic and electronic structures of kagome lattices are further entangled, which can lead to hitherto unknown spin-orbit phenomena. Here we use a combination of vector-magnetic-field capability and scanning tunnelling microscopy to elucidate the spin-orbit nature of the kagome ferromagnet Fe3Sn2 and explore the associated exotic correlated phenomena. We discover that a many-body electronic state from the kagome lattice couples strongly to the vector field with three-dimensional anisotropy, exhibiting a magnetization-driven giant nematic (two-fold-symmetric) energy shift. Probing the fermionic quasi-particle interference reveals consistent spontaneous nematicity-a clear indication of electron correlation-and vector magnetization is capable of altering this state, thus controlling the many-body electronic symmetry. These spin-driven giant electronic responses go well beyond Zeeman physics and point to the realization of an underlying correlated magnetic topological phase. The tunability of this kagome magnet reveals a strong interplay between an externally applied field, electronic excitations and nematicity, providing new ways of controlling spin-orbit properties and exploring emergent phenomena in topological or quantum materials10-12.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 30(1): 015803, 2018 Jan 10.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29135472

##### RESUMO

We report the single crystal growth and transport properties of a Weyl semimetal TaAs. Unsaturated large magnetoresistance of about 22 100% at 2 K and 9 T is observed. From the Hall measurement, carrier concentrations n = 4.608 × 1024 m-3 and p = 3.099 × 1024 m-3, and mobilities µ p = 2.502 m2 V-1 s-1 and µ n = 16.785 m2 V-1 s-1 at 2 K are extracted. The de Haas-van Alphen oscillations at 2 K and 9 T suggest the presence of a Fermi surface, and the quantum electronic parameters such as effective cyclotron mass and Dingle temperature were obtained using Lifshitz-Kosevich fitting. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements at different static magnetic fields suggest the formation of an insulating gap in the Weyl semimetal TaAs. An angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study reveals Fermi arc surface states with different shaped features such as a long elliptical contour around each [Formula: see text] point, a bowtie-shaped contour around each [Formula: see text] point, and a crescent-shaped feature near the midpoint of each [Formula: see text] line.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(20): 206401, 2017 Nov 17.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29219365

##### RESUMO

The theoretical proposal of chiral fermions in topological semimetals has led to a significant effort towards their experimental realization. In particular, the Fermi surfaces of chiral semimetals carry quantized Chern numbers, making them an attractive platform for the observation of exotic transport and optical phenomena. While the simplest example of a chiral fermion in condensed matter is a conventional |C|=1 Weyl fermion, recent theoretical works have proposed a number of unconventional chiral fermions beyond the standard model which are protected by unique combinations of topology and crystalline symmetries. However, materials candidates for experimentally probing the transport and response signatures of these unconventional fermions have thus far remained elusive. In this Letter, we propose the RhSi family in space group No. 198 as the ideal platform for the experimental examination of unconventional chiral fermions. We find that RhSi is a filling-enforced semimetal that features near its Fermi surface a chiral double sixfold-degenerate spin-1 Weyl node at R and a previously uncharacterized fourfold-degenerate chiral fermion at Γ. Each unconventional fermion displays Chern number ±4 at the Fermi level. We also show that RhSi displays the largest possible momentum separation of compensative chiral fermions, the largest proposed topologically nontrivial energy window, and the longest possible Fermi arcs on its surface. We conclude by proposing signatures of an exotic bulk photogalvanic response in RhSi.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(19): 196403, 2017 Nov 10.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29219493

##### RESUMO

The first Weyl semimetal was recently discovered in the NbP class of compounds. Although the topology of these novel materials has been identified, the surface properties are not yet fully understood. By means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we find that NbP's (001) surface hosts a pair of Dirac cones protected by mirror symmetry. Through our high-resolution spectroscopic measurements, we resolve the quantum interference patterns arising from these novel Dirac fermions and reveal their electronic structure, including the linear dispersions. Our data, in agreement with our theoretical calculations, uncover further interesting features of the Weyl semimetal NbP's already exotic surface. Moreover, we discuss the similarities and distinctions between the Dirac fermions here and those in topological crystalline insulators in terms of symmetry protection and topology.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(15): 156401, 2017 Oct 13.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29077460

##### RESUMO

Topological semimetals can be classified by the connectivity and dimensionality of the band crossings in momentum space. The band crossings of a Dirac, Weyl, or an unconventional fermion semimetal are zero-dimensional (0D) points, whereas the band crossings of a nodal-line semimetal are one-dimensional (1D) closed loops. Here we propose that the presence of perpendicular crystalline mirror planes can protect three-dimensional (3D) band crossings characterized by nontrivial links such as a Hopf link or a coupled chain, giving rise to a variety of new types of topological semimetals. We show that the nontrivial winding number protects topological surface states distinct from those in previously known topological semimetals with a vanishing spin-orbit interaction. We also show that these nontrivial links can be engineered by tuning the mirror eigenvalues associated with the perpendicular mirror planes. Using first-principles band structure calculations, we predict the ferromagnetic full Heusler compound Co_{2}MnGa as a candidate. Both Hopf link and chainlike bulk band crossings and unconventional topological surface states are identified.

*Nat Commun ; 8(1): 942, 2017 10 16.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-29038436

##### RESUMO

Through intense research on Weyl semimetals during the past few years, we have come to appreciate that typical Weyl semimetals host many Weyl points. Nonetheless, the minimum nonzero number of Weyl points allowed in a time-reversal invariant Weyl semimetal is four. Realizing such a system is of fundamental interest and may simplify transport experiments. Recently, it was predicted that TaIrTe4 realizes a minimal Weyl semimetal. However, the Weyl points and Fermi arcs live entirely above the Fermi level, making them inaccessible to conventional angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Here, we use pump-probe ARPES to directly access the band structure above the Fermi level in TaIrTe4. We observe signatures of Weyl points and topological Fermi arcs. Combined with ab initio calculation, our results show that TaIrTe4 is a Weyl semimetal with the minimum number of four Weyl points. Our work provides a simpler platform for accessing exotic transport phenomena arising in Weyl semimetals.Weyl semimetals are interesting because they are characterized by topological invariants, but specific examples discovered to date tend to have complicated band structures with many Weyl points. Here, the authors show that TaIrTe4 has only four Weyl points, the minimal number required by time-reversal symmetry.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 119(2): 026404, 2017 Jul 14.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28753359

##### RESUMO

The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, MA_{3} (M=V, Nb, Ta; A=Al, Ga, In). We show that the VAl_{3} family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl_{3} is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.

*Sci Adv ; 3(6): e1603266, 2017 06.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28630919

##### RESUMO

In quantum field theory, Weyl fermions are relativistic particles that travel at the speed of light and strictly obey the celebrated Lorentz symmetry. Their low-energy condensed matter analogs are Weyl semimetals, which are conductors whose electronic excitations mimic the Weyl fermion equation of motion. Although the traditional (type I) emergent Weyl fermions observed in TaAs still approximately respect Lorentz symmetry, recently, the so-called type II Weyl semimetal has been proposed, where the emergent Weyl quasiparticles break the Lorentz symmetry so strongly that they cannot be smoothly connected to Lorentz symmetric Weyl particles. Despite some evidence of nontrivial surface states, the direct observation of the type II bulk Weyl fermions remains elusive. We present the direct observation of the type II Weyl fermions in crystalline solid lanthanum aluminum germanide (LaAlGe) based on our photoemission data alone, without reliance on band structure calculations. Moreover, our systematic data agree with the theoretical calculations, providing further support on our experimental results.

*Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1688, 2017 05 10.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28490762

##### RESUMO

Topological metals and semimetals (TMs) have recently drawn significant interest. These materials give rise to condensed matter realizations of many important concepts in high-energy physics, leading to wide-ranging protected properties in transport and spectroscopic experiments. It has been well-established that the known TMs can be classified by the dimensionality of the topologically protected band degeneracies. While Weyl and Dirac semimetals feature zero-dimensional points, the band crossing of nodal-line semimetals forms a one-dimensional closed loop. In this paper, we identify a TM that goes beyond the above paradigms. It shows an exotic configuration of degeneracies without a well-defined dimensionality. Specifically, it consists of 0D nexus with triple-degeneracy that interconnects 1D lines with double-degeneracy. We show that, because of the novel form of band crossing, the new TM cannot be described by the established results that characterize the topology of the Dirac and Weyl nodes. Moreover, triply-degenerate nodes realize emergent fermionic quasiparticles not present in relativistic quantum field theory. We present materials candidates. Our results open the door for realizing new topological phenomena and fermions including transport anomalies and spectroscopic responses in metallic crystals with nontrivial topology beyond the Weyl/Dirac paradigm.

*Sci Adv ; 3(3): e1501692, 2017 Mar.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-28378013

##### RESUMO

Engineered lattices in condensed matter physics, such as cold-atom optical lattices or photonic crystals, can have properties that are fundamentally different from those of naturally occurring electronic crystals. We report a novel type of artificial quantum matter lattice. Our lattice is a multilayer heterostructure built from alternating thin films of topological and trivial insulators. Each interface within the heterostructure hosts a set of topologically protected interface states, and by making the layers sufficiently thin, we demonstrate for the first time a hybridization of interface states across layers. In this way, our heterostructure forms an emergent atomic chain, where the interfaces act as lattice sites and the interface states act as atomic orbitals, as seen from our measurements by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. By changing the composition of the heterostructure, we can directly control hopping between lattice sites. We realize a topological and a trivial phase in our superlattice band structure. We argue that the superlattice may be characterized in a significant way by a one-dimensional topological invariant, closely related to the invariant of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model. Our topological insulator heterostructure demonstrates a novel experimental platform where we can engineer band structures by directly controlling how electrons hop between lattice sites.

*Sci Rep ; 6: 38839, 2016 12 15.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-27974837

##### RESUMO

Topological semimetals (TSMs) including Weyl semimetals and nodal-line semimetals are expected to open the next frontier of condensed matter and materials science. Although the first inversion breaking Weyl semimetal was recently discovered in TaAs, its magnetic counterparts, i.e., the time-reversal breaking Weyl and nodal line semimetals, remain elusive. They are predicted to exhibit exotic properties distinct from the inversion breaking TSMs including TaAs. In this paper, we identify the magnetic topological semimetal states in the ferromagnetic half-metal compounds Co2TiX (X = Si, Ge, or Sn) with Curie temperatures higher than 350 K. Our first-principles band structure calculations show that, in the absence of spin-orbit coupling, Co2TiX features three topological nodal lines. The inclusion of spin-orbit coupling gives rise to Weyl nodes, whose momentum space locations can be controlled as a function of the magnetization direction. Our results not only open the door for the experimental realization of topological semimetal states in magnetic materials at room temperature, but also suggest potential applications such as unusual anomalous Hall effect in engineered monolayers of the Co2TiX compounds at high temperature.

*Nat Commun ; 7: 13643, 2016 12 05.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-27917858

##### RESUMO

The recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1-xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1-xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topological Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1-xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1-xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals.

*Nat Commun ; 7: 13315, 2016 11 07.*

**| MEDLINE**| ID: mdl-27819655

##### RESUMO

Recently, noncentrosymmetric superconductor BiPd has attracted considerable research interest due to the possibility of hosting topological superconductivity. Here we report a systematic high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and spin-resolved ARPES study of the normal state electronic and spin properties of BiPd. Our experimental results show the presence of a surface state at higher-binding energy with the location of Dirac point at around 700 meV below the Fermi level. The detailed photon energy, temperature-dependent and spin-resolved ARPES measurements complemented by our first-principles calculations demonstrate the existence of the spin-polarized surface states at high-binding energy. The absence of such spin-polarized surface states near the Fermi level negates the possibility of a topological superconducting behaviour on the surface. Our direct experimental observation of spin-polarized surface states in BiPd provides critical information that will guide the future search for topological superconductivity in noncentrosymmetric materials.